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European Colonization of the Atlantic Coast Term Paper

… ¶ … European Colonization of the Atlantic coast and neighboring lands was a very complicated process which can not be regarded as simply positive or negative. This is a very uneasy historical problem which influenced American history and changed the continent but at the same time it caused numerous casualties of Native American population and ultimately Indian tribes were faced conquerors' discrimination or even true genocide. That was a conflict of two different civilizations, two different societies which could not live in peace together as they wanted to be the only owners of those vast lands. Sure, Native American civilization was not as progressive as Colonists' one but we should remember that Native Americans were not only small migratory groups who hunted wild animals and…. [read more]


Colonization of Africa Research Paper

… Colonization of Africa:

The occupation and control of one nation by another is defined as colonialism. Various European countries have colonized many areas of the world including North and South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the small islands around the world. Africa was colonized by different European nations between the late 19th century and late 20th century. Prior to the colonization, Europeans had had contact with Africa for long such as through the Atlantic Slave Trade. It was not until the late 19th century that they imposed a formal rule of law over Africa. Regardless of their ideologies, and administrative systems, most of the colonial states justified themselves in the name of civilization and pacification ("Colonialism" par, 3).

In Europe, the 19th century was a…. [read more]


Political Framework of EU Thesis

… As a result, European nations looked forward to developing nations such as Asia, Africa and South America for the purchase of these necessities. For developing nations this was an opportunity to become known as suppliers of grist, therefore, they were willing to enter into this trade agreement. However, what European Leaders wanted was more than a simple trade agreement; their aim was to enforce their rules on these nations, making them colonies of the infinite European empire. Therefore, they entered into the agreement after setting out a lot of rules for the dependent nations to follow. As time passed by, these rules made the European leaders indirectly administer the nation, thus the nations became a part of European empire. History reveals that the imperialism is…. [read more]


French Colonization: The Eurocentric Perspective Term Paper

… Political slavery became indistinguishable from cultural slavery. Defeated people in colonies looked up to copy the dress of their masters, the language and the ways of their victor. They wanted to behave as their masters after receiving their form of education. Thus, when this colonial master left these countries, they created a class of aristocrats who would act like their master and continue to oppress the real people of those countries" (Athar, Reflections of an American Muslim). Nevertheless, this notion has been clearly opposed by the Eurocentric historians as is obvious from the following quote wherein Peckham justifies the looting of wealth and depriving the colonies of something that fully belonged to and owned by them, "if in respect of all the commodities they can…. [read more]


Population and Urbanization Essay

… The historical evidences reveal that the urban growth in Brazil is an amalgamation of the economic, social, political and demographic transformations that have been experienced by the country especially in the 19th century. Currently, Brazil is going through its late stages of the urban transition if seen from a demographic angle. However, it is still experiencing a momentous urban growth, particularly on the side-lines of its larger cities. In the past too, these areas underwent a traditional distortion at the hands of the poor. The Brazilians, however, have ignored the lessons derived from the previous experiences and the cities are still suffering from "preventable social and environmental ills that are especially prevalent among the poorer segments of the population" (Martine & McGranahan, 2010).

To cut…. [read more]


Slave Trade: Europe and Africa Before/After 1550 Essay

… ¶ … Slave Trade in and Between Europe and Africa Before and After 1550

The objective of this work is to answer the questions of: (1) 'How was the slave trade practiced in Europe and Africa before 1550, in comparison to the slave trade in and between the two regions after 1550?' And (2) 'What were the main differences between the two periods in terms of their origins, motivations and effects on African society?' Toward this end, this work will conduct a review of literature in this area of study which is to follow.

Slave Trade Prior to 1550

Economic relations existed between Europe and Africa from the time of the landing of the Portuguese and in 1441 it is reported that ten Africans were…. [read more]


Visions New Lands? Old Ideas Term Paper

… Sickness and ill fortune are visible signs of the presence of evil spirits. The spirits must be exorcised by carefully repeated rites. One mistake in a ritual, and the entire spell is ruined. Such attention to detail speaks to a much more closely regulated society. The categorizing of spirits as either good or evil is indicative of a world with clear boundaries. There are limits to man's conduct, rules that even the gods must follow. Transgression of these rules is wrong. Morality has found a place in the natural world.

