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Environmental Problems Term Paper

… Environmental Problems: The Caspian Region

There has been a considerable growth in the interest and concern about the global environment during the past decade. Governments, policy makers and environmental bodies are becoming more involved in the way that problems such as pollution and unmanaged ecosystems affect the environment in the world. This concern has been recently increased by the acceptance in the scientific community of the reality of global warming and climate change, which has been almost certainly linked to human causative factors such as carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. These concerns have refocused attention on various problems areas around the world.

There are numerous environmental problems that could be mentioned. Among these is the importance of ozone emissions. For example, as one study…. [read more]


Environmental Crime the National Environmental Policy Act Essay

… Environmental Crime

The National Environmental Policy Act

The National Environmental Policy Act or NEPA became law on January 1, 1970. The law was intended to create a national policy in the country which was aimed in the first instance at promoting aspects of environmental control and enhancement. While this act was also instrumental in establishing environmental policy and control bodies such as the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), its most important effect has been to set up procedural requirements with regard to environmental issues for all federal government agencies.

In other words, the Act provides the framework for integration and coordination between different federal agencies with regard to the aims and standards of environmental control and protection This also includes the preparation and undertaking…. [read more]


Environmental Review the Carbon in the Atmosphere Book Review

… Environmental Review

The carbon in the atmosphere comes partially from ancient (and ongoing) volcanic activity, through the above-ground decomposition of organic material, and through the respiration of non-plant organisms. Plants pull carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere during photosynthesis; this carbon is transferred to other organisms when it is eaten, buried to become other substances (fossil fuels), or decomposed to release everything back to the atmosphere.

The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is collected by and dissolved in rainwater, forming carbonic acid and making rainwater slightly acidic even without unnatural levels of carbon or other pollution.

The large amounts of oxygen necessary to support much of the life on this planet likely originated from cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, which began exhaling oxygen as a byproduct…. [read more]


Environmental Are Vital Research Paper

… There was also a differentiation in lack of commitment to the protocol by developing nations. This is because of the essence of being the outside party in the contribution towards the climate change. This is evident through rapid increase in the economic group in the context of nations such as India and China not listed as the industrialized nations in the Kyoto Protocol. The United States passed the Byrd-Hagel Resolution in 1997. The main aspect of this resolution by the senate of the United States was to limit its adherence to the protocols in relation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 1992 and negotiations in Kyoto in December 1997.

This is because of the omission of the developing nations in the…. [read more]


Environmental Challenges Research Paper

… "Multiple lines of evidence" shows that "the climate is changing across our planet, largely as a result of human activities" (IPCC, 2013).

The most "compelling evidence of climate change," the IPCC explains, is that the scientific observations offer "unequivocal" evidence derived from the atmosphere, land, oceans and cryosphere" (IPCC, 2013). Sea levels are rising and global temperature records show increases in atmospheric temperatures.

In 1992, there were 170 nations that agreed to limit fossil fuel emissions at the Framework Convention on Climate Change, but according to an article in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS One, the "…stark reality is that global emissions have accelerated," and what makes that more frightening is that efforts are underway to continue to "massively expand fossil fuel extraction" (Hansen, et al.,…. [read more]


International Environmental Laws on Oil/Gas Essay

… Combining solar energy and carbon dioxide can be developed by artificial photosynthesis; this will produce hydrocarbons, which can be burnt.

Waterborne oil spillage should be identified through forensic evidence of samples with those of suspected sources. This will enable the potential responsible firm and party to be prosecuted and charged for the pollution. The forensic methodology involves sampling, analyzing and interpretation of results in order to identify with the rightful party. Legal entities should be set up to conduct such forensic evidence, and international oil regulations should be set in order to set jurisdictions on illegal oil spillage to the marine environment (Wang & Stout, 2007, p 230). Charging the responsible firms depending on the amount of oil spilled to the marine environment also reduces…. [read more]


Environmental Systems Capstone Project

… ¶ … environmental systems in the past five years. Summarize the techniques used, the assumptions and limitations faced, the potential for error and how it was minimized, and the lessons learned.

