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Evolution of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 Case Study

… The office of COPS needed to monitor a number of things. First, that in line with the requirements of grant allocation, police departments retained the new officers hired under the '100,000 Cops' initiative even after the lapse of the three-year period of federal funding (Marion & Oliver, 2012). Secondly, that the beneficiary police departments only used the grants for officers hired under the initiative (Marion & Oliver, 2012). This was probably the greatest failure of the COPS office if the numbers of agencies purported to have adjusted their budgets so as to paint a false picture of having hired new officers is anything to go by (Marion & Oliver, 2012).

Moreover, the COPS office failed to consider the rates of crime in an area, and…. [read more]

Crime in Chicago Research Proposal

… Crime in Chiccago

Organized Crime in Chicago

Starting with the middle of the twentieth century, the city of Chicago has been confronted with increasing criminality rates. The efforts of the police department have materialized in some control over the situations, but drastic improvements have yet to be achieved. In the month from February 27, 2009 to March 29, 2009, 32,554 crimes were registered in Chicago, with a peak on the 6th of March, when 1,258 crimes were committed in a single day. 36% of all crimes refer to battery and theft, followed by criminal damage and narcotics with 12, respectively 10%. In terms of the place where they occur, 25% of the crimes take place in the street, followed by residential areas with 18%, apartments…. [read more]

Police Intelligence: Rapidly Changing Research Paper

… [2: There is some disagreement about what the acronym "Compstat" actually means. Former NYPD police commissioner William Bratton suggests that it stands for "computer-statistics meetings" (Bratton 1998, 233), but Silverman attributes the term to "Compare Stats" -- a computer filename (Silverman 1999, 98). Some commentators have collapsed these meanings and argue that Compstat refers to "computer comparison statistics" (Willis, Mastrofski & Weisburd, 2003)]

This latest model of policing has become known as intelligence-led policing and it focuses on intelligence gathering and analysis of data in determining police objectives and resource allocation. Originally, it was meant to spotlight criminal activity, focusing on active and repeat offenders by using informants, interviews, analysis of calls for service, and community information (Ratcliffe, 2008). This focus has evolved into a…. [read more]

Do Human Rights Following a Cultural Relativism Approach Depend on International Regimes for Their Implementation? Term Paper

… Enforcement of Non-Universal Human Rights

There are some practices that are so abhorrent and degrading that they simply cannot be justified -- ever.

Genocide will never be successfully defended with a human rights argument.

Rape cannot be justified on free-speech grounds"

Sullivan 2006 ¶ 17).

Contemporary Human Rights Considerations

Throughout history, the outcry, "Never again!" against despicable human rights violations echoes, may reflect well-meaning intentions, however, in reality, frequently constitutes words without power. In the journal article, "The protection of human rights under international law: will the U.N. Human Rights Council and the emerging new norm "responsibility to protect" make a difference?," Ved P. Nanda (2007) recounts historical accounts that he contends have contributed to positive changes relating to the international community's focus regarding global…. [read more]

Gang Programs: Understanding Gang Growth and Membership Characteristics Term Paper


Gang Growth and Membership, Characteristics of Gang Members, Gang Programs

Current Status, Historical Growth, and Projected Trends of Gangs

Current Research on Gang Formation and its Implications

Identification and Classification of Types of Gangs and their Influence

Street Gangs

Prison Gangs

Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs

Juvenile Gangs

Hispanic Gangs

Asian gangs

Internationally Gangs

Assessment of Programs Policies to Respond to Gang Activities

Primary Prevention Program

Secondary prevention

Tertiary Prevention Program

Synthesizing Relevant Issues in Gang Formation and Recommendations




Fundamental objective of this project is to explore the gang growth and membership, characteristics of gang members, and gang programs. The research explores the history of gangs, gang classifications and various programs used to address…. [read more]

Develop an Affirmative Program Designed to Reduce Citizens Complaints Essay

… Reducing Citizen Complaints

A growing body of evidence suggests that in any police department a small percentage of officers are responsible for a disproportionate share of citizen complaints. Develop an affirmative action program designed to reduce citizen complaints. Discuss affirmative steps that a department may take to train and monitor officers' conduct that tend to produce citizen complaints. Include discussions on the legal and personnel implications of your proposed program.