And as if to carry the ethical theme even further, the Iroquois creation myth revolves almost entirely around the setting of boundaries. The Maiden is conceived through an illicit relationship. Her father's demise teaches the…. [read more]


Native Societies and Disease Essay

… Marie, Detroit and around Lake Superior. In 1669-70, a smallpox epidemic "spread from New France to sault Ste. Marie on Lake Superior," originally brought to the colony from a ship that landed in Quebec. Aboriginal peoples regularly gathered in this city during the warm weather months, and they brought the disease back with them. It destroyed 90% or more of the population around Tadoucsac, Isle Verte and the Gaspe region, then spread north along the Rupert River.[footnoteRef:18] Smallpox also "devastated the Attikameque living up the St. Lawrence near Trois Rivieres," so much so that they were forced to abandon their town.[footnoteRef:19] This epidemic continued its work at least up to 1679, with European traders and missionaries reporting outbreaks and starvation throughout the north and west.…. [read more]


Spain's Missionary Efforts in North American on Public Policy Towards Volatile Movements Term Paper

… Skills in weaving were needed to assist the Indians. They also were skilled in carpentry which was done under the direction of the craftsmen who was hired by the Spanish missionaries.

In the closing managing area of the mission, most of the time, Native Americans were expected to grow in their Christianity and also learn economics and political practices until they no longer need a special mission status. In Texas, the Catholic mission system was not that strong when it came to politics. It was not strong enough to protect the Native Americans against the growing power ranchers and other in the area. It also did not protect them against certain business interest that were seeking control over Spanish missions. Basically the Spanish missionaries system…. [read more]


Colonial Settlement the Lasting Impact Term Paper

… It was considered to have broken out in an empire that had comparatively granted the colonies larger measures and amounts of political, religious and economic freedom. The inclination towards revolt measures arose out of the desire to have even more freedom and liberty than they already had. The American Revolution was considered as a unique one. USA is considered to be one among the few states in the world that has seen only one revolution. Contrary to many great revolutions the American War of Independence is seen to have succeeded in achieving its goal of fostering men with more liberty than they had previously possessed. Some scholars however, do not regard the American Revolution as a revolution since it does not accommodate their narrow model.…. [read more]


Ponce De Leon Term Paper

… ¶ … Dreams and the Legacy of Ponce de Leon

Juan Ponce de Leon lived during a pivotal time in human history. European explorers and adventurers were discovering a new world in the Americas. In the wake of Columbus' voyages, Spanish conquistadores set out in search of treasures in gold, silver, and other precious commodities. The cultures of the Old World clashed with those of the new. The changes wrought resulted in the deaths of untold millions of Native Americans, the destruction of their civilizations, and the implanting of European ideas and concepts in the lands claimed by Spanish and other colonists. Christianity largely replaced Native religions, and Spanish - and later other European tongues - became the primary language throughout much of North and…. [read more]


Age of Discovery Term Paper

… ¶ … Age of Discovery:

The so-called "Age of Discovery" occurred between 1450 and 1650, roughly beginning during the early years of the Renaissance Period in Europe and ending with the "Age of Reason." During this two hundred year span, European explorers from countries like Great Britain, Spain, France and Portugal extensively traveled to the "New World" or North America in search of new trades routes that might lead them to vast resources of gold, silver and spices for the ever-expanding economies of their native countries.

One of the most famous of these explorers was Christopher Columbus who with the financial assistance of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492 to "discover" the Americas. Currently, there is much…. [read more]


Civil Rights Movement in America the Struggle Term Paper

… Civil Rights Movement in America

The struggle for the Civil Rights of the African-Americans have their roots in the slave trade era and the resulting pressure to let go the slaves in the southern states increasing every passing year during the emancipation of slaves period. The movement can be traced to as early as 1800 when Absalom Jones and several other blacks living in Philadelphia petitioned Congress against the notion of enslavement and slave trade and challenging the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793.

The heat for recognition of civil rights took centre stage with the Court ruling that the Civil Rights Act of 1875 which sought to give "all full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on…. [read more]


Portugal 16th Century to Present Essay

… The Portuguese did not begin their history as a republic peacefully or quietly.