Scope/Direction of the Research

The scope of the study extended to a review of relevant studies published within the last 5 years to provide an overview and recapitulation of the techniques that have been used in recent years to study the development of environmental systems, the assumptions and limitations that have been encountered along the way, the potential for error and how it was minimized, and the lessons learned from these efforts. The development of environmental systems includes various geospatial technologies, alternative energy systems, and other technological solutions that are designed to interact with…. [read more]


Environmental Ethics US Government Term Paper

… The 1930s brought about a strange environmental phenomenon called the Dust Bowl, which spread over several states that had been agriculturally important to the United States, and wreaked havoc on the country at a time when many people were suffering due to the Great Depression. The Department of Agriculture created for the promotion of farming in 1862, had become much more than a simple technology promoting agency. Now, the very survival of tens of thousands of farmers and their families was at stake. The U.S. federal government had to make an ethical choice, whether to assist these farmers in their troubles, or whether to allow them to lose all that they had created overnight. This was the beginning of an ethical age for the United…. [read more]


Environmental Issues Faced in 21st Research Paper

… The main technique for controlling stormwater releases is the application of best administration practices (BMPs) that stop or diminish the release of contaminants into a water body (e.g., building of a stormwater holding pond to stop stormwater drainage straight into getting waters). best administration practices appropriate for one airport are not necessarily appropriate for another. Issues that may have some kind of an affect on permit supplies (i.e., suitable best administration practices), include the local climate (dry vs. rainy/wet, cold vs. warm); (Suzanne & Fallacaro, 2011).

the size or type of neighboring water bodies -- contaminants are weak depending on the size of the water body getting the release (a stream or creek vs. A river or ocean);

the water excellence of neighboring water bodies…. [read more]


Environmental Economics and Nature Conservation Term Paper

… Following this line of thoughts, most of the previous environmental programs focused on a specific environmental problem, such as the threats upon a certain species. FEMAT however strived to offer an integrant approach of all threats characterizing the forestry sector and to offer a solution that leads not only to sustainable revenues from touristy activities for instance, but ensures universal solution that would better manage the entire forest ecosystem.

FEMAT was in fact born as a result of the conflicting views and interests of various categories. A relevant example was offered in 1988, as the Forest Service and the Seattle Audubon Society were unable to reach a compromise that would protect the owl, an endangered species, and ensure sufficient limber for the industry. At that…. [read more]


Environmental Crime Tort Laws Are Designed Essay

… Environmental Crime

Tort laws are designed to protect individuals, groups or organizations against undue harm as a result of malice, negligence of willful recklessness. The key characteristics of tort concern the nature of the relationship between plaintiff and defendant, the degree of injury definable in the plaintiff and the liability of the defendant in the provocation or affliction of this injury. Usually, among the rudimentary factors in determining whether or not a party has some responsibility to those individuals negatively affected by some practice or incident at the behest of said party is that of a non-contractual association, with regards to negligence resulting from a more unintended or incidental relationship. So in determining whether or not a plaintiff is entitled to claims of a litigious…. [read more]


Carbon Trading Term Paper

… ¶ … carbon trading. The writer examines whether corporate carbon trading can effectively save the rainforest. Within that context the author explores current environmental law and argues that they will lead to a demand on businesses to reduce or offset their co2 emissions. The writer discusses the difficulty that many businesses will have complying with the law and restrictions. In addition the environmental damage will increase which will in turn make for stricter laws. The final argument in this paper is that it will be more cost effective to save the rainforest as a co2 offset than for the rainforest to be taken down for their wood use.

