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Ethical-Legal Nursing Discussions Research Paper

… Communication must be repeatedly absorbed on moral distress instead of expanding into more general self-exploration; the tradeoff cannot be permitted to go beyond limits that stop relaxed working together between sessions. Also, the individual cannot be a member of the administrative chain of command and must have an honest understanding of the issue. The individual should aid to expand viewpoints and expand doctor-nurse associations. The person must be aware of the continuing condition and, in that way, be able to spot sources and emblems of sudden rises in stress, which may specify moral distress. At the present time, countless hospitals use a comparable concept, known as "Moral Distress Consult Service," where the adviser performs in much the same style as a "Liaison Psychiatrist."

Recommendation 2:…. [read more]

Genetic Disease Term Paper

… The physician must do all in their power to make sure he has the best interest for the baby and the mother. The doctor is put in the position where he has to weigh all of the benefits and risks and assistances. If morbidity and mortality to the baby or mother occurs then it is probably doubtful the doctor is indebted to endorse whatever procedures will be essential. The parents of the baby will have to be well knowledgeable. If the doctor has this belief that the parent's choice in not accepting treatment is in ineffective, they at that point then have the right to get some kind of legal action and then have the courts give some kind of order for the parents which…. [read more]

Genetic Disease Diagnosis, Screening, Treatment Essay

… This will be a very hard situation for these parents because the child will likely be born appearing very healthy only to digress around three to six months of age and to being to display symptoms and signs of Tay-Sachs disease. This will be particularly hard on the father who is in denial about the validity of the testing that has been conducted for Tay-Sachs disease. Each of these parents should receive pre-birth and post-birth counseling to ensure that they understand fully that they have not done anything or failed to do anything that resulted in the unborn child having Tay-Sachs disease. Legal and ethical implications of the parent's decision to go ahead with the pregnancy include a loss of privacy about being carriers of…. [read more]

Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing Essay

… Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing

Throughout the years, genetic testing has been extensively used in: treating medical disorders and identifying the risks brought on by a particular disease. Also known as DNA-based tests, it consists of techniques that are utilized in: determining genetic disorders and examining the DNA of a patient (Sequeiros & Guimaraes, 2008).

As a result, this kind of testing mostly involved carrier screenings. This is when it determines individuals who have certain genetic traits for: a disorder or disease that could be transmitted when paired with another gene. Moreover, it is used in: newborn screenings, prenatal diagnostic tests, forensic tests, and presymptomatic tests. The test involves the use: laboratory techniques that examine one's genes. This identifies the increased risks of health-related problems…. [read more]

Ethics Analysis of Genetic Engineering Essay

… In another, polar bears were submerged in a tank of crude oil and salt water to see if they would live. And, for those experiments that do have merit, there are many non-animal alternatives. The ASPCA states that "It is only out of sheer habit or ease that scientists continue to inflict pain on animals when, in fact, alternatives exist" ( The moral task of science is to discover the alternatives where they do not exist.

Some experts would say that no key human health issues have come about in connection with genetically modified organisms, which have been expended by important numbers of U.S. buyers. As with environmental effects, only intense effects that are easily linked to engineered foods would probably have been perceived. For…. [read more]

Prenatal Testing for Many People Term Paper

… Related to this, individuals can avail of carrier testing, to assess their risks of bearing a child with genetic anomalies or recessive conditions (Anderson 129). The idea is to give individuals a chance to make informed choices. Among the choices are whether or not to seek early treatment. In cases with no treatment options, parents can also make an informed choice regarding the termination of a pregnancy.

Because of these choices, it could be argued that the current expensive procedures like amniocentesis and other forms of prenatal testing may place lower-income parents at a disadvantage. Those who cannot afford prenatal screenings do not have the option of early, in-utero surgery to treat birth defects such as cardiac anomalies. After all, there are already surgical techniques…. [read more]

Danville Airlines the Ethical Case Study

… The course of action taken by Danville is not technically legal, as the senior management team argues in the case it is given his role as a pilot protecting the lives of passengers. Even arguing that the law is ambiguous, and that the testing could be done without consent, Danville is still guilty of forever changing the potential for Reiger to earn a living at his profession. This is a clear violation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, and is one of the factors that were taken into account when this law was initially created (Paton, 2008). Even if the testing had been done legally and with the consent of Reiger, the actions taken and the lack of processes in place…. [read more]

Workplace Drug Screening Testing Essay

… This can include drinking large quantities of water or using detox products. Another argument that opponents use is that samples of urine can be utilized by employers for genetic screenings that can be used to identify those with unwanted health issues which might lead to cases of subversive prejudice (Drug Testing, 2007).

