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Environmental Tobacco and Asthma Research Paper

… The study also showed that the children exposed to Environment Tobacco Smoke are likely to become smokers (Larsson, Frisk, Hallstro-m, Kiviloog, & Lundba-c, 2001).

Another study conducted to determine if environment tobacco smoke has any effect or role in the development of asthma in children was done during 1999 -- 2000 by collecting information from a survey that was conducted in the population of children. The results of asthma symptoms were applied to the sample which was exposed to tobacco smoke.

The study helped to determine that there was a strong relationship between smoke exposure and risks of asthma. This relationship was direct and positive. Almost 15% of the cases having asthma reported the cause as exposure to environment tobacco smoke and smoking during childhood.…. [read more]


Environmental Challenges Research Paper

… "Multiple lines of evidence" shows that "the climate is changing across our planet, largely as a result of human activities" (IPCC, 2013).

The most "compelling evidence of climate change," the IPCC explains, is that the scientific observations offer "unequivocal" evidence derived from the atmosphere, land, oceans and cryosphere" (IPCC, 2013). Sea levels are rising and global temperature records show increases in atmospheric temperatures.

In 1992, there were 170 nations that agreed to limit fossil fuel emissions at the Framework Convention on Climate Change, but according to an article in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS One, the "…stark reality is that global emissions have accelerated," and what makes that more frightening is that efforts are underway to continue to "massively expand fossil fuel extraction" (Hansen, et al.,…. [read more]


Environmental Ethical Issues Term Paper

… Environmental Ethical Issue.

SOCIOLOGY

Environmental ethics Issues

Sentence Outline

Environmental ethics is a philosophical sub-discipline that was developed in the late 1960s to early '70s.

Issues such as seeing all components of the environment as having an intrinsic value rather than some to be having only the instrumental value also surfaced.

History of environmental ethics

At that time, some of the major publications that helped this processes was the Silent Springs by Rachel Carson (1962).

The Population Bomb by Paul Ehrlich in 1968 added on a voice onto the effects of the planet's resources that the increased population was about to cause.

Currents events of environmental ethics

Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming.

b. Non-environmentally…. [read more]


Environmental Policies Essay

… Environmental Policies

Give an example of an ecosystem and use this example to describe the concepts of "input-output," "source-sink relationship," and feedback.

An ecosystem refers to separate units consisting of groups of nonliving things, plants and animals interacting with each other and the external environment. A desert can be regarded as an ecosystem and so can the rainforests. In fact, the whole earth can also be regarded as an ecosystem. For the purpose of this discussion, we will take the freshwater ecosystem as an example. Here, water enters into the system via rains, groundwater flow or surface water flow (input) and evaporation results in a loss of water from the system (output). Nutrients like carbon, nitrogen and oxygen may enter the system via many sources…. [read more]


Environmental Analysis: A HR Perspective Research Paper

… The second strategy is that of differentiation where the organization uses innovation to come up with a creative product which is essentially different from that of the competitors. The last strategy is that of niche or focus markets where the company chooses a particular niche market which it studies and analyzes in-depth in order to develop their product and marketing strategies for these organizations Porter, 1980.

The authors posit that regardless of the strategy chosen by the particular organization, there are some needed role behaviors which must be played by the employees in the organizations. Therefore, the HRM of the organization must be orientated towards promoting these role behaviors in order for the company or organization to succeed Schuler & Jackson, 1987()

Guest (2011)

accepts…. [read more]


Environmental Problems Term Paper

… Environmental Problems: The Caspian Region

There has been a considerable growth in the interest and concern about the global environment during the past decade. Governments, policy makers and environmental bodies are becoming more involved in the way that problems such as pollution and unmanaged ecosystems affect the environment in the world. This concern has been recently increased by the acceptance in the scientific community of the reality of global warming and climate change, which has been almost certainly linked to human causative factors such as carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. These concerns have refocused attention on various problems areas around the world.