Psychologists have proven that it is often a part of human nature that when humans are given more authority, sometimes they act excessively with that authority and go beyond the normal, accepted morality of a situation to become more brutal and violent. Witness many rather mild-mannered German officials who, during the advent of Nazism, became…. [read more]

Community Policing Is, in Essence, Collaboration Research Paper

… Community policing is, in essence, collaboration between the police and the community that identifies and solves community problems (Monograph, 1994). The fact of the matter is that the spread of populations and communities across large territories makes it very difficult for the police authorities to have complete and thorough control over all the law and order conditions. This is where the community cooperation comes in as they act as the allies of the police authorities where the control of the police authorities seems to thin out. This cooperation helps in ensuring that quality and security of life in the neighborhood remains on par. This can have numerous effects on the community as well as the police responsibilities (Mastrofski et al., 1998).

"The expanded outlook on…. [read more]

Challenges in Approaching and Dividing Responsibilities in the Post Cold War Era Term Paper

… International Relations

Challenges in Approaching and Dividing Responsibilities in the Post-Cold War Era

What challenges to outside actors (states, coalitions of states of international institutions) most often face in attempting to strike a reasonable balance between punitive and reconciliatory measures in the nation/state-building processes that have become the rule rather than the exception following inter- and intra-state conflicts in the post-Cold War era?

During the Milosevic international war crimes tribunal trial in the Hague in 2002, world leaders, particularly in the United States, turned their faces away, since they had been supportive of Slobodan Milosevic, the former Yugoslavian Head of State, as he was charged with committing crimes against humanity and genocide in Bosnia and Croatia. They say they simply "see the Milosevic case primarily…. [read more]

Assessment for Training of the Metropolitan Police Department Term Paper

… ¶ … Training of the Metropolitan Police Department

Context of the Problem

Brief History of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Area Police/

Community Relations since World War II

Major Problems Preventing Positive Relations between Communities and District of Columbia

Metropolitan Area Police Force

Can Training Programs Enhance Community

Relations for the District of Columbia Metropolitan

Area Police Force?

What Training Modules Can be Used to Enhance Relations between Surrounding Communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan Area Police


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations



Context of the Problem

The issue of poor training has weighed heavily on the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department over the last few years. This issue hinders the necessary trust and…. [read more]

Police Reform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil Thesis

… 2) This particular research will also be of immense help for policy formulators in metropolitan police departments and in police departments of small vicinities, in making effectual judgment regarding relevant development.

3) The material along with the conclusion of this particular study will certainly enhance and modernize the methodologies of the investigations linked to job performance and challenges related to police development in Brazil.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Section 1: Police and Crime in Brazil

Since the last ten years the focus of the Brazilian establishment concerning the protection of the civil society has been on the conglomeration out of three immense spectrums: (a) the police department, essential constituent of numerous problems and possibly the recurrent performer in every region of urban space; (b) violent…. [read more]

How Bosnians Assimilated into St. Louis Society Dissertation

… [15: Krogstad & Radford (2017), p. 3.]

Figure 3. Percentages of Americans supporting refugee acceptance: 1958-1999

Source: Pew Research Center, 2017

It is reasonable to posit that the American general public’s acceptance levels for refugees, even from Islamic countries, would be far higher if more people knew about the significant successes that have been experienced by the Bosnian refugee community in St. Louis. For instance, Bhaba and Mirga emphasize that:

Although the U.S. reaction to developments in the Czech Republic provides an interesting case study regarding the evolution of U.S. policy and the relationship between U.S. and European approaches, the Balkans would provide multiple additional and equally illuminating chapters. The U.S. role in Dayton or…. [read more]

Moral Legal Political and Practical Dimensions of Assassination Term Paper

… Moral, Legal, Political, And Practical Dimensions of Assassination

Political assassination is a very old and hard to tackle problem, which caused innumerable victims throughout history. Due to the many forms of political violence and murder which exist, it is very hard to define and to categorize as an act. The variety of motives and causes of political assassinations also make classification difficult. It is generally supposed that the most common motive is the struggle for political power between different opponents. In this case, the target of the assassination is usually a very powerful or influential individual, who hold a very important political position: a king in the older times or a president in the more recent periods. However, political assassinations happen for many other reasons…. [read more]

Edwin Sutherland's Differential Association Theory Term Paper

… Edwin Sutherland's Differential Association Theory

The problem of drug trafficking in America today is indeed an enormous one, with severe repercussions and ramifications for the future of the entire country. When the retired General Barry McCaffrey, the Director of the White House's Office of drug Control Policy was on an official visit to Peru, Peru was in the midst of a long string of scandals that were having an adverse impact on the Peruvian administration. Facts and figures revealed that there had been discovered a shipment of about one hundred and seventy kilograms of the drug cocaine, on board the air force plane that Fujimori, the President of Peru normally used on his travels to and from his country. Soon afterwards, about forty-five kilograms of…. [read more]

