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Israel's Military Culture Research Paper

… 1967-1993:

Operation Focus took place in 1967, when the Israeli Air Force bombed the Egyptian airfields that later on expanded to Syria as well as Jordanian and Iraqi airfields.

From 1967-70 another operation took place that is referred to as the War of Attrition. In this war, many operations were involved. These operations include operation Inferno (1968), operation Bulmus 6 (1969), operation Boxer (1969), operation Raviv (1069), operation Priha (1070), operation Rooster 53 (1969) and operation Escort (1969).

In 1973 the Yom Kippur War took place that includes the operation Doogman 5 (1973) and operation Abirey-Halev (1973).

In 1982, the Lebanon War took place that includes operation Peace for Galilee (1982), Battle of Sultan Yacoub, operation Mole Cricket 19, Siege of Beirut, Battle of Jezzine…. [read more]


Israel Defense Tech Israeli Defense Technology: Success Thesis

… Israel Defense Tech

Israeli Defense Technology: Success Against All Odds

When the full extent of the horrors of the Holocaust had become apparent to the global public, the movement for Israeli independence took center-stage. Upon the world's revelation that more than 6 million Jews had been sent to the gas chambers, the campaign to make Israel the Jewish national homeland earned the full sympathy and support of the United Nations, the United States and Great Britain. In 1948, Israel declared itself independent with the backing of the world community and, conversely, the outright condemnation of the Arab nations which surrounded it. Upon its independence, Israel was promptly invaded by its neighbors. Led by its first prime minister, David Ben Gurion, Israel emerged victorious against its…. [read more]


Israel Illegal Israel and Resolution Essay

… (UN Security Council, 1967)

While paragraph (i) does not include the word "all," a far more likely interpretation of this clause is that it means precisely what it says -- that Israel is to withdraw from territories it occupied during the recent conflict. Not some territories or most territories, but "territories occupied during the conflict." The only definitive factor -- the only words that in any way limit or define the territories in question -- is "occupied during the conflict," therefore to interpret this as meaning other than that all territories occupied during the conflict are referred to is itself playing a word game.

You go on to say interpret the rectitude of Israeli "administration" of the territories, which is in direct conflict with paragraph…. [read more]


Israel Country Study Research Paper

… Political/Government Assessment

There is no constitution that is followed in Israel. Instead, the affairs of the country are regulated and administered under the Declaration of Establishment (1948) in addition to the laws made by the parliament and citizens. The Head of the State is always the President which is regarded as a principally ceremonial responsible position. The legislature has the responsibility of electing the President for a term of 7 years without any term limits. On the other hand, the Prime Minister is responsible for heading the government. Normally, the largest party's leader is given the mentioned position after the completion of legislative elections. The unicameral legislature has a Knesset consisting of one hundred and twenty seats. The members of Knesset are selected by ballot…. [read more]


Israel 1948 A2 Coursework

… ¶ … Israel 1948 was one of the key turning points in the political development of the contemporary Middle East. From 1948 on, Israel was an independent state ruled by their own government which brought Israeli organizations together under one rule, liberated from foreign influence. After the creation of the State of Israel, frequent wars in opposition to its existence broke out due to the tremendous antagonism felt towards a Zionist state (e.g. The Arab-Israeli war 1948, the 1956 Suez War, 1967 Six Day War, 1967-1970 War of Attrition and Yom Kippur 1973). It was wars such as these that forced Israel to bolster its own military defense, increase diplomatic ties with the West, and attempt to become a self-sufficient "island" surrounded by enemies. Israel,…. [read more]


Establishment of the State of Israel Thesis

… Establishment of the State of Israel

One of the driving forces in the global political climate was the creation of the State of Israel in 1948. The creation of Israel has resulted in a series of wars between the Jewish state and its neighbors. The fallout has continued to this day, in the form of the Israel-Palestine conflict and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Yet, the creation of Israel was a necessity, born of the Holocaust, which almost completely wiped out Jewish presence in Europe. The purpose of this essay is to outline the reasons for the creation of the State of Israel and provide some insight into the background of the region. The essay will then explore the reasons why this event has…. [read more]