There are numerous environmental problems that could be mentioned. Among these is the importance of ozone emissions. For example, as one study…. [read more]


Environmental Justice Term Paper

… S. EPA "cannot lawfully issue a policy" extending Title VI civil rights law to pollution without congressional action. Under current law, continues the California letter, neither state nor federal agencies have the authority to "to deny permits based on the racial makeup of the area surrounding the facility." Furthermore, the "California Supreme Court has determined that hazardous waste laws do not preempt local land use authority." (Payne, 1998)

California EPA concludes that, without congressional action, the administration's unilateral re-interpretation of Title VI law would give the EPA "unfettered discretion to apply statistical data in any way it chooses, create risk assessments without peer reviewed standards, determine that all discharges create measurable disparate impacts by their very existence and treat people differently based on racial or…. [read more]


Environmental Ethics in "Ishmael Term Paper

… It is only by example of the native, tribal and aboriginal peoples of the non-"civilized" world that we see this caretaking of the earth taking place, however, once modern man enters the world of the tribe he begins to erode what was once a serene and perfect world and ecosystem.

Ishmael is the only book to argue for the survival of the earth and urges man to rethink his attitude on how he is treating the earth. The world is suffering and it is in many ways dying on a global scale, people are dying through loss of their homes, loss of regional food growth which in its own way has been caused by the damage to the environment by man himself.

Governments and corporations…. [read more]


Environmental Ethics Term Paper

… Environmental Ethics: From Philosophy to Movement

Prior to the introduction of major legislation concerning the environment, it had been a popularly accepted notion that our utilization of the earth would be subject to no limitations. Our manifold purposes, pertaining to the expansion of commercial industries, the procurement of lands for residency, the optimization of geological settings for pedestrian needs and the constantly swelling demand for space upon which to drive had for many years after the start of the Industrial Age taken precedence in our notion of sociological advancement. The overarching notion that the earth belonged to man to do with as he pleased was given little contest in the public forum, with large economic, political and cultural contingents generally conceding to the argument that…. [read more]


Environmental Justice and Executive Order 12898 Research Proposal

… ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE & EXECUTIVE ORDER 12898

The objective of this work is to examine whether the issuance of Executive Order 12898 in 1994 has made a recognizable difference in assisting the environmental justice movement reach its goal of achieving environmental protection for all communities.

On February 11, 1994, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 12898 on Environmental Justice: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. This order directs each federal agency to develop an environmental justice strategy for identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health, or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority populations and low-income populations. Monies were allocated to federal agencies and state governments assisting communities to develop strategies toward local environmental problems.…. [read more]


Environmental Term Paper

… The court disagreed with the site qualifying under Section 404(a)'s definition of 'navigable waters' because of being a habitat for the migratory birds. The courts disagreement was based on the consideration that it would assume the statute did not have any independent significance. The court explained that, in the aggregate, the substantial effects on the interstate commerce were not clear because the petitioner's, SWANCC's, landfill was clearly of commercial nature and clearly not connected to 'navigable waters' and 'waters of the United States' that the statute extends the terms to. The court rejected the request for Administrative deference based on the state and federal balance where Congress extended rights and responsibilities to the States. The aggregate balance of the economic loss of natural resources and…. [read more]


Environmental Themes in Grapes Term Paper

… The Everglades would be confined to one million acres within the levees and the shallow marsh of Everglades National Park (Douglas, 1997).

This federal act called for the control of water levels though a network of pumps and roughly 1,400 miles of canals and levees. "Within the Everglades, the project created five enormous impoundments, the water conservation areas, running through western sections of Palm Beach, Broward and Dad counties, and ending at the northern edge of Everglades National Park" (Douglas, 422). Water would be stored to carry to the cities during winter months, then dumped to make room for the summer hurricane rains. The cost would run well over half a billion dollars. The Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District was created to buy…. [read more]


Environmental Systems Capstone Project

… ¶ … environmental systems in the past five years. Summarize the techniques used, the assumptions and limitations faced, the potential for error and how it was minimized, and the lessons learned.

