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Ethical Decision 'Not to Resuscitate Essay

… It should be remembered that there is not a single kind of consent but many. Therefore, the doctors must see what sort of consent is applicable in a specific situation and then act accordingly (J., 2005).

First of all, the doctors and nurses should remember that the consent should always be in form of a typed paper. However, most of the times because of common practice and to save time many consultants just the verbal consent. Either way, consent should be proper and the doctor must only proceed if the patient agrees (Nandimath, 2009).

The kind of consent that the doctors are required to take from the patient in most of the cases is the informed consent. In this type of consent, the doctors tell…. [read more]

Ethical Perspectives Ethical Decision Making Research Paper

… While her co-workers were removing the tubing, an unfortunate incident took place. Despite taking all the important precautions, Mr. Lee's esophagus started bleeding and developed hypotension. Soon after, his blood pressure dropped to the point where his brain developed ischemia. Now the nurse was faced with a legal ethical dilemma. The dilemma was that it she did not feel morally right to remove the tubing since she believed that the patient could die of the nutritional deficit because he was taking anything by mouth. Moreover, since the patient developed brain damage while removing the tubing, this even could have legal implications.

Topic 3

Radiology is quite a sensitive field of medical care and it also serves a very crucial purpose. Doctors and surgeons rely on…. [read more]

Ethical Decisions in a Patients Right to Die Research Paper

… Ethical Decisions in a Patient's Right to Die


Ethical Decisions in a Patient's Right to Die

Studies showed that 29% of terminally ill and severely suffering patients make end-of-life decisions and 21% of them actually die afterwards. The rest of them seek termination of treatment, DNR or the withdrawal or withholding of life support. Age, a diagnosis of sepsis or cirrhosis, seriousness of illness and transfer from another hospital constitute common factors in the decisions. The rule of double effect enhances pain management but must develop from moral integrity. If the patient's family or guardian feels it is in the patient's best interest to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment, the witness of the attending physician and the management of the health…. [read more]

Ethics, Values and Decision-Making Essay

… Factual questions require a different type of investigative process from ethical issues. Ethical decision-making is also considered a dialectical process. Certain facts will point to certain ethical issues. Each step is taken progressively and in succession but is open to revision by the succeeding steps. The steps are dialectically related in that each leads to the discovery of any inadequacy in previous steps, which require revision (Ryerson University). #


Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from

Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2

Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June…. [read more]

Ethical Dilemmas Surrounding DNR Research Paper

… It is not easy for physicians to determine when resuscitation might just save a life or when it might just be futile. Physicians have the responsibility of saving lives, but they should also respect the patients' end of life preferences.

These ethical principles also pose serious challenges to the health care providers when handling patients, who are suicidal. These dilemmas come up because of the conflicts among the principles in addition to the legal, economic, and religious standards. The advance directives movement initiated thought and ideologies that it is not appropriate to extend a life without giving a person an accepted quality of life. This has influenced the society to take the autonomy of the patient's decision regarding life as paramount (Cook et al. 10).…. [read more]

Difficulty With Do Not Resuscitate Orders (Dnrs) Term Paper

… Difficulty with do not resuscitate orders (DNRs), advanced directives and medical power of attorney are not unheard of and decisions regarding these issues are often left to the nurse to make, as a great deal of discretion is afforded the nurse, especially in the triage aspect of emergency room care. Emergency room care requires quick thinking and logical judgment utilized to make the best possible decisions for a critically ill patient, that has not yet been medically stabilized. It is a common practice to withhold pain medications, such as morphine to patients who are suspected of respiratory or cardiac distress as morphine is know to depress these functions, as a process of its pharmacology. It is the job of the emergency room nurse and other…. [read more]

Ethical Dilemmas Surround Surrogacy Essay

… (Raines, 1993 cited by, p62).

At the same time, even whilst technology may be able to save the life of a premature child, it may be unable to d anything about his/her neurologic, psychological, cognitive and emotional development. Should one save the life of a baby at such costs? Such situation can eventuate in conflict between physicians and nurses.

And then there is the emotional pain of helping such a child live when one is well aware that he may yet grow up to become seriously disabled. The doctors and nurses are, therefore in a way, creating the families and the child's future pain as well as so many more ethical ramifications. Should one be party to such pain? The medical profession is still…. [read more]

Do Not Resuscitate Requests Issues DNR? Essay

… Legal Issues With Do Not Resuscitate Orders

Babies born today have a fifty-fifty chance of living to see their 100th birthday, and continuing innovations in healthcare promise to extend the human lifespan even further in the future. An unfortunate concomitant of more people living longer lives has been an increased incidence of debilitating diseases such as Alzheimer's, dementia and osteoporosis that can adversely affect the quality of life for the elderly. Some of these healthcare consumers may want to avoid being trapped in an unresponsive body by making provisions ahead of time to preclude the use of heroic measures in saving them while they still possess the mental faculties to make these difficult decisions. In these cases, so-called do not resuscitate orders can provide healthcare…. [read more]

Medical Ethics and Decision Making Term Paper

… Doctors are often conflicted emotionally by this because their ethics and morals conflict with what they can do for their patients (Goold, 2001).