Israel Internal Security Case Study

… Israel Internal Security Case Study

Nature of the state

Israel is a young nation, developed following WWII, when Britain withdrew from Palestine and the United Nations partitioned a portion of it for the resettlement of displaced Jews following the war. Arab nations in the region and Palestine itself rejected the arrangement, but it was followed through with nonetheless. The arrangement developed into several costly wars in which the Israeli army was successful, with the aide of foreign backing but many deep rooted tensions have not been resolved since. The Israeli government also occupies additional lands, which were acquired through these costly wars, most notably the Gaza strip and a few other regions, though some have been returned to their nation of origin since.

On 25…. [read more]


Israel International PoliticsTerrorism Case Study

… ISRAEL

Locked in a history of persecution, religious discrimination, and national consciousness, the Jewish people were granted their own land when, following World War II, the British withdrew from Palestine and the United Nations divided the war-torn land into two separate states. The UN created an Arab state and a Jewish state, Israel, against tremendous rejection by the Arabs, who felt that what was once their land was being redistributed without their approval. The 1947 UN Partition created a very small state in the area of Tel Aviv, and, through a series of wars, Israel ambitiously expanded its borders. The Jews and the Arabs, both inextricably psychologically tied to this holy land, continue to mar the narrowly defined lines of the nation of Israel, Medinat…. [read more]


Israel and Palestine Term Paper

… Israel and Palestine

In order or answer the central question of this paper and to understand the present situation of a two - state solution to the Israeli - Palestinian conflict, it is firstly necessary to understand the origins and the genesis of the problem in the region.

As one commentator states, "The conflict between Palestine and Israel, between Arab and Jew, goes back a very long way - over a hundred years in its present form (and a lot longer, if you go back to Sarah, Hagar and Abraham)" (Reich D.) Therefore any attempt to discuss the viability and the actual functioning of a two - state solution must take account some of the most important aspects of this history.

Even a very brief…. [read more]


Israel Is a Country Caught Term Paper

… Israel is a country caught in multiple kinds of crossroads. The country is in the middle of the Middle East, an area fraught with tensions literally for millennia. The land currently called Israel has been fought over from Biblical times, and who should and should not be allowed to live on that land remains a topic of debate among some to this day. Many people are acutely aware of the long history of the region. Put the words "Israel" and "History" into GOOGLE, and the first two websites found trace Israel's history back to events in Genesis. Although some groups of people dispute that claim in important ways, the view Israel has of its history plays an important role in the historical events of the…. [read more]


US Israel Relations Specifically Oslo Accords Term Paper

… U.S. / Israel Relations

Israel Relations the Oslo Accords

Since the end of World War II, the Arab Israeli conflict has been increasingly brought to the forefront. As U.S. foreign policy has continued to focus on addressing this underlying conflict that has been taking place. Part of the reason for this, was because of the continued state of war that exists between Israel and the Palestinians. What happened was the land that Israel is located on, is considered to be the ancient homeland for both Jews and Palestinians going back to biblical times. However, over the centuries the area that is now: modern day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip were controlled by a variety of different foreign powers (ranging from the Romans…. [read more]


Source and Future of National Identity in Israel Term Paper

… Israel and Palestine

Zionist Movement

The Zionist movement began in the late 19th century. It reflected the idea that, after centuries of persecution and Diaspora, which began in the 6th century B.C., when the Jews were forced out of Israel and exiled to Babylonia; Jews should rebuild their original homeland in Israel (Ram, 1998). Only when Jews had a state, a country, would there be an end to Jewish Diaspora. As well as a Jewish state where all Jews would be welcome to be free of the racial prejudices and hate that had followed them since the 6th century Diaspora. Zionism was born out of the natural human need for the Jews to have a state where they could collectively pursue their religious faith and…. [read more]