Using Corporate Trading to Save the Rainforest

Why the rainforest is more valuable as a constant asset…. [read more]


Negative Effects of Degradation Term Paper

… The rate of consumerism is continuous in regards to national resources such as petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron, wood, etc. Secondly, the industry constantly disposes non-recyclable products such as glass, slag, rubber, etc. that cannot enter natural processes of renewal. Taking into consideration this vast consumption of oxygen resource, the fact that deforestation inhibits removal of air pollution, the scenario that is placed before humanity is anything but positive. As the negative effects of carbon dioxide increase, man is limited in his ability to counteract them because the rhythm of technological processes and consumerism increases while the number of initiatives to conserve the environment appears more symbolic rather than practical. Industrial performance between 1980 and 2000 in relation to global manufactured value increased with 10%…. [read more]


Relationship Humans Plants Essay

… As long as the population continues to expand and take over pristine areas, we are facing a slow but certain obliteration over global health, welfare and lifestyle.

Air pollution damage has been recognized as one of the major threats to the vegetation, and in the past decades it has received the name of "smog" or "community" air pollution. The chemical components range from ethylene, fluorides, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide; during the first decades of industrialization the toxic fumes mostly were produced by factories and coal mines, but as we approach the modern era, the boom of modern cars and technology has taken the lead as the principal pollution method (Middleton, 1961).

Taking in consideration all the factors that a plant would need to start…. [read more]


Environmental Sustainability Has Been Increasingly Embraced Dissertation

… ¶ … Environmental sustainability has been increasingly embraced as an important agenda by government agencies worldwide. Environmental sustainability and sustainable development have become a component of government planning and policymaking. At the international level, the United Nations and the World Bank have adopted environmental sustainability goals in large scale development and training. Sustainable development is being applied in both urban and rural and in both technologically advanced and technologically underdeveloped nations. Pressure is increasing on a wide range of organizations to use environmentally sustainable practices in producing their products and services. Nevertheless, there are few easily accessible tools to help managers make decisions that will have the desired environmental outcome -- without compromising other crucial goals. Following the global economic downturn that was caused by…. [read more]


Wetlands Are the Main Link Essay

… There were, however, some wetlands that did recover almost fully, according to the authors' narrative on page 5. In hydrologic settings where tidal dynamics -- and rivers -- are fully functioning, the natural flow of fresh water helps those particular wetlands to recover their "biological structure" after twenty to thirty years. In contrast to restored wetlands where fresh tidal and river / stream flows are present, wetlands that are inland -- that counted on rainwater or groundwater for flushing and sustenance -- had not recovered to the original health "…even after 50 years following restoration" (Moreno-Mateos, 5).

Volunteers Help Restore Wetlands

The Southern California Wetlands Recovery Project (SCWRP) is just one of many recovery plans throughout the United States; the SCWRP is a cooperative effort…. [read more]


Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Research Paper

… The concept of feudalism, for instance, segmented the workers (serfs) from the managers (lords) and kept a fairly stable balance in rural areas during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. However, the industrial revolution of the 17th to 19th centuries changed the conception of sustainability by tapping into fossile fuels, increasing urbanization and segementation of labor, causing an unbalanced agricultural system in which food was not always available for the burgeoning city populations. Similarly, coal was used to power ever evoling engines and later to generate electricity. Society was protected from endemic disease through more technological advances in sanitation. The combination of conditions caused an unprecedented human population explosion and even greater urbanization. This also led to huge industrial, technological and scientific changes that continues to…. [read more]


General Approaches to Reduce Carbon Emissions in Residential Houses Literature Review

… Reducing Residential Carbon

One of the largest environmental and economic concerns of the current era is the use of carbon-producing energy production methods to provide most of our energy needs, from powering our factories to making our cars run to providing our homes with heat and light. The carbon produced from the burning of fossil fuels such as petroleum-based products, natural gases, and coal very likely contributes to global warming and climate change problems as well as other environmental issues, and is also growing increasingly expensive as resources become more scarce and demand increases. While factories and cars have been focused on for many changes that reduce carbon emissions, there are also many things that can be done to make residential dwellings less dependent on…. [read more]


Climate Change a Review Essay

… Moreover, this article presents evidence that "20-30% of plant and animal species assessed so far… are likely to be at increasingly high risk of extinction" as temperatures rise to 2 or 3 degrees Centigrade above "pre-industrial levels" (Gosling, et al., 2011, p. 448). As far as safe, clean water availability, the data shows that "around 59% of the world's population" could be exposed to irrigation water shortages, which could be devastating for farmers and those dependent on crops for food. The research also points to the possibility of 100,000 "extra deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa" from malaria and dengue (Gosling, 454).

