Viewing papers 1-30 of 51 for epidemiology AND sexual AND transmitted AND diseases

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Epidemiology Definition and Description Essay

… Agent refers to the microbe causing disease; it is also called as the "What" of Triangle. Host refers to organism that harbors disease or the victim of the disease; called as "Who." Environment is the favorable external factors that help in transmitting disease infection; called as "Where" of the triangle. In the center of triangle, there is measure of time; the time describes period of illness and the life span after being infected with the disease.

Applying epidemiological triangle in case of AIDS in U.S., HIV infection act as the agent; teens have the highest percentage who are suffering from AIDS so teens are the host in a triangle. HIV infection is transmitted through bisexual, gay, men having sex with men or MSM, early age…. [read more]

Diseases and Pathogens Are Disease-Causing Essay

… ).

Fungal Infection: Ringworm

Ringworm is categorized according to the part of the body, which is infected (Earthtym 2012). The scientific name begins with tinea, followed by the part of the body involved. Infection appears to be transmitted by air-borne spores, which infect only locally, such as the scalp, eyebrow and lashes; the body or skin; nails; the groin area; the feet; the hands; and the beard. When there are enough spores, the entire area will be infected. Other than these observations, it is not clear why the infection is transmitted to others in a family but does not spread. Yet at other times, ringworm is very contagious (Earthym).

Ringworm often develops on the exposed parts of the body (Earthtym 2012). The fungus forms circular…. [read more]

Epidemiology Teens and Chlamydia Essay

… Epidemiology: Teens & Chlamydia

Epidemiological findings: Teens and chlamydia

Definition and description of epidemiology of teens and Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis (Van Vranken 2006). Chlamydia is one "is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States" (Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet, 2007, CDC). Its prevalence amongst teens is especially noteworthy. Of the "more than 650,000 cases were reported in 1999, and three of every four reported cases occurred in persons under age 25" (Witmer 2009). The figure, sadly, has only increased: in 2006 a total of 1,030,911 new infections were reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). These startling new statistics were drawn from all of the fifty…. [read more]

Human Papillomavirus Term Paper

… Disease - HPV


Human Papilloma Virus Defined:

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) includes both non-sexually transmitted and sexually transmitted disease (STD) forms that comprises many individual viruses characterized by the development of non-cancerous wart-like tumors known as papillomas (Taylor, et al. 2005). While initially benign, certain types of HPVs have been identified as high-risk precursors of deadly cancers, especially cervical cancers among women.

Approximately one-third of the more than 100 known types of HPVs are capable of transmission through sexual contact. Many HPV infections never result in detectable symptoms but nevertheless are no known to constitute a serious risk factor in the later development of deadly cervical cancers, highlighting the importance of public education with the aim of prevention (CDC…. [read more]

Risk Factors That Increase STD Prevalence in Elderly Literature Review

… Risk factors that increase STD prevalence in elderly

There are two health conditions that are specifically bad in nature plus bring many other health disorders with them too. These are obesity and aging. As a person gets older, his bones, immunity system, heart, and muscles become weaker. The elders can easily catch infections that take longer to be treated. Hence the aged people are more prone to getting sexually transmitted diseases or commonly known as STDs. Given a weaker recovery and immunity system, the treatment becomes lengthy and painful. STDs among elders have increased over last few years and if not dealt properly, the occurrence of STDs will rise among the elders which will be more costly too. It is therefore necessary to develop STD…. [read more]

Epidemiology Sexual Transmitted Diseases Thesis


Epidemiology-sexual transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases: Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention

Sexually transmitted diseases: Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention

Primary: Health promotion and specific prevention strategies

Despite the increased publicity regarding the role of condom use in the prevention of sexually-transmitted diseases, there are an estimated 19 million new STD infections in the United States every year. "In 2006, more than 45,000 (of 56,300) new cases of HIV / AIDS have been attributed to sexual transmission; in addition, more than 1 million cases of Chlamydia and 355,991 cases of gonorrhea were reported in 2007" (Scott-Sheldon et al. 2009, p.1). Ignorance of how to prevent STDs with condoms is one, but not the only cause of these sobering statistics: "Patients in STD clinics often report…. [read more]