It is becoming more clear that doctors need more guidelines when it comes to delicate situations involving their patients, because they often have to go on only what they are taught in medical school and do not get to exercise their ethical beliefs as much as they would like (Rhodes, 1986). In other words, they often do not have the power to try to help their patients in the best way possible because they are unaware of some of the options that they have or are not able to find a way to get the procedure, tests, or medication covered by the…. [read more]

Resuscitate Orders and Living Wills Term Paper

… As one expert notes, "In actual practice, evidence suggests that patients' ability to have their wishes regarding the prohibition of life-sustaining treatment honored may be impeded in states where natural death legislation exists" (Kapp 77). Thus, even ethical questions may not be the ultimate determination on advance directives. In many cases, the ethics of the situation are ignored when the legality of the directives come into question.

Often, advance directives are clear and concise, and can be acted on by physicians with little worry of incrimination or ethical questions. Unfortunately, many medical cases are not cut and dried, and many questions of legality and ethics surround them. When physicians are caught in the middle of ethical debates, there are no winners. Ultimately, death should be…. [read more]

Legal and Ethical Issues of DNR Research Paper

… ¶ … DNR

Between Life And Death

A DNR or do-not-resuscitate is a written medical order that cardiopulmonary resuscitative intervention measures shall not be performed in the event of a cardiac or respiratory arrest (Roth & Corrigan, 2005 as qtd in Pat et al., 2009; Pozgar, 2010 p 132). The doctor discusses both the prognosis and the DNR with the patient or his family. Their decision will be respected and documented in detail whether to conduct or withhold resuscitative services. The patient's rights receive paramount consideration. He can reverse a DNR order (Roth & Corrigan, 2005 as qtd in Pat et al.). The sole basis of a DNR is the patient's conscious decision or best interest.

"Do Not Resuscitate" Order

A DNR is a decision…. [read more]

Medical/Nursing Education Nurses Term Paper

… The nurse is experiencing feelings of guilt over her chart omission but she does not want to take the risk of jeopardizing her nursing career through disciplinary action. Furthermore, the patient's bruising is likely to heal in time and it appears that no further internal damage to the arm veins has occurred. Therefore, this particular incident is likely to have no effect on the patient's overall recovery from abdominal surgery. However, the nurses' decision is likely to affect her future decisions and actions regarding patient care. She is likely to be more careful and attentive her responsibilities directly related to patient care and will need to develop a priority system of managing her workload. The nurse is not likely to be questioned regarding her chart…. [read more]

Helping Stakeholders Navigate the Ethical Landscape of EOL Decisions Research Paper

… , 2010). The PCS team consisted of an advanced practice nurse (APN), social worker, and palliative medicine physician. The APN's duties included attending daily rounds with the ICU care teams and evaluating whether ICU referrals should receive a palliative care consultation. If deemed appropriate, a meeting would be arranged between the ICU and PCS teams, patient, and family members. The PCS team would evaluate the patient and family members' comprehension of the patient's condition and prognosis, thereby incorporating the clinician narrative. Signs of traumatic stress and elevated bereavement risk among the family members were also evaluated. Family cultural values and spiritual or religious beliefs played a prominent role in the decision-making process, thereby incorporating important aspects of the patient's and family members' narratives. When translator…. [read more]

Bioethical Issues Term Paper

… ¶ … ethical principles apply to this case?

Autonomy: Autonomy means the ability to make autonomous or independent, rational decisions. In this scenario, the woman was able to make autonomous decisions about her health care before the incident described. She was aware of the fact that her health was failing. She signed a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DOAHC) agreement, in case she was incapacitated, placing her health care in the hands of her relatives, who were aware of her wishes not to be intubated or artificially resuscitated. This agreement was meant to transfer autonomy to her relations, in the event of her incapacitation.

Beneficence: To do no harm is one of the primary concerns of all healthcare providers, as it is the…. [read more]

Nutrition: Ethical or Unethical? Term Paper

… They make no secret of their differences of opinion. Consider, however, that there are some 18,000 consultants and 30,000 general practitioners in this country. Inevitably, they will represent a vast cross-section of views about non-resuscitation. Religious convictions may play a part in the decisions taken by some, particularly in matters concerning the sanctity of life. The Roman Catholic Church and orthodox Jews oppose the withdrawal of lifesupport. Others may refuse cardiopulmonary resuscitation to elderly patients for fear of causing indignity, or because they have become highly dependent on others. On the other hand, some say that loss of dignity arises from the way we care for our sufferers not from the illness itself and that the provision of a better environment for elderly patients suffering…. [read more]

Morality and Ethics Term Paper

… Just 25% of Americans die at home surrounded by their family and friends, despite research showing that 70% say that they would prefer to die at home.