How I will use the information: The more I know about climate change's expected impacts, the more conscientious I am in avoiding leaving carbon footprints…. [read more]


Environmental Toxicology Nitrogen Dioxide Term Paper

… Nitrogen Dioxide

KILLING U.S. SOFTLY?

Chemical and Physical Data

Nitrogen Dioxide or NO2 is a red-brown or yellow liquid, which becomes a colorless solid at a specific temperature (EPA 2007). It is a non-combustible component of automotive exhaust fumes. It can be derived during the intermediate stage in the oxidation of ammonia to nitric acid. It is highly poisonous and even fatal when inhaled. Tolerance in the air is at 5 ppm. Nitrogen dioxide can react strongly with reducing materials. It occurs as environmental tobacco smoke and artificially as kerosene heaters, un-vented gas stoves and heaters. Among its effects on health are irritations on the eyes, nose and throat; pulmonary edema and diffused lung injury; chronic bronchitis; decreased lung function; and increased risk of respiratory…. [read more]


Cefc and the Future Essay

… You also utilize soft loans and growth capital as financing for these types of projects (Clean Energy Council 2012).

The CEFC will also fund commercial scale demonstration of technologies such as ocean wave in tribal Power Systems, as well a second generation biofuels and bioenergy. For many of these projects it will help to provide the large upfront capital needed, risk inherent in this type of technology, and the additional equity required to scale the project properly (Clean Energy Council, 2012).

The CEFC will finance a number of different projects in various asset classes. Various asset classes require different sets of benchmarks to measure the success of the investment strategy. However, the CEFC has published the following guidelines for its investments and projects:

The CEFC…. [read more]


Australia IT's Carbon Tax Essay

… But taking into consideration the actual levels of technical advances, this is unlikely to work; together with technological modernization the social pillar needs not to be neglected since it fluctuates with all the changes in the economy. The critical issue, which still requires a final result, is developing a cooperative agreement with other national governments (Freebairn, 2007).

Finally, a carbon tax in Australia, and other countries, is not only a simple measure that is adopted and respected by the citizens; one major variable in this equation is the attitude they have towards benefiting the environment. Though today's society is highly reliant on industry, cars and energy, a less overspending and demanding behavior would not only ease the stress we put on nature but it would…. [read more]


Glasgow Will Be Hosting Essay

… Glasgow will be hosting the Commonwealth Games in thesummer of 2014. It is the first major event that will be held in Glasgow, Scotland, and therefore is entitled to a great deal of significance. It is approximated that around 6500 athletes will be taking part in the event, and almost 1 million spectators will be attending the Commonwealth Games. To house the athletes that will be participating in the Commonwealth Games 2014, an Athletes' Village is being constructed in Glasgow. Sustainability of buildings is a major issue that needs to be addressed every time a mega construction project (like the Athletes' Village) is undertaken.

The purpose of this report is to look into the project of the construction of Athletes' Village with respect to the…. [read more]


Improving Carbon Management to Mitigate Climate Change Research Proposal

… Improving Carbon Management to Mitigate Climate Change

Introduction of global climate change situation

The aim of this green paper is to improve carbon management, helping the transition towards a low- carbon economy in the UK. Although this green paper represents a tentative government report of a proposal without any commitment to action, it is the first step in changing the law to improve carbon management to mitigate climate change. The growing body of evidence concerning the reality of global climate change demands action today (Lindsay 2005; Lynas 2004). The implications of global climate change, even in the relative near-term, are profound. In this regard, Jenkins emphasizes that, "Many people are intensely interested in predicting the likely consequences of global climate change during the next 50…. [read more]