Communicable Disease Research Proposal

… Communicable Disease

Epidemiology has been defined as the study of the allocation and determinants of disease and injury in human populations. Epidemiologist study the differences of disease in relation to age, sex, race, occupational and social characteristics, place of residence, susceptibility, exposure to specific agents or other pertinent characteristics. Also of concern are the chronological distribution of disease, the examination of trends, cyclical patterns and intervals between exposure to causal factors and onset of disease (Welcome to the Department of Epidemiology, 2009)

The scope of this field ranges from the study of the causes of disease to the control and prevention of disease and distribution of health resources. It should be emphasized that epidemiology focuses on health problems in regards to population groups rather than…. [read more]

Human Papilloma Virus Essay

… The following statistics reveal necessary information pertaining to the prevalence of the infection among teenagers in UK. The data indicates those females are more inclined towards having infectious diseases and develop cancers. The contributing factor chart identifies important information of the factors involved in transmission and development of the virus initiated diseases.

Rates of HPV related cancers



Cervical cancer


Anal cancer



Vulva cancer


Vaginal cancer


Penile cancer


Oral cavity



Pharynx (excluding nasopharynx)



Factors contributing to cervical cancer (cofactors)

Smoking prevalence (%)

women 31.1

Total fertility rate (live births per women)


Oral contraceptive use (%)


HIV prevalence (%), adults (15-49 years)


The following statistics reveal necessary information pertaining to the prevalence…. [read more]

Syphilis Holistic Approach Thesis

… Health

Syphilis -- viewed from the perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine as a Public Health Issue

Syphilis is an infection due to the bacteria Treponema pallidum. Syphilis is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease. The bacteria causes it spread through broken skin or mucous membranes. Syphilis is widespread in the United States and mainly affects sexually active adults ages 20 to 29 (Syphilis, 2010).

Syphilis is a bacterium caused sexually transmitted disease. It contaminates the genital area, lips, mouth, or anus of both men and women. One usually gets syphilis from sexual contact with someone who has it. It can also be passed during pregnancy from mother to baby (Syphilis, 2010). The main symptoms are hard chancre and nearby lymphadenectasis. This occurs about 2-4 weeks after sexual…. [read more]

STD's Can Have a Physical and Emotional Effect on the Human Body Research Paper

… ¶ … Sexually Transmitted Diseases also had negative psychological, as well as physical, effects on the individual.

The purpose of the report is to convince the audience that STDs are not only a serious problem, but that many are able to remain hidden for years, silently causing neurological damage. This neurological damage, when untreated, may have longer and more serious effects upon the body than some of the initial physical issues.

STDs, sexually transmitted diseases, are caused by infections that pass from one person to another during sexual activity, sharing of blood or body fluids, or by accident in medical procedures. A more common and correct term under use now by the medical and public health profession is STI, or sexually transmitted infections, which is…. [read more]

Epidemiology Global and Public Health Thesis

… Epidemiology: Global and Public Health

Epidemiology studies the frequency of diseases or health conditions in different population groups, as well as the reasons for this frequency. The findings of such a study can then be used in strategies to help prevent the problems related to the condition, or indeed, to prevent the condition itself.

One key step is to identify a particular population that is at risk of the condition being studied. Specifically, the condition addressed here is teenage pregnancy in Fulton, Georgia. The population group addressed is therefore teenagers in Fulton, and the condition examined is unwanted pregnancy. The importance of this study relates to the fact that unwanted teenage pregnancy is not only a health issue, but also a sociological one. In the…. [read more]

Genital Herpes Term Paper

… Genital herpes is another type of sexually transmitted disease. This disease is caused by the herpes simplex viruses (HSV) type 1 and type 2, however, most of the genital herpes recorded today are caused by HSV type 2 (Division of STD Prevention, May 2005).