Africa and UN System Term Paper

… Africa and UN system

The United Nations is the result of the universal aspiration for peace and cooperation at the global level. From its inception, it was meant to be a world forum for discussing and resolving the problems facing humanity. Despite this lofty goal, in many occasions throughout its history, the world body failed to deliver on this promise. Many analysts have tried to conclude on a series of general reasons for such a failure. Aside from the universally acknowledged undemocratic decision making system in the Security Council, many have argued that the failure to assist the states in need is the outcome of the continuous lack of attention for the states that are truly in need of assistance and political support. Thus, third…. [read more]

Terrorism and Drug Trafficking Capstone Project

… In particular, heroin from Mexico poses a formidable threat throughout Pennsylvania and Delaware, as evidenced by the increasing availability of high purity, low priced heroin and the resulting escalation in abuse, drug treatment admissions, and overdose deaths. This threat is exacerbated by the widely-reported trend of prescription drugs abusers migrating to heroin, seeking a cheaper and more available high. The DEA Philadelphia Division routinely assesses and ranks the drug threats to Philadelphia and the Delaware area as determined by availability, threat to public health, community impact, attendant crime, enforcement activity, seizures, drug abuse and treatment statistics, as well as propensity for abuse. Analysis of these factors, supplemented by investigative reporting, human intelligence, liaison, and open source data, allows for a comprehensive overview of each drug…. [read more]

Strategic Assessment of International Policing Essay

… Changing Paradigm in International Policing: A Strategic Assessment Paper on International Policing in the Contemporary Environment

The first United Nations peacekeeping mission was dispatched to the Middle East in 1948. it's mission was "(Desiring) to bring about a cessation of the hostilities in Palestine without prejudice to the rights, claims and position of either Arabs or Jews."

The role of the military looking peacekeeping forces was not to engage in military action, or to choose one -side over the other, but by their presence to represent the member nation states of the United Nations in its role to negotiate, first, a cease fire, and, subsequently, to engage the warring Arabs and Jews in non-violent conflict resolution. Non-violent conflict resolution has been the weighty undertaking of…. [read more]

Jungian Phenomenology and Police Training the Methodologies Term Paper

… Jungian Phenomenology and Police Training

The methodologies selected for this study were the meta-synthesis approach developed by Noblit and Hare (1988) and a content analysis technique described by Neuman (2003) and others. The meta-synthesis approach allows researchers to draw broad substantive interpretations from various sources. According to York (1994), the meta-synthesis technique is a type of research that "systematically compares studies in order to interpret meaning, to clarify research foci, and to resolve existing substantive, methodological, or interpretive problems" (p. xiii). This approach allows the researcher to "compare and analyze text, creating new interpretations in the process" (Noblit & Hare, 1988, p. 9).

The seven-step process used in the meta-synthesis methodology developed by Noblit and Hare is set forth in Table 1 below.

Table 1.…. [read more]

Adolescent's Awareness and Their Lack of Implementing Term Paper



The report entitled: "Children and Interactive Media: Research Compendium Update" relates: Since the 2000 report, both large- and small-scale studies have been published on children's in-home use of interactive media." (Wartella, Lee and Caplovitz, 2002) it is noted that when compared to the 1997-1998 Census statistics, recent studies "indicate greater media saturation in the home. The most recent national survey, involving 1,235 parents of 2 to 17-year-olds and 416 eight to sixteen-year-old was conducted by the Annenberg Public Policy Center. According to the 'Media in the Home 2000' survey, American…. [read more]

Internet: Privacy for High School Term Paper

… But many involve the law" (p. 1151). These issues have assumed increasing importance in recent years as well.

For example, in her book, Mind Your Own Business: The Battle for Personal Privacy, Gini Graham Scott (1995) reports that, "From elementary school to college, school has become a privacy battleground, primarily in high school and university. Mainly, these conflicts have occurred on four main fronts: the effort to keep schools safe from crime and drugs; efforts to control, shape, or punish different types of student behavior; the school -- media conflict over what the media can cover and publish; and the struggle over what a school can say when it is trying to terminate or has terminated a teacher or staff member" (p. 271). The increasing…. [read more]