The early years of the republic are violent, with sudden swings between rival groups and the assassination from time to time of leading politicians - particularly after 1918. (The nation joins the allied side in World War I, sending troops to fight in Africa and on the western front in Europe.) An increasingly unstable situation during the 1920s is followed by a military coup, in 1926, which plunges Portugal into a long period of right-wing dictatorship. (HistoryWorld, 2012)

These changes affected how the world saw Portugal and changed how Portuguese viewed themselves. Many Portuguese people began departing from Portugal in the 19th and 20th centuries to live elsewhere, primarily the United States,…. [read more]


Voltaire, Enlightenment, & European Expansion Essay

… Critiques of Voltaire’s work sometimes draw from the principle of sufficient reason put forth by Leibniz that argues that nothing in the universe can be without there being reason enough for its existence. The principle, therefore, argues that the state of the world is the best state possible (Adams, 2019).

The Satire of Candide on European Enlightenment


Voltaire made arguments against the principle of sufficient reason that argued that things happened in the world for a reason or because it was the will of God that things be so. In the case of the destructive Lisbon earthquake, Voltaire argued that no one, including God, would be okay with the resulting deaths and destruction or will such destruction to serve a higher purpose. The novella concludes…. [read more]


Western Sahara Conflict Research Proposal

… Western Sahara Conflict

In the early years of civilization in the Western Saharan regions, civilizations used trade and exchange of services as a means by which to maintain the peace, and to meet the economic and social needs of their expanding civilizations. The Western Sahara was, then, and is today rich in minerals and other resources, not the least of which is oil. For the past thirty years, there has not bee peace in the region, largely because of the natural resources that are worth billions of dollars. The aid that has been sent to the region to assist those people of all nationalities who have become caught up in the violence and greed of the area's leaders, has been embezzled, and it is one…. [read more]


Middle School Grades Social Studies Curriculum Term Paper

… Middle School Social Studies

Sixth Grade:

The sixth grade social studies program emphasizes the interdependence of all people in the Eastern Hemisphere. The lessons and activities for this grade level draw specific examples of nations and regions of the Eastern Hemisphere selected by the district. It is highly recommended the lessons also compare and contrast to this specific information with similar information from the United States, Canada, and Latin America.

The sixth grade program focuses on a sixth grade social science perspective with emphasis on the interaction of geography and economics. The core disciplines of geography and economics are used and developed to draw relationships and understanding in social/culture, political, and historic aspects of life in the Eastern

Hemisphere. Focus should be on turning points…. [read more]


International Development Studies Economic Development and Culture Change Term Paper

… International Development Studies: Economic Development & Culture Change

According to Sen, democracy is associated with the freedom of thought and action and, deriving from this, the freedom of the individual, political freedom, freedom of the press etc. In this sense, this concept of freedom (individual, political etc.) also infringes on the concept of economic development because a free economic agent will find it more motivating to commit himself to entrepreneurship etc. In this sense, entrepreneurship has always been considered as the engine of economic growth and development, so, in this sense, democracy, supporting freedom, also supports economic freedom and economic development.

The U.S. is obviously the best example of the impact of democracy on economic growth. U.S. democracy has constantly encouraged individual freedom and this…. [read more]


Education in America the Seventeenth Term Paper

… They actively supported the efforts of their leaders in order to establish "a city on a hill" or a "holy experiment," whose feat would show that God's plan for his churches could be realized effectively in the American wilderness. Entrepreneurs who considered themselves "militant Protestants" and worked carefully to promote the success of the church led colonies such as Virginia to plan for commercial ventures as well as for better religious and scientific education 5.

Settlers of the New England in northern and Southern colonies were often rough and even sometimes rude, but they were conscious and fully aware of a dogma of 3. Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. America as a Religious Refuge: The Seventeenth Century

5. Edward J. Power. Religion…. [read more]


History of the Native American Essay

… When Spain began colonizing in the New World they found well established and sophisticated cultures in the form of the Incas, Aztecs, and Mayans. These cultures provided far more resistance than that offered by the Native Indians encountered by the French and British and the Spanish were forced to exercise their military power in order to maintain control of the area.

Another difference between the colonization efforts of the Spanish and those of France and England was that the Spanish never made any wholesale effort to establish new colonies in the New World populated by Spanish citizens. Spain never attempted to establish new settlements. Instead, the Spanish viewed their mission as one of conversion and saving the Native Indians and of stripping the area of…. [read more]


Illegal Immigrants in the U.S Term Paper

… ¶ … illegal immigrants in the U.S. And the possibility of legalizing their status. The article shows: how illegal immigration is currently being dealt with, the views of people on the issue and the flexibility being exhibited by the government. The author makes it clear that while illegal immigration has always been a problem for the country and most people feel country must be protected against such immigration, still illegal entrance into the U.S. should not be criminalized. Very few, if any, percentage of people interviewed supported felony status, the rest felt that while it was not correct to let illegal immigration prosper, there was also no particular need for categorized it as a crime or serious offence.