Genital herpes can affect both men and women population and is highly contagious. A person with genital herpes can be found suffering from pain and sores, particularly in the genital area. Medical professionals have disclosed that the virus that is causing such disease can enter one's body through small breaks in the skin or in the mucous membranes. Although research based information disclosed that genital herpes can only be transferred through sexual interaction (because the virus dies quickly when outside the…. [read more]

Attitude of Population Towards Homosexuality Research Paper

… ¶ … American civil rights history has marked noted change in acceptance, and the protection of, minority groups. Of these minority groups, homosexual men and women are better protected now than they were a few decades ago. Although Americans are becoming more supportive of civil rights for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population, there are still widespread attitudes that reflect moral disapproval and repulsion towards homosexuals. In 2006, a Gallop Poll was performed and suggested that 41% of the Americans surveyed believe homosexuality is not an acceptable lifestyle, and 38% believe there should be less societal acceptance of the LGBT community (Brown & Henriquez, 2008). Research indicates that attitudes towards homosexuals are not necessarily predicted by region or city, but are associated with…. [read more]

Prostate Cancer Is a Slow Growing Essay

… Prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer that develops in men's prostate gland. Prostate gland is a gland located in the male reproductive system (Cookson,2001).Most cases of this kind of cancer are slow growing even though aggressive kinds have been reported (Baade, Youlden & Krnjacki,2009).The cancer cells may spread (metastasize) from the prostate gland to other parts of the patient's body (especially to lymph nodes and bones). Prostate cancer may cause severe pain, difficulty in urinating, sexual intercourse problems as well as erectile dysfunction. During the later stages of the disease, other symptoms may be seen.

The rates of detection varies widely across the globe with fewer cases being detected in South and East Asian and more cases being detected in Europe and the United…. [read more]

Women and AIDS in New Term Paper

… The cost of their treatment has to be absorbed by city services and other agencies, creating a constant and significant financial drain.

In the next decade, New York City will have to find solutions to these multiple problems: providing adequate diagnosis and treatments for women with HIV or AIDS; finding homes for children left parentless by AIDS; and solving the unexpected housing and financial challenges of the families of these children so they do not have to become wards of the state.

Where to Find Help in New York City

In addition to the New York Council on Adoptable Children, New York City has a variety of agencies trying to meet the needs of people with HIV or AIDS, including the special needs of women…. [read more]

HIV and AIDS in Kenya Term Paper

… People with money are also at risk through the use prostitution and unprotected casual sex. The information from the World Health Organization shows that although initially HIV / AIDS was proportional for rich and poor in Kenya, today it is mainly concentrated in poorer neighborhoods in Kenya. The media portrays that individuals who are homosexuals as more at risk for HIV / AIDS, however the research have found that anyone with multiple sexual partners and casual sexual relationships are at risk for HIV / AIDS (Wang, Duke & Schmid, 2009). Educated individuals are capable of making intellectual decisions and have safe sex to protect them from this epidemic.

Temporal Variation

HIV / AIDS is a serious epidemic that has infected Kenya and other parts of…. [read more]

Microorganisms Are Very Tiny Living Beings Essay

… Microorganisms are very tiny living beings, about .04 mm in size, so small that they are not as yet visible to the naked eye (Health Hype 2010). They are classified into bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa or pathogens. Bacteria are one-celled microorganisms called prokarotes. Fungi are non-motile and many-celled eukaryotes. Protozoa or pathogens are disease-causing biological agents. And viruses are simple microorganisms with only one DNA or RNA and cause systemic infections in the living host. Microorganisms are either beneficial or harmful. Viruses are harmful microorganisms (Health Hype).

Genital Human Papillomavirus or HPV is a particular scourge. With more than 40 types, which are transmissible through the genitals, mouth and throat, HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection or STI (CDC 2010). Most of…. [read more]

AIDS Five Common AIDS Misconceptions Research Proposal


Five Common AIDS Misconceptions

Those who saw it would find it difficult to forget the Oprah show in which AIDS was discussed, or rather attacked. Men and women in the audience expressed anger and frustration at the disease, along with hatred for those who had it. An overwhelming ignorance of the disease could be discerned, as well as the lack of a desire to learn more. The angry reactions of Oprah audience members could very well describe the misinformation regarding AIDS in the United States today. Through a description of five common misconceptions people have about HIV/ADIS, a discussion of why these are misconceptions, and an identification of interpersonal dynamics that motivate people to perpetuate these conceptions, one can better understand the fact that…. [read more]

Virginia Department of Health Sexually Transmitted Diseases Thesis

… Virginia Department of Health

Sexually transmitted diseases please see all instructions below

Agency, role and structure

According to its website, the Virginia State Board of Health and the Virginia Department of Health exist "to implement a coordinated, prevention-oriented program that promotes and protects the health of all Virginians. In addition, the Board serves as the primary advocate and representative of the citizens of the Commonwealth in achieving optimal health" (Mission, 2008, VDH).