Decision Making Strategies Research Paper

… Terrorism is a way of life; watching for bombs and activities "normal," just as serving in the military and knowing your State is surrounded by enemies becomes so intrusive it is like being blinded by a horrible odor; other people can sense it, but after a while, it is moot to the individual. Thus, the Israeli culture has transposed from the various cultures that immigrated in the 1940s to one with three major paradigms: individualism, directness, and a polychromic world view:

Individualism -- The United States has always enjoyed a sense of rugged individualism, back from the pioneer days and the age of expansion into the west. For Israel, though, in decision making, the culture has become even more individualistic as it has evolved towards…. [read more]


Zionism "Diaspora" Is a Greek Term Paper

… Instead of associating Zionism with the establishment of Israel, Zionism now includes the principles of protecting the homeland, bringing all the Jews back to Israel, instilling the importance if the state of Israel into the hearts of all Jews, and maintaining Jewish life and culture. 1968 marked a change in the intention and principles of Zionism, with Jerusalem in the possession of the Israelis, Zionists refocused their attention toward the preservation and flourishing of Jewish culture and religion. It marked the end of the childhood of Zionism and the beginning of its adulthood.

Zionism originally formed in the 19th century as a movement intent on the creation of a place where Jews from all over the world could live and cultivate their culture and religion.…. [read more]


Israeli Politics and Society Term Paper

… Israeli Politics

Separating Religion from National Identity: Interview with Avraham B. Yehoshua."

Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics, and Culture

When researching the Middle East, one of the most important concepts to question is the idea of 'identity.' The state of Israel is based upon the commonly shared Jewish identity, religion, and history of all of its citizens. However, its notions of citizenship and identity extend far beyond its physical borders. Everyone who is Jewish is potentially a citizen of Israel. This sense of citizenship encompasses many different individuals within its definition, including people of different races, ethnic groups, and levels of religiosity. The state of Israel illustrates one of the paradoxes of the region. Every Middle Eastern person has intense tribal loyalties, not…. [read more]


Playwright Israel Zangwill Is United Essay

… This is fascinating because while Muslim immigrants are deeply diverse of their national and ethnic backgrounds, hailing from as far east as Indonesia to as far west as Morocco, their experience especially in view of the events in recent memory has given them a special sense of unity and formed a superset of ethnicity. The broader Islamic culture militates against time honored American traditions and cultural icons. There is no alcohol involved. Muslims do not even eat the same meat as Americans following instead the Kosher traditions of their Semitic Jewish brethren. Pork is a big no! Muslim girls do not go to prom and are not allowed to date or intermingle with boys. Away from their traditional homelands, Muslims cling much more staunchly to…. [read more]


Arab-Israeli Conflict Research Proposal

… ¶ … establishment of the Israeli State and the long subsequent series Arab-Israeli wars over it has been at the heart of Middle Eastern conflict over six decades. The fundamental conflict between Israel and the Palestines displaced by the first offensive Arab attacks on the nascent Israeli state continues to fuel tensions throughout the entire region. Unlike many other conflicts that eventually reach a peaceful settlement, the intractable conflict over the Palestinian refugee issue has developed into a continuous cycle of violence that is not leading towards any agreement or peace. Complex issues of identities, fulfillment of basic needs, nationalism, religious zeal, and cultural differences have compounded the problem.

The various influences demand an objective analysis and a philosophical approach to laying groundwork for stability…. [read more]


Course Is Comparative Politics Term Paper

… ¶ … Israel's Security Policies Relating to the Building of the Wall

The problem is terrorism or rather in general terms, the lack of security for the state of Israel. Since its inception in 1948, the Jewish state has been subjected to numerous attacks from its Arab neighbors, each of which has, as its stated aim, the destruction of the state of Israel. Winning independence in 1948, after a bitter fight, it would be forced time and again to fight for its existence. Israel's reaction to the security problem over the years has been to build a series of fixed structures or walls to keep its enemies out. These structures have done more to increase the security of the State of Israel, than any other…. [read more]