Scope/Direction of the Research

The scope of the study extended to a review of relevant studies published within the last 5 years to provide an overview and recapitulation of the techniques that have been used in recent years to study the development of environmental systems, the assumptions and limitations that have been encountered along the way, the potential for error and how it was minimized, and the lessons learned from these efforts. The development of environmental systems includes various geospatial technologies, alternative energy systems, and other technological solutions that are designed to interact with…. [read more]


Negative Effects of Degradation Term Paper

… The rate of consumerism is continuous in regards to national resources such as petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron, wood, etc. Secondly, the industry constantly disposes non-recyclable products such as glass, slag, rubber, etc. that cannot enter natural processes of renewal. Taking into consideration this vast consumption of oxygen resource, the fact that deforestation inhibits removal of air pollution, the scenario that is placed before humanity is anything but positive. As the negative effects of carbon dioxide increase, man is limited in his ability to counteract them because the rhythm of technological processes and consumerism increases while the number of initiatives to conserve the environment appears more symbolic rather than practical. Industrial performance between 1980 and 2000 in relation to global manufactured value increased with 10%…. [read more]


Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample Research Paper

… These core concepts are often prerequisites of innovation. Finally my strategy would increase the ability of people to think creatively and use that creativity to produce innovation in their area of responsibility.

Strategy to help reduce bureaucracy

I would first want to identify the type of authority model within the organization. Charismatic authority, traditional authority and rational-legal authority are three types of authority that can arise in a bureaucracy. Charismatic authority is marked by leadership given to an individual due to his exceptional qualities. Traditional authority comes from factors like birth, custom or precedent. Rational-legal authority is acquired from rules and procedures, such as an individual's authority derived from his official job function. This is authority is what is occurring in many of the military…. [read more]


Environmental Racism Term Paper

… Environmental Racism

THE COLOR of ECOJUSTICE

Environmental racism is hard statistical and empirical phenomenon. It underlies policies, practices or directives, which discriminate against people of color in environmental issues. Studies found that race has remained a major determinant of socioeconomic predictors. More than half of the populations living in proximity to hazardous waste facilities were African-Americans, Hispanics, Blacks or Asia/Pacific Islanders. Environmental racism has persisted despite increased advocacy and awareness. Some other studies associated low income as a significant factor to environmental racism. In reaction to the ineffectiveness of the Environmental Protection Agency in extending environmental equality, the Environmental Justice Movement was established. Major environmental health hazards included lead poisoning, toxic housing, toxic schools and asthma.

Inequality among communities is a concrete reality. Economics, political…. [read more]


Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal Essay

… Must be able to Lead by example -- show some kind of environmental stewardship in all features of our organization operations (purchasing decisions and facility management, human resources) and work with other federal agencies to encourage environmental stewardship across the administration.

Ordinary stewardship in EPA decision developments -- construct capability for environmental stewardship by assimilating it into Our organization's planning, management and responsibility systems in order to be more sensitive to the needs of those that are suffering from bad pollution in other parts of the city and even the nation as a whole.

Our organization's commitment to stewardship must be imitated in near-term and long-term importance. In the near-term, the organization should place importance on changing an outreach campaign that involves and attaches with…. [read more]


Environmental Issues Faced in 21st Research Paper

… The main technique for controlling stormwater releases is the application of best administration practices (BMPs) that stop or diminish the release of contaminants into a water body (e.g., building of a stormwater holding pond to stop stormwater drainage straight into getting waters). best administration practices appropriate for one airport are not necessarily appropriate for another. Issues that may have some kind of an affect on permit supplies (i.e., suitable best administration practices), include the local climate (dry vs. rainy/wet, cold vs. warm); (Suzanne & Fallacaro, 2011).

the size or type of neighboring water bodies -- contaminants are weak depending on the size of the water body getting the release (a stream or creek vs. A river or ocean);

the water excellence of neighboring water bodies…. [read more]


Sandia Mountains Environmental History Essay

… Railroads put an end to the traditional geographical isolation of the Pueblos by the 1880s. Electricity came to Sandia Pueblo in 1952, followed shortly by natural gas, indoor plumbing, and automobiles (New Mexico State Record Center and Archives 2012). Technology influenced the lives of the Pueblo people but did not weaken their bond to the region.