Include the population served, preventive services, organizational structure.

The central functions of the VDH are the prevention and control of chronic disease; reduction of disparities in health care and health status; to improve the state's public health infrastructure; and "to improve the health and well-being of all Virginians overall" (Mission, 2008, VDH). The…. [read more]

African-American Woman Living With AIDS Term Paper

… African-American Women Living With AIDS

The year 1981 marked many historic events in the world but none as tragic as the discovery of 'Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS was first recognized as a disease when clinics in the larger cities in the United States such as New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco first saw young men who were homosexuals with Pnemocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma which was quite unusual for young adults who were not know to be immunosuppressed. The first report appeared in June 1981. This disease was first believed to be a homosexually transmitted disease but soon it was recognized that this disease was being transmitted among drug users as well. It wasn't long however, until it was understood that this…. [read more]

Hepatitis Term Paper

… Hep B

Hepatitis B

This is brief review of a case study for a 39-year-old Asian-American man originally from China who was discovered to be a chronic carrier of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Over the course of the past 2 years he received treatment with the antiviral drug lamivudine. Once he followed up with a healthcare provider for basic disease management, it appeared as though he was anicteric. His lab work included normal levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ast), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), y=glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, INR (International Normalized Ratio, a coagulation test that depends on the liver's biosynthietic ability), and direct and total bilirubin. His HBV serologic studies demonstrated a positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) that was confirmed by neutralization and a negative…. [read more]

African-American Women in New York Term Paper

… S. population but accounted for 39.7% of all cases (368,169 of 928,188) reported through 2003" (p. 1884).Through statistical research, Buchanan and Hatcher (2007) reported "during 2005, about1.1 million Americans were living with HIV; about half of the new HIV or AIDS diagnoses occurred among African-American individuals during 2004, whereas 18%occurred among Hispanic individuals and 30% among European-American individuals."(p. 2013)

Out of the women living in the United States, two out of three women living with HIV / AIDS during 2004 were African-American, with another 15% being Hispanic (Buchanan & Hatcher, 2007). "For African-American women, the result has been devastating, according to the founding president and CEO of the National Black Leadership Commission on AIDS" (Fears, 2005, p. A01). In 2003, the rate of new AIDS…. [read more]

HIV Nursing Essay

… 5. Integrase Inhibitors: Block the ability of the virus to inject its DNA into the DNA of the CD4 cells thereby interfering with the replication of the virus in the system.

Treatments for HIV can consist of single dose medications or cocktails consisting of more than one medication. The specific treatment can depend on a number of factors including the patient's preference for the number of pills being taken, the presence of any opportunistic infections, etc.

Community health nurses have been directly involved in the treatment of HIV from the very beginning. Prior to the development of antiretroviral therapy nurses were crucial in caring for patients in hospitals as well as being involved in home care (Maurer & Smith, 2012; Mukherjee & Eustache, 2007). Community…. [read more]

Pathophysiology of Cervical Cancer Research Paper

… Pathophysiology of Cervical Cancer

Every two minutes, somewhere in the world, a woman dies from cervical cancer (GlaxoSmithKline 2007). Caused by persistent or continuous infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer progresses slowly over a number of years (GlaxoSmithKline 2007) and is the second most common cancer for women around the world (Ivansson E.L. et al. 2008) . Due to its slow progression, observable symptomology usually translates into late stage illness, and indeed, within the 1940's invasive cervical cancer was the major cause of death for child bearing women in the United States (National Cancer Institute 2010). As of 2009 the number of cervical cancer diagnoses stood at 11,270 with 4,070 resultant deaths (National Cancer Institute 2010).

Prior to HPV being targeted as the main…. [read more]

Epidemiological Issues in Windshield Survey Essay

… Adolescents are also heavily influenced by popular culture, such as in connection with musical and sports entertainment icons, perhaps more so than by their primary communities.