Contemporary Issues in International Relations Term Paper

… ¶ … Israel

Unlike the historical state of Israel, the modern state of Israel owes credit for its creation to a series of secular actions, despite the religious nature of the country. In order to understand its creation, it is important to look at historic events immediately preceding the creation of Israel, the wars that followed the creation of Israel, and current Israeli occupation of lands that were initially outside of Israeli control. Many people attribute the creation of Israel to Hitler's actions during World War II, and assume that the League of Nations created Israel as a way of making amends to the victims of the Holocaust. However, that explanation, while partially accurate, is overly simplistic, and ignores the larger political influences that led…. [read more]


Effects of Zionism on the Peace Process Between Israel and the Palestinians Term Paper

… ¶ … Zionism on the peace process between Israel and Palestinians brief history and forms of Zionism

Brief history of Jewish way to the own state

Creating an own state - Israel

The history of Israeli territory

Arab anti-Semitism and conflicts

When talking about such complicated and very uneasy question as Zionism is, we have to research the process during which it was formed and developed. Zionism is rather spread among Jews and has many followers among both Israelites and Jewish Diaspora because many "religious Jews today possess the sole remaining form of Jewish nationalism with any of the basic building blocks of a living idea:(Yoram Hazony, the Zionist Idea and Its Enemies).

Unfortunately practically all countries blame Jews for being Zionists as they find…. [read more]


Interventionism From the Perspective Case Study

… These studies serve as the foundation for this present analysis.

Other studies have shown that foreign military intervention can easily be conducted even if they are in violation of the United Nations charter and lack authorization of the Security Council (Cassese 1999). This shows that countries can and do act on their own in engaging in interventionism. The motives for doing so are what this study plans to investigate.

A number of Western countries support humanitarian interventionism but they have not yet intervened in Syria. The reality behind humanitarian interventionism is that there are clear political, geopolitical, and economical consequences to every foreign intervention. Intervention is not merely a humanitarian crusade but rather a highly explosive affair that can cripple countries' infrastructures and have global…. [read more]


Political Boundaries and Conflicts Research Paper

… Political Boundaries and Conflicts

Boundaries refer to physical or psychologically established separations, which mark the ends of agreeable operations and internalities within two or more nations. Every country in the world has its own boundary in the partition, which marks the geological exemplification from one country to another. For instance, the United States of America has boundaries, which separate it from its neighboring countries like Mexico. Germany is a nation with boundaries and shows the end of its geographical dominance with its neighboring countries. Any nation has boundaries and possible most of which are politically instilled. For instance, rivaling political parties exhibit political boundaries, which denote the depth of their political dominance in the region. Still between two or more countries, political boundaries are bound…. [read more]


David Ben-Gurion's Changing Views Towards Arab Nationalism Between 1918 and 1948 Essay

… ¶ … Nuanced Face of Zionism

It is hard to think of the words "Middle East" and "nuance" as having anything to do with each other -- much less to conceive of a nuanced position between Zionism and Arab nationalism. But there have been times in the decades since the founding of the state of Israel that political leaders have tried to craft positions that acknowledged the complexity of the competing claims of Jews and Palestinians. David Ben-Gurion was one of these leaders whose views on Arab nationalism reflect a sophisticated understanding of the ways in which different narratives about geography must each be heard, if not given perfectly equal weight.

Ben-Gurion's ideas about Arab nationalism and the appropriate relationship between Jews and Arabs developed…. [read more]


Resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Term Paper

… But they simply cannot walk away from the territories, not in their aroused state, without guarantees they will be safe within their own borders." (The Washington Post, 2002)

Recent UN Resolution

The resolution that was put up recently in the UN Security Council was also welcomed by both Israel and Arafat, the former calling it 'balanced' and the latter 'a step forward.' But the problems to be tackled in this are:

What will be the borders between Israel and the proposed Palestine state,

What will be the fate of the Palestinian refugees who have been sanctioned the right to return to their homes which are now in Israel proper,

What will be the future of the Jewish settlements Israel has been building in the West…. [read more]