Illegal immigration is a problem, which the…. [read more]


Manifest Destiny in the Past and Present Term Paper

… Manifest Destiny in the Past and Present

There once was a time when the United States was very different from how it is like today -- once, it was smaller than Massachusetts Bay. Once, Hawaii and Guam were not part of America, and once, America was isolationist, contained within its own boundaries. America, as the world sees it today, expands over a vast portion of a continent, extended to other lands across the seas. It is a world power crucial to the world today. The force that enabled such development of America was the idea of manifest destiny, which endured a series of transformations in order to promote the expansion of both American culture, and political power. The concept of manifest destiny, although not as…. [read more]


Muhammad Ali in Egypt Thesis

… But they took away, for five centuries, the possibility of an independent Arab-dom, and Arab nationalists bore them considerable ill-will for it[footnoteRef:13]. The only 'Arab' state conquered by the Turks which was not in irremediable decay, was the Mamluk state of Egypt and Syria[footnoteRef:14]. The Mamluks themselves were a dynasty of Turkish slaves; and in any case they afterwards succeeded, as did all the North African provinces, in enjoying internal autonomy under Ottoman suzerainty. The claim that the caliphate had been transmitted to the Ottoman sultans was made only late in the history of the Empire. It was as Turkish rulers that they held their power, and only secondarily (if at all) as vice-regents of the Prophet. They preserved and even sharpened the distinction between…. [read more]


Britain, Australia Term Paper

… In 1785 the Parliamentary Committee enquiring into the Transportation Act of 1784 commented, with reference to transportation to America, that "the old system of Transporting to America, answered every good Purpose which could be expected from it - That it tended directly to reclaim the Objects on which it was inflicted, and to render them good Citizens... That the Colonies seem to have been sensible of the beneficial Consequences of this Practice." In the case of the Australian penal colonies drawing workers from the ranks of the convicts was not only a matter of policy, it was also a necessity, given that no other suitable workforce existed:

Governor Phillip [the first governor of Botany Bay] accordingly had to find all his overseers from among the…. [read more]


Politics 1400's to Mid 1800 Term Paper

… American Political Development

America's political system evolved greatly from its original days as
a continent inhabited by Native Americans. It witnessed incredible growth
politically that worked to separate it from either a wilderness, a colony,
or a new nation to become a political power that suffered some struggles
and underwent many changes, but ultimately kept growing. America's
political development in its early years can largely be attributed to the
forces that led to its creation- the European powers that invested their
resources into colonization. Most important was England, to whom the
colonies owed their early allegiance and the organization of the colonies.
The colonies developed, however, separate of England, and egalitarian ideas
were prominent and after the Revolution, although the colonies owed much of
their…. [read more]


Slavery in America Essay

… The sellers were required to disclose any known defects (as well as defects they were not aware of at the time of the sale), and they were bound "by explicit contractual language" (Wahl, 5).

This illustration from www.infographics.com

(Google images) shows a group of slaves being offered to buyers. The laws in two particular states regarding the sale of slaves stand out as unique in this milieu. In South Carolina the pro-buyer policy presumed that "any slave sold at full price was sound" (Wahl, 5). In Louisiana if a purchased slave turned out to be diseased or who committed a crime, the buyer could "generate a lawsuit" (Wahl, 5).

What was the southern argument for slavery?

Defenders of slavery argued that if slavery ended, it…. [read more]


Conflicts and Amity of the Algonquian Indians and Settlers Thesis

… ¶ … conflict and amity of the Algonquian Indians and the incoming settlers. The Algonquian Indians were one of the most numerous tribes of Indians living in North America before English settlers began arriving. They lived from Virginia northward into Canada and westward to the Rocky Mountains. A history Web site notes, "The term 'Algonquian' refers to 'A place for spearing fishes and eels.' Because Northern weather patterns made growing food difficult, the Algonquian moved their families from place to fish, hunt, trap, and gather roots, seeds, wild rice, and berries" (Editors). The Algonquians were the Native Americans the first English settlers at Jamestown, Virginia encountered, and this encounter would begin to change the Indians' lives forever.

The chief of the Virginia Algonquians was Powhatan,…. [read more]

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