In either case, values, beliefs, and behavioral expectations are primarily transmitted and maintained by the process of group norms and peer associations that determine what behaviors are considered desirable or "cool." Naturally, peer pressure is a tremendous factor with respect to whether adolescents accept and internalize messages in general, but especially with respect to what behaviors are considered appropriate and respectable in one another.

Therefore, the principal mechanism for beneficially influencing the behaviors of adolescents must be the promotion of advisable safe-sex-related practices and values in a manner that incorporates public service messages, ideally from popular entertainment figures whose…. [read more]

Homelessness in Orange County California Research Paper

… Overall, $3 million was cut from the Health Care Agency (providing public health, medical, and mental health services), $8.8 million was cut from the Social Services Agency (administering welfare, foster care, and other benefits), and $12.7 million was cut from the alternative defense budget (providing private defense attorneys for low-income adults and juveniles). The County's Co-ordinator of Homeless Services was one of the first positions eliminated by the budget cutbacks. The thirty to fifty non-profit agencies providing services to homeless persons no longer received County funding after the bankruptcy, including the organization which was contracted to run the emergency shelters in the national armories (providing about 300 men, women, and children with beds during the winter season).

Effectively, homeless persons will have to find someplace…. [read more]

HPV Vaccination According to the Centers Term Paper

… ¶ … HPV vaccination

According to the Centers for Disease Control, Advisory Committee on Immunization and Practices, Resolution 6/06-2 the administration of the quadrivalent Human Papilloma Virus vaccination is suggested for administration to girls as young as 9 but preferably in the age set of 11-12, and as a catch up vaccination for girls aged 13-18. The vaccination is to be given in three staggered doses with the second dose given 2 months from the first and the third 6 months after the first dose. This is based on the positive research findings of both non-profit research groups and pharmaceutical companies developing preventative HPV vaccinations. This work addresses the validity of mandating this vaccine in Solano County California, upon these age guidelines as a prophylactic…. [read more]

Syphilis Also Known as "The Pox," "Lues Research Paper

… Syphilis

Also known as "the pox," "Lues," "Cupid's Disease," the "Great Imitator" of other diseases, or "Syph," syphilis is a potentially-devastating sexually-transmitted bacterial infection infamous for its famous victims (NIH, 2009). These unfortunate souls include Adolf Hitler, Al Capone, Vincent Van Gogh, Abraham Lincoln, Friedrich Nietzsche, and the composer Franz Schubert (Hayden, 2003). Although symptoms attributed to syphilis have been recorded since the time of Hippocrates, the first official outbreak dates back to Italy in 1494 (Verweij, 2007). Initial treatments included experimenting with enough mercury or arsenic to kill the disease but not the patient; this mode of treatment led to the use of chemotherapy against cancer cells. In addition, the development of public health departments can be attributed to early attempts by medical researchers…. [read more]

AIDS on South African Development Research Paper

… Mobility per se can encourage or make people vulnerable to high-risk sexual behaviour;

2. Mobility makes people more difficult to reach, whether for prevention education, condom provision, HIV testing, or post-infection treatment and care;

3. Migrants' multi-local social networks create opportunities for sexual networking; and,

4. There is a higher rate of HIV infection in "communities of the mobile," which often include socially, economically and politically marginalized people (Boe and Crush 22).

Taken together, it is clear that the high degree of mobility of South African mining workers combined with a modern transportation infrastructure combine to create a number of obstacles to combating the spread of this disease. Indeed, Boe and Crush emphasize that, "The current geography of the HIV epidemic is also the clue…. [read more]

Origin of HIV the Mystery Essay

… National media turned its attention to the disease. Answers were demanded. Already, in the three years that had passed since the CDC's identification of the disease, some 15,000 persons had gone on to contract AIDS as a result of unscreened blood transfusions (Greene 207:S94). Clearly, the disease had appeared and been identified -- but safeguarding practices were yet to be put into place. Part of the reason was that no one really knew yet why or how AIDS developed and spread.

That knowledge would come within the decade as more and more studies into the nature of AIDS took researchers to Europe and from Europe to central Africa. AIDS was more than just an American epidemic. It was global. Studies began to pour in, which…. [read more]

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