A saliva drug screen is one that is used to identify an incidence of materials that have been taken very recently. A saliva drug screen can be carried out at a place of employment, which makes it very convenient. Its echelon of accurateness is typically comparable with that of a urine test. This type of drug screen is often used after an accident has taken place and for determining impairment at a specific…. [read more]

Trosack Family: Dealing With a Pre-Natal Tay-Sachs Term Paper

… Trosack Family: Dealing with a Pre-Natal Tay-Sachs Diagnosis

Rita Trosack has just been referred to a high-risk prenatal clinic because of a prenatal diagnosis. Rita Trosack is 43 years old and is married to Peter Trosack, who is 46 years old. They were both raised Catholic, though neither is practicing. They have been married for six years, trying to conceive for two years, and this is their first pregnancy. Routine CVS screening due to Rita's age revealed that the fetus has Tay-Sachs disease. This diagnosis led to the Trosacks' referral to the clinic. This treatment plan will focus on selecting members of the interdisciplinary team, creating a teaching plan, discussing the ethical implications of genetic information, the practitioners personal reflections, how to advocate for the…. [read more]

Individual Impacts Genetic Diagnosis Assessment

… 17%, respectively). A second study of women followed for 1 year after BRCi testing found that only 1 of 29 (3%) unaffected female carriers had a prophylactic mastectomy within 1 year after receiving genetic test results and 13% had a prophylactic oophorectomy. Sixty-eight percent of carriers reported an annual mammogram at the 1-year follow-up, com- pared with 44% of the noncarriers. Women over 40 were more likely to have had an annual mammogram than women between 25 and 39 years old. Of greater concern was the finding that less than 15% of BRCi carriers had the recommended ovarian cancer screening (Lerman et al., 2002).

Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes of Genetic Testing

Overall, this body of research is consistent in the finding that genetic test results…. [read more]

Human Genome Project Essay

… d., p. 33), almost all diseases have at least some genetic component. Even environmentally caused diseases such as AIDS have genetic components that predispose some human beings to greater morbidity and mortality relating to the condition.

The HGP has been particularly useful in terms of rare genetic diseases. For example, individual single genes have been identified that might contribute to rare genetic conditions without single-handedly causing them. Green has implied that work over the next 15 years will identify the major contributing genes for many common diseases. Genetic contributions to complex diseases will also be identified by whole genome association studies.

According to Carroll and Ciaffa, there are two general categories that may be used to organize the ethical implications of the Human Genome Project:…. [read more]

Coca-Cola Company Term Paper

… Clearly, Coke had no regard for their business relationships, or the financial implications of their fraud, and that says a lot about the ethics and morality of the company and its leaders.

The company clearly should not have paid the $10,000 to create false results, and they clearly should have stopped the product testing when it showed the product was failing. It was unethical to continue, and it had major ramifications for Burger King. The executive used extremely poor judgement, and should have been reprimanded or fired by the company, and they should not have fired the whistleblower, that just made matters worse. Again, they showed they are not really socially committed as they say they are, and that they are willing and ready to…. [read more]

Nursing Ethics Related to Savior Term Paper

… The moral significance of any potential the embryo does have is unclear." (2010, p.1)

It was pointed out in 1988 by John Harris that all living human beings "are potential corpses but that doesn't mean that living persons should be treated as though they were dead. Moreover, because of the possibility that these early-stage embryos may undergo spontaneous fission up until 14 days, it cannot even be said that they represent the beginning of a human life: they equally well might represent the beginning of two or more lives." (Harris, 1998 cited in Sparrow and Cram, 2010, p.1)

Dobson (2003) reports the birth of the first savior sibling in Britain and states that the birth of this child has "…renewed pressure on UK authorities to…. [read more]

Do the Dangers of Genetic Engineering as Applied to Humans Outweigh Its Benefits? Term Paper