To prevent the misuse of painkillers, 35 states in the U.S.A. have laws or policies that make it difficult for doctors to prescribe such medications to dying patients.

Many Americans get aggressive end-of-life care in a hospital and not at home.

A study showed that 28% of North Americans ages 65 and over were admitted to an intensive care unit during the last six months of life.

Most hospitals in the U.S. still don't have end-of-life programs that automatically deliver services to dying patients, such as dedicated help of a social worker or Minister trained to work with…. [read more]

DNR Patients Term Paper

… Medical Ethics

Do Not Resuscitate Patients

In the situation below, I want to argue that Patients with a 'Do Not Resuscitate' (DNR) Order should NOT be transported to a hospital - especially by an Emergency Department - for medical treatment.

My argument assumes that patients who have signed such an order understand the full meaning of DNR, and have accepted the responsibility this entails. My argument assumes that the medical professionals understand the ramifications of not transporting a patient for treatment, and that the legal aspects of DNR orders have been dealt with by the department's legal representatives. My argument also assumes that the patients are in some kind of medical arrest or emergency, or have suffered a catastrophic type of illness, such as heart…. [read more]

Ethics the Case Touches on Alzheimer-Type Degeneration Reaction Paper

… Ethics

The case touches on Alzheimer-type degeneration. Alice mother, Martha, suffers from this clinical condition. She is not capable of taking care of her self and relies on her daughter for virtually everything. Her daughter takes her to a special unit where Alzheimer patients are taken care of because the facility can provide long-term care for Martha. Before Martha is taken to this facility, Alice realizes that Martha is in a frail state.

Upon admission at the facility, Alice fails to complete doing the paperwork because of weariness. Unfortunately, only a few forms are in the process signed. She gave her mother's directive that if her heart stopped beating she never be subjected to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). It is however not clear whether the physician…. [read more]

Eating Disorders the Argument Research Paper

… She wants to continue on her downward spiral. Any attempts to save her would only damage whatever therapeutic treatment is left. In this case, one would honor the patient's wish; if the patient no longer wishes to fight, then who is to say how successful the forced treatment will be? The patient's psychological condition is just as important, and that refusal in itself becomes a huge factor in treatment.

If the patient, however, continues to aggressively fight the treatment outright, but does not refuse treatment, then there is that chance that the patient is suffering a psychological deterioration. In this case, it would be more ethical to involuntarily hospitalize the patient for further medical treatment. In this case, patients usually become compliant and grateful after…. [read more]

Ethics: Assisted Suicide Term Paper

… The cost of Health care can be reduced. Nurses and Doctors would have more time to save those who are going to live or those who wish to try to stay alive (Friend, 2011). Friends and Family have an opportunity to say their good byes. Also, their organs can be kept in order to help save others. Patients feel they have a selection, and may not be compelled to try other techniques to reduce their agony. The negatives comprise that numerous feel doctor assisted suicide goes against the physicians' Hippocratic Oath.

It also goes against a lot of religious beliefs. Research mentions that patients could give up on life to early. Doctors at times can abuse the procedure. Insurance companies and government could put unwarranted…. [read more]

Ethics Abe and Mary Essay

… Some people believe that knowing negating information about one's health will only make them more ill. In some instances this is the reason why patients do not want to know their prognosis. Not having information about ones prognosis can also hinder people from getting the proper medical attention, which can be a major problem and reduce life expectancy.

In both case the family member had reservations about truth telling because they feared that doing so would be harmful to the patient. The physicians on the other hand had a duty to tell the patients the truth because doing so is of benefit to the patients. In some cases this beneficence that doctors have a duty to honor is in conflict with what family members might…. [read more]

Active Euthanasia With Parental Consent Case Study

… Active Euthanasia With Parental Consent

Active euthanasia has been debated for at least the last twenty years and has even been accepted in some states as legal under certain parameters, yet exceptions have always been made for any individual who cannot give informed consent by reason of age or mental state. The laws as they are written specifically exclude children and people who are deemed unfit to make clear decisions, children because they are thought of as to mentally and emotionally inexperienced to make life or death decisions and any individual who is to mentally impaired to follow the protocol of the law because they cannot be said to be competent to do so. The Oregon Death with Dignity act is the first of its…. [read more]

Administrative Assistant to the CEO Term Paper

… Chris should work hard to establish a positive and open relationship with these people, because he/she also needs to talk to the individuals who make legal, ethical and fiscal decisions at a more basic level as well. he/she does not want anyone in this process to think that he/she came into his new position to reduce staff, cut budgets, or to implement any other highly negative plan.