The Sandia people are intensely religious, holding a deep connection to the Sandia Mountains. Religion and life are inseparable in traditional Pueblo culture. The Pueblo ideal embraces a way of life that is in harmony with all of nature. Pueblo beliefs hold that there are sacred mountains in each direction, plus the sun above and earth below, and that these define and balance the Pueblo world. Many Pueblo religious…. [read more]


Environmental Review the Carbon in the Atmosphere Book Review

… Environmental Review

The carbon in the atmosphere comes partially from ancient (and ongoing) volcanic activity, through the above-ground decomposition of organic material, and through the respiration of non-plant organisms. Plants pull carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere during photosynthesis; this carbon is transferred to other organisms when it is eaten, buried to become other substances (fossil fuels), or decomposed to release everything back to the atmosphere.

The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is collected by and dissolved in rainwater, forming carbonic acid and making rainwater slightly acidic even without unnatural levels of carbon or other pollution.

The large amounts of oxygen necessary to support much of the life on this planet likely originated from cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, which began exhaling oxygen as a byproduct…. [read more]


Environmental Analysis: Target Corporation Essay

… Target stores are reported to be stocked with products from countries known to employ child labor, which is illegal for production and manufacture of goods. This creates a problem for Target's image in the public view. (Vault, 2011)

Strategies for the Future

Target needs to work on its' social image in terms of the public view of Target as well as working on its treatment of employees. Needed in Target's strategy is what is referred to as the "old social contract where if you work hard and give them full time, they have to treat you with some degree of dignity and pay you enough that you don't need to worry about your basic needs all of the time." (Lydersen, 2006)

Target stores need to…. [read more]


Political / Environmental Economics Term Paper

… We have a groundfishing industry, and shellfish, lobster

QUESTION: And you won't have to sell out to developers?

ANSWER: Gloucester has a 380-year history of being closely joined at the hip to the sea. And I don't see that tradition being interrupted.

QUESTION: I take it the delay on Amendment 13 was due to the flawed methodology used in surveying the fish population by the NMFS?

ANSWER: Had the court had its way, and had the environmentalists had their way, there would have been no delay. Their goal was essentially to put the fishing communities of New England, out of business.

QUESTION: You really think that was their goal?

ANSWER: Oh absolutely.

QUESTION: Indirectly, you mean, right? You don't mean that they would deliberately try…. [read more]


Environmental Biology: The Effects Term Paper

… Actions Taken to Prevent Ocean Pollution

The National Clean Water Action Plan was established in 1998 to provide a foundation for local, state, tribal, and federal governments to implement that would protect and restore the water resources of our nation. The four key components of the plan are the following goals:

watershed approach

Strong federal and state mandated standards

Natural resource stewardship

Informed citizens and officials through education resources

The plan identified the need for development of a multi-agency Coastal Research Strategy and a plan for a coordinated monitoring of coastal waters. These combined efforts led to the comprehensive report to the public and the development of educational materials for distribution.

This research produced efforts that targeted adult audiences who directly or indirectly make decisions…. [read more]


Environmental Regulations in Public Term Paper

… For a minimum of one of the criteria air pollutants, many urban areas are categorized as 'non-attainment areas'. "In-attainment" refers to those areas that fulfill the standards. The second cluster of pollutants includes hundreds of pollutants and these pollutants are called dangerous air pollutants or air toxics. These pollutants are linked with specific sources and are straight away dangerous to human health.

While some produce other health and environmental problems, some others can lead to cancer. For people living close to big industrial facilities or in largely polluted urban corridors, the danger is uppermost. The list of toxics released into the air includes some common names, but the list is a long one. For instance, benzene is a powerful cancer-causing substance. About 1.6% of benzene…. [read more]


Measles, Sars, Air Quality Global Research Paper

… References

CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2004). Supplement B: SARS Surveillance. V. Reporting of cases of SARS-CoV disease. CDC.gov. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/sars/guidance/B-surveillance/reporting.pdf.

Dardis, Melissa R. (2012). A review of measles. Journal of School Nursing, 28(1), 9-12.