… Genetic engineering (GE) has been presented to the public as a way to improve the quality of our lives, enhance agriculture and advance our ability to fight genetic illnesses. The possibilities seem endless, but raise worries as well as optimism (Fricker, 2002). The Human Genome Project, conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services, undertook the task of mapping all human genes their chromosomes (Morse, 1998). This project contributed greatly to the potential for GE in humans, but in fact GE has already been used in agriculture. However, some biologists point out that we call "genetic engineering" has been accomplished for centuries via cross-breeding, and that GE is just a new way of accomplishing something already done in…. [read more]

Autonomy Rights and Medical Information Research Paper

… Autonomy Rights and Medical Information

Children born today have a fifty-fifty chance of living to see their hundredth birthday, and even those who do not reach the century mark will likely live far longer lives than most people today. As more and more people join the ranks of the elderly in the years to come, there will be an inevitable concomitant increase in the amount of healthcare they require. Likewise, innovations in healthcare technology are helping to defeat many diseases that have long plagued humankind. These trends will inevitably create new ethical dilemmas for healthcare practitioners concerning the conditions under which patients and related parties should have control over medical information and decision-making as well as how health care professionals should manage and protect medical…. [read more]

Perfection Genetic Engineering Essay

… The use of genetic engineering to treat diseases or injuries does not raise similar concerns, but as Sandel (2004, p. 335) suggests, honors nature instead by seeking to fulfill our naturally-determined destinies. By limiting genetic engineering efforts to medical conditions we therefore remain within the realm of religious humility. Sandel further suggests that parents must strive for a balance between 'accepting love' and 'transforming love' to prevent becoming apathetic on one hand or engaging in hyperparenting on the other. This sentiment suggests that we should accept ourselves and others as we are, yet still strive for improvement within the limits of accepting love. This same sentiment, when applied to all genetic engineering applications, would force us to accept and respect the limits of our ability…. [read more]

What Information Can Be Learned From Nonhuman Animal Studies Research Paper

… ¶ … Nonhuman Animal Studies?

Animal testing represents an important subject for debate and confrontation between those that support the medical testing on animals especially from the point-of-view of the added value it brings and those that argue the rights of animals as beings with rights and in need of equal treatment as humans. There are numerous arguments suggesting that medical testing on animals has produced results that today are essential for the well-being of the human race such as treatments for HIV / AIDS, cancer, or birth defects. On the other hand, those arguing for the interdiction of animal testing suggest that animals, such as any other being on Earth, have the same rights and status as human beings. These types of arguments however…. [read more]

In Vitro Fertilization Term Paper

… Human Embryo Research

The dilemma becomes even more grotesque and complicated when examples such as that of the Geron Corp. In Menlo Park, California are considered. These laboratories obtain donated human embryos from IVF clinics. [NBAC 1999, Author not available. 2003] They are allowed to develop from a few cells to about a 100 cells for about 12 days and then the human embryonic stem cells that will form the various types of tissue, are harvested to be grown into specific types. These are used for advanced medical research and transplantations. It is justifiable and indeed laudable if we could be sure that all we were dealing with were human cells not the being itself. [NBAC 1999]

Arguments for the continuation of this process are…. [read more]

Genetics Case Study

… Whereas genetic testing performed in a clinical diagnostic laboratory is subject to strict quality control criteria including results that are available in a timely fashion, this often is different for research gene testing, and reports of results may be obtained after months to years or even never. Details of these differences need to be thoroughly explained to the patient before any testing is requested.

Any research protocol on new diagnostic or therapeutic strategies involving human subjects needs approval by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) to assess the benefits and risks associated with the study. These reviews address the ethical principles of human research.


The principle of justice relates to whether an individual is treated fairly and equitably in the context of society.

Discrimination. The…. [read more]

Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment Term Paper

… (Myers 1995) This test was created by David Wechsler and is composed of 11 subtests that report overall intelligence and separate verbal and nonverbal scores. This intelligence test can determine whether or not an individual has a learning disability and it can also show an employer the strengths and weaknesses of an employee. (Myers 1995)

Morris (2002) explains that "The Bell Curve," "continues to propagate the notion in the academy and popular culture that a major reason African-Americans do not achieve in schools might be more connected to rank-and-file notions of African-Americans' innate intellectual inferiority, than to persistent, concrete structural and historic forces." (Morris 2002) Morris (2002) contends that the assertions made by Herrnstein and Murray have had profound implications upon gifted education in the…. [read more]