Muhammad Ali in Egypt Thesis

… But they took away, for five centuries, the possibility of an independent Arab-dom, and Arab nationalists bore them considerable ill-will for it[footnoteRef:13]. The only 'Arab' state conquered by the Turks which was not in irremediable decay, was the Mamluk state of Egypt and Syria[footnoteRef:14]. The Mamluks themselves were a dynasty of Turkish slaves; and in any case they afterwards succeeded, as did all the North African provinces, in enjoying internal autonomy under Ottoman suzerainty. The claim that the caliphate had been transmitted to the Ottoman sultans was made only late in the history of the Empire. It was as Turkish rulers that they held their power, and only secondarily (if at all) as vice-regents of the Prophet. They preserved and even sharpened the distinction between…. [read more]


Iran's Nuclear Threat Essay

… Preventive war is one of the probable consequences in attempts to stop Iran from continuing with its nuclear program and building an atomic bomb. As evident from Iraq's case, preventive war does not have a good history of being effectively executed in light of its outcomes, benefits, and costs. The second probable cause is deterrence threats since the Iran's nuclear program can not only be contained but it can also be deterred. In addition, there is a possibility of invasion and occupation because of the seeming ineffectiveness of deterrence threats. Each of these consequences of Israel's demand could make the issue worse through delaying the nuclear weapons program, moving it into less vulnerable places, and provide inflaming rewards to use such weapons when available.

6.…. [read more]


Israeli Palestinian Conflict Research Paper

… Israeli & Palestinian

The Perpetual Battle between the Israeli's & Palestinians

The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict has been ongoing for half a century. More recently in the news, the Palestinians are proposing that the United Nations recognize them as a state. Israeli's Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu mentioned that if their request passed, it would not affect anything on the ground as far as the checkpoints and separation settlements. However, Israel is greatly concerned that if the Palestinians statehood bid is recognized, the probability of them joining international institutions such as the International Criminal Court could raise the threat war act charges against Israel. Furthermore, on September 23, 2011, Prime Minister Netanyahu spoke before the United Nations, stressing that negotiations are the only way possible to reach peace…. [read more]


Cyprus Problem Ancient History Establishment Dissertation

… This agreement forestalled actual admission as a British possession for a time; Cyprus remained under Turkish control while the British occupied the island for military purposes. The British performed the duty of protectorate nation until 1914 when, at the advent of the First World War, the island was "formally annexed" (U.S. State Department, 2011) by the United Kingdom. The island officially became a crown colony in 1925. During this time period many ethnic Turkish inhabitants left Cyprus for Turkey.

After the Second World War, there was great turmoil regarding who was to gain possession of the island. There remained a large number of Greek Cypriots who were the earliest inhabitants of the island, a smaller number of Turkish Cypriots who had remained during English occupation,…. [read more]


Assassination of the Former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri Term Paper

… Assination of Rafik Hariri: Extinguishing a Light in the Middle East

Lebanon is an oddity in the Middle East; a diverse cultural mixture that were it not for outside influences vying for power and control of the country might perhaps achieve a culturally and economically successful society. It has on more than one occasion in its war torn history attempted to do that. To become a Singapore of the Middle East; or at least such was the vision held by Lebanon's late former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri (he had resigned in 2004), who was assassinated in February, 2005 (Denoeux and Springborg, 1998, p. 158). "Consciously striving to emulate its putative Phoenician heritage, Lebanon was the only truly cosmopolitan Arab country (Denoeux and Springborg, 1998, p.…. [read more]


Realism v. Institutionalism Term Paper

… In this vein, realists have often suggested that nation-states such as Israel, because they wish to protect their territory, act in inherently aggressive ways and that territorial expansion is only constrained by an opposing and powerful military force. However, although Israel has acted aggressively, though preemptive strikes and also by occupying the West Bank and Gaza, it has also, for fear of garnering poor public opinion, restrained itself from total occupation of these lands, enabling the current end to the settlements in these areas. The influence of the international community has thus inserted itself into Israel's behavior in the form of institutional authority that is not confined to arms or economic power.

The theory of institutionalism shows that clearly, there is 'something else' going on…. [read more]

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