Combating Environmental Pollution Research Paper

… There are air purifiers that can be used indoors, such as HEPA filters and other types of filtration options, but these are not always successful in removing everything from the air (Truffer, et al., 2003). Some types of particles and other pollutants are simply too small to get rid of, as they pass through even the best of filters. On an outdoor level, there are no filters that can be used to remove naturally occurring elements from the air that is breathed. Human elements and chemical compounds provide more opportunities for governance, of course, because they are more easily identified. If human beings are polluting the air, they can be made to stop or to reduce their level of pollution in some cases, since they…. [read more]


Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling Research Paper

… The OPA also expanded the role and breadth of the "National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan" (NCP), establishing a multi-layered "planning and response system" in order to improve the preparedness and responses to any spill that occurs in a marine environment (Ramseur, 13). Moreover, the OPA in 1990 required that oil tankers (flying the U.S. flag), offshore facilities (like the Deepwater Horizon rig), and certain onshore facilities operated by oil companies "…prepare and submit oil spill response plans" to federal agencies that regulate oil drilling and transport (Ramseur, 13). Without those advanced response plans, any drilling or transporting of oil is illegal, according to the particulars of OPA.

In 2004, Congress passed an amendment to OPA that requires vessels carrying oil for their…. [read more]


Logging and Slash and Burn Agriculture Lab Report

… Logging and slash and burn agriculture are two major contributors to deforestation. Three other major factors are?

Cattle ranching

The debt burden (where in order to reduce their debt, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are forcing developing countries to destroy their rainforests.)

Shifted Cultivators (i.e. people who have moved into rainforest areas and taken up territory to farm in their ad hoc way).

List five major negative impacts of deforestation on forest ecosystems:__ Erosion____,__Climate Change (resulting in CO2 being released into the atmosphere and enhanced greenhouse effect),_ loss of plants that may provide potential treatments to diseases such as cancer, quality of land declines, and the old field is left for waste e laving country with less territory and further impoverishing them…. [read more]


Environmental Ethics Global Warming Thesis

… Warming Ethics

Global Warming and Social Philosophy: Practical and Ethical Issues in the Face of Climate Change

The issue of global warming is one of the most prominent political and social issues of our time. Hardly a day passes without some mention of global warming, climate change, and the possible human causes behind it by a major news organization; it is a highly-charged political issue and one that raises the passions of many everyday citizens. Scientists, policy makers, figureheads and pundits all frequently weigh in on the global warming issue with their own often widely disparate opinions, such that the amount of information on the topic is often used as a replacement for the quality and soundness of this information, and for the quality of…. [read more]


Climate Change Term Paper

… The most recent bill addressing climate change -- that was passed by the conservative-dominated House in September, 2012 -- omitted the "sense of Congress" clause (Geman, 2012). That clause asserted that "There is established scientific concern over warming of the climate system…" but the Republican-led House has not accepted that as fact. What Republicans are doing is packaging a bill to "block EPA rules" that seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and the GOP has worked to block or delay federal policies that affect the coal industry (burning fossil fuels contributes mightily to global warming). The House Republicans call attempts to regulate coal emissions "The White House 'war' on coal" (Geman, p. 1). In other words, there is no political will in the Congress at…. [read more]


Environmental Issue Energy Research Proposal

… Wind Energy

Proposal for research project

First Segment

I first became interested in the energy of the wind as a young girl flying kites. At that time I didn't think about wind as an practical source in the sense of turning turbines to generate electricity. I was just fascinated with the flight of the kite, the way a nice heavy tail helped steady the kite in a really strong, gusty wind. I also became interested in wind because I enjoyed going out in sailboat and being pushed by the wind across the water. Listening to the sound of the wind through the sails was intriguing. Being transported strictly by the wind and not having to hear an outboard motor, I remember, was very pleasant. When…. [read more]

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