Technology Has Revolutionized Society: Communication Essay

… References

About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database:

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report:

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from:

Kelly, R. (2008, July). What are the Ethical Issues Surrounding Personzlied Medicine? Retrieved from Let's Get Personal: / what_are_the_ethical_issues_in.php

Lea, D. (2009). Basic Genetics and Genomics: A Primer for Nurses. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 14 (2): Retrieved from:

Lea, D., et al. (2011). Implications for educating the next generation of nurses on genetics and genomics in the 21st century. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(1),…. [read more]

Bonnie Steinbock Down's Syndrome Ethically Essay

… Pregnancy genetic testing allows a woman to either terminate pregnancy or continue with it, rather than limits her choice. And not all women found to be with an offspring with a disability will automatically opt to terminate pregnancy.


Disabilities are not a neutral form of variation but a real disadvantage that no one truly wants and wishes can be prevented. They are not only socially constructed and are thus morally right to prevent. Prenatal testing allows a woman to choose from two alternatives rather than limits her to one. And there is no reason to choose between allowing her to keep a defective offspring and preventing it through prenatal testing. Therefore, Bonnie Steinbock correctly argues that the practice of screening for moderate disabilities such…. [read more]

Patent Law and Genetic Medicine Term Paper

… Human Stem Cell Medical - Legal Implications

How Do Legal Issues in Patent Law Shape Ethical Decision in Human Stem Cell Research?

Patent Law & Genetic Medicine

This work examines the issue of human stem cell research from the view of the medical profession with an eye on funding, the public perspective and legislation historically affecting and futuristically possible in relation to research of the human genome. Specifically this work takes a look a the patenting process and how it is disputable as to whether patenting the human genome is plausible and what consequences might exist in this patents. This work notes the veritable quietness of the legal community at large in relation to this medical research issue and while this document is of the…. [read more]

Healthcare -- Administration and Legal Term Paper

… Proponents of patenting for genetic tests assert that isolated DNA molecules are products of human ingenuity thereby eligible for the patents that protect not only the product, but also the process used to make the product. The ACLU argues that human DNA is a natural entity and cannot, therefore, belong to any one company anymore than air or water could.

The impact of technology on medical ethics. The phenomenal growth in technological developments and scientific research impacts the health and well-being of individual people and on the ways in which medical and healthcare services are provided. The rapid pace of technological change enables truly "disruptive" breakthroughs that set off cultural, economic, political, and social reactions to innovations (Hogle, et al., 2012). For example, technologies such…. [read more]

Cheap Genomic Sequencing Research Paper

… Thus, at the same time that personalized genetic information will help to redefine certain categories of "disabled," it will ultimately force society to deal not only with standards regarding who controls personal genetic information, but what those individuals actually do with said information. This is a crucial subject for discussion, because it has bearing not on those who may suffer from a genetic predisposition towards a certain illness, but also those willing and able to augment their genetic code through therapy and treatment.

Again, while the idea of someone augmenting his or her self by altering his or her genetic code may seem more in the realm of science fiction than reality, in truth the potential for genetic manipulation is well within reach, because although…. [read more]

Risk Management and Analysis Process and Policy Before Technology Research Proposal

… ¶ … released by the FBI and the Computer Security Institute (CSI), over 70% of all attacks on sensitive data and resources reported by organizations occurred from within the organization itself. Implementing an internal security policy appears to be just as important as an external strategy. The objective of this report is to highlight the necessity of internal processes and policy alongside technology when managing and mitigating risk. The author narrates the problems of security from the unseen forces in an individual that influence thought, behavior and personality. Once organizations truly understand the psychology behind the motivations of software engineers and developers, risk analysis and risk management strategies will become more efficient. The research contained in this report establishes that there is some connection between…. [read more]

Human Genome Project Thesis

… Human Genome Project may be the most controversial research project in modern medical or scientific history.

The project began in 1990 at the National Institutes of Health and was headed by James Watson. However, the project was not only a U.S. project, nor was it only a government project. The National Institutes of Health worked with other governmental and private interests, mainly in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain. The most notable of those private companies was Celera Genomics.

The purpose of the project was to map an entire human genome. In addition to human genomes, the project studied E. coli, fruit flies, and lab mice, and sought to map their genomes, as well. Genetic mapping refers to the determination of the sequence of…. [read more]

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