De Vries, Rory D., Mesman, Annelies W., Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.H., Dubrex, W. Paul, and de Swart, Rik L. (2012). The pathogenesis of measles. Current Opinions in Virology, 2, 248-255.

Gans, Hayley A., Yasukawa, Linda L., Sung, Phillip, Sullivan, Barbara, DeHovitz, Ross, Audet, Susette et al. (2013). Measles humoral and cell-mediated immunity in children aged 5-10 years after primary measles immunization administered at 6 or 9 months of age. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 207, 574-582.

Huoi, C., Casalegno, J.S., Benet, T., Neuraz, A., Billaud,…. [read more]


Draft Sustainability Plan Going Green and the New Meadowlands Stadium Research Paper

… Environmental Sustainability: a Global Effort

In this author's opinion, environmental sustainability needs to be a group effort. The problem with past efforts to deal with environmental sustainability is that the efforts have been too compartmentalized. In recent experience, cooperation on the part of business, government and international organizations in cooperation has shown real progress to mitigating the environmental sustainability problems that add so much to global environmental change.

The counterargument to environmental sustainability is that this is not government's responsibility or that whatever is done on private property is the owner's business. The simple counter to this is that the water is rising. Global change is here and in our face and unless we get together and cooperate, we are done.

Environmental sustainability is a…. [read more]


Integrating Total Quality Environmental Management Term Paper

… Environmental management includes recycling and remanufacturing of parts and products (Anthony, 2002). Disassembly and recycling of reusable parts help the cause of environment protection, reduces the cost of usage of a fresh component, and avoids disposal costs. Material Resource Planning (MRP), an assembly-oriented scheduling system, does not support the process of disassembly. Uncertainty of quality, quantity and timing of recovery of reusable parts makes production planning difficult. To incorporate product recovery planning in MRP, use of reverse bill of material for every retrieved component or product is recommended. Concepts used in planning probabilistic demands for end items are used in structuring the bill of material.

Closed loop system is a widely used environment practice by many companies. This system requires new material only on non-receipt…. [read more]


Application of Solar Thermal Systems in the UK Dissertation

… ¶ … economic and environmental benefits of using a solar water heating system for hot water applications in a typical British commercial building. Of particular interest was to initially estimate the energy use for heating of water. The most relevant variables were the horizontal solar irradiance, the sky clearness index, the solar declination angle and the ambient air temperature. Since the incident energy is a function of the solar collector tilt angle, an optimum angle which fortunately is equal to the average UK household roof pitch was determined. The Solar Savings calculation was used to calculate the amount of the total conventional hot water heating load (delivered energy and tank standby losses) provided by solar energy less any associated parasitic energy use. These figures were…. [read more]


Global Warming Subject Environmental Ethics Essay

… He argues that this process is "a message from the planet and clear evidence that our global economic system is on collision course with Earth's biophysical limits" (Smith, 2009). Not only is the author adamant about inhabitants' perception of this planet as a sacred, glorious wonder created by God, but he proposes three practical directives for counteracting the harm inflicted on it by human beings. These are structured around human dwelling, mobility and eating, which, regulated through a return to creational mindfulness, have the capacity to change all negative impact that human activity has on the environment. In this sense, Northcott advocates a limiting of artificial light and excessive technology as part of living conditions and a general cultural deceleration which would have the potential…. [read more]


Redesign Package System for Covergirl Cosmetic Line Thesis

… Redesign Package System for CoverGirl Cosmetic Line

The CoverGirl Packages

Pollution and the threat of global warming are less and less perceived as a make believe phenomenon, as more and more people recognize the damages of man made activities onto the natural environment. These hurtful activities include everything from forgetting to turn off the light in the bathroom or driving our fuel costly car instead of taking the bus to improperly disposing of garbage. While it is necessary to educate the population on how to behave in an environment friendly manner, it is also compulsory to request that the economic agents implement more environmentally responsible strategies. One such course of action would revolve around the usage of greener systems of packaging.

CoverGirl is a highly…. [read more]

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