He/she should write memos to the participants summarizing their discussions in neutral or positive terms to make absolutely sure he/she understands the view of the people he/she interviewed. If possible, since Chris is so new to the position of Administrative Assistant to the CEO, he/she should deliver these summaries in person also. Since no real policy is in…. [read more]

Let it Pour Term Paper

… ¶ … Pour

Let it Pour

General presentation of the case describing the overall situation

The case study presents the following scenario: the religious hospital in question is being pressured both by the board of directors and the media to reduce the amount of physician assisted deaths of elderly patients and the deaths of children whose parents do not wish to prolong their critically ill children's lives. The media has portrayed this as a situation of "medical errors," but really the hospital's ethical code of conflict is in question. The patients do not wish to prolong their lives, and their health care providers do not wish them to force them to continue to live a painful existence. On one hand, this seems like an equitable…. [read more]

Denial in the Death Research Paper

… All these are end of life concerns which can only be dealt with if the patient knows about his impending death.

In some cultures talking about death or planning things according to person's death are considered unethical and often regarded as welcoming death. Other end of life concerns are related to decisions about the treatment and care possibilities which cannot be made without open communication with the family and the patient.

Literature Review Of Current Research

Learning to cope with the losses and needs in the context of terminal illness, it becomes a challenge for the patient, for family and health professionals.

Communication Between Doctor And Patient

Numerous studies have shown that patients often think about the treatment they would receive if they were terminally…. [read more]

Overcoming Decision Making Conflicts in Palliative Care Research Paper

… Ethical Analysis: Strategy for Palliative Care

The alternatives that are available today to take care of dying patients are numerous. These alternatives have increased as technology has evolved. Ethical dilemmas arise when one is faced with the decision of the best possible care for a patient who is dying. One of these decisions is on sustaining a patient's life through machines or terminating it through the switching off of the life supporting machines. These are decisions that create ethical dilemmas for all who are involved. Unlike in the past, when death could easily be defined as the cessation of life, today, things are different. This is because in today's world, there exist machines that can sustain the functions of various organs such as the lungs…. [read more]

Ethical and Legal Perspectives in Health Care Case Study

… Health Care

How would you resolve this dilemma?

If I was present in this case, I would work to convince the mother about how futile this ventilator support really is. Being a mother, the woman surely doesn't want anything to happen to her child. It only seems necessary to try to explain the congenital abnormality to the mother and to show her no amount of ventilator support or treatment will fix her daughter. Despite the court proceedings, I would remove the baby from the ventilator. Surely, at that time there would be more cases in the hospital that would require the use of ventilators. Regardless of how big the hospital is, the resources are bound to be scarce at one time or another.

Studies have…. [read more]

Medical Futility in Nursing Care Essay

… They name four major principles of common morality as autonomy, nonmalficence, beneficence, and justice. These principles derive from accumulated moral insight. Respect for autonomy refers to the impact of an action on an individual autonomy and the consent of all relevant parties. Beneficence determines who benefits from the action and in what way. Non-maleficence assures that no one gets harmed by the action or minimizes it. If it has to be done, the risks are communicated openly and truthfully. It also insured that possible harm can be averted. And justice identifies the vulnerable groups likely to be affected by the action. It also determines if the action will be equitable. These four principles need to be balanced before the optimal decision is reached. The needs…. [read more]

Coping With Disease and Death Term Paper

… ¶ … Disease and death [...] grieving process in patients and loved ones, and the stresses of dealing with dying patients in the clinical setting. Death is inevitable, but it is still one of the most feared and misunderstood aspects of our culture and society. Grieving is a natural result of death, but it is also misunderstood and even frowned upon in some cultures. There are many different aspects of the grieving process, and it is imperative that healthcare professionals understand the stresses, reactions, and grief so they can care for and understand terminally ill patients and their families. A healthcare professional that does not understand or empathize with patients and family cannot give the full measure of care needed in these situations.

The five…. [read more]

Advance Directives Family Changing Term Paper

… Ethics and Advance Directives

Ethics of Changing Advance Directives

Adults have the right and obligation to make decisions concerning their final days in advance. Whether or not to decline life support if death is imminent, or if a coma state becomes permanent is usually an ethical opinion which has already been formed and the adult who makes a directive concerning their own life under those conditions may make this action permanent by creating a living will or a previously prepared power of attorney, or directive which appoints a health care representative which the doctor may ask the patient to prepare in advance and keeps in the patient's file. It is the view of the writer of this paper that a person's advance directive should be…. [read more]

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