Catholic Church Public Policy in Spain and US Thesis

… As I previously mentioned, the Spanish population is religiously homogeneous. Roman Catholics compose of 99% of the population, while the remaining 1% of the population is composed of those belonging to Jewish, Protestant, Muslim, and Buddhist faiths. In relation to other countries in the European Union, Spain boasts one of the most "religious" populations. As data from a study of religiosity in the European shows, as late as 1982, only Ireland surpasses Spain in religious practice. Further, by the end of the decade, the percentage of individuals identifying themselves as "religious persons" ranged from a low of 48% in Denmark to 72% in the Irish Republic. The Spanish percentage of 68% exceeded all other countries except Ireland, Portugal and Greece. In stark contrast to the…. [read more]

Dealt Term Paper

… The form of suppression is the extensively used plan. It sprouted in the 1970s and 1980s and is still overruling nowadays. Under this aspect, gang members are apprehended, punished, and are in reception of long-term jail, and policy makers in the criminal justice assume the most active part. The "enhancement of organization" plan is also prevalently applied. (Spergel, p.186). This plan is comprehensive of structural moldings within current organizations to associate particularly with gangs and their actions. The enhancement can recur in either community outlays or criminal justice outlays, with most recurring inside criminal justice outlays. The legal replies to gangs have recurred in all varieties of law, comprehensive of criminal law, criminal procedure, civil rights, constitutional law, housing law and law of proof. Researchers…. [read more]

Political Framework of EU Thesis

… As a result, European nations looked forward to developing nations such as Asia, Africa and South America for the purchase of these necessities. For developing nations this was an opportunity to become known as suppliers of grist, therefore, they were willing to enter into this trade agreement. However, what European Leaders wanted was more than a simple trade agreement; their aim was to enforce their rules on these nations, making them colonies of the infinite European empire. Therefore, they entered into the agreement after setting out a lot of rules for the dependent nations to follow. As time passed by, these rules made the European leaders indirectly administer the nation, thus the nations became a part of European empire. History reveals that the imperialism is…. [read more]

Pedophiles and Methods of Rehabilitating Term Paper

… Human sexuality manifests itself in many ways, such as intimacy between two people that might lead to forming life-long bonds of partnership or marriage. As an expression of the sharing and intimacy that arises out of the bonds of partnership and marriage, children are born. They are socially the most treasured members of society, and their vulnerability, innocence, and clean slate of human experience leading to a curiosity and constant discovery of the world around them and of their selves as feeling, emotional, thinking and participating beings in that world often brings them to the attention of people who would exploit for those same traits. The pedophile, whom often moves amongst us upstanding and even outstanding members of society, lives a life secret urges and…. [read more]

Elder Abuse Phenomenon Correlating Relationship to Elder Mortality Term Paper

… Elder Abuse Phenomenon Correlating Relationship to Elder Mortality

Elder abuse has received increased scrutiny from the law enforcement and healthcare community in recent years. This increased attention is due in part to the increasing number of elderly in the United States and the passage of various laws designed to improve the reporting of such episodes of abuse as well as the prosecution of those who abuse the elderly. Unfortunately, elder abuse is particularly difficult to detect in some cases and studies have shown time and again that many elderly people are highly reluctant to admit to such abuse for fear of reprisals from the abuser or the possibility of being institutionalized if existing domestic living arrangements are disrupted. The purpose of this study was to…. [read more]

Family Violence and PTSD Children Are Subject Term Paper

… Family Violence and PTSD

Children are subject to a number of stressors that may contribute to the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One of the stressors given particular attention is domestic violence, not necessarily against the child, but violence that the child witnesses. Such events in the home have an effect on the child who is privy to them, creating a sense of guilt, adding to the child's stress, and distorting many aspects of the bonding process with one or both parents while also putting a strain on other relationships the child may have at home, at school, and elsewhere. Studies have examined this issue and found a link between violence in the home and subsequent problems played out in children who have witnessed…. [read more]

Catholic Church in Spain Term Paper

… On the flip side however, rising attitudes of liberalism, republicanism, socialism, anarchism, and intellectual pluralism ensured a direct and stiff challenge to the once accepted view of the clergy that Spain was always a catholic nation and would be one always.

The author has divided the book into twenty-four chapters. There is an introduction that surveys the Church from 1808 to 1873, followed by which there is a critical examination of the Church and politics from the year 1874 which signals the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy until the year 1930 which brought about the fall of the Primo de Rivera dictatorship. There is also a brief description and analysis of a host of topics that comprise the religious organization, clerical demography, the size, positioning…. [read more]

Women in Abusive Relationship Research Paper

… Women Abuse

Abuse of Women: A Legal and Social Problem

The problem of domestic violence in the United States is both pervasive and historically omnipresent. Though its definition has often been subject to extreme variation -- even with state and federal laws in the U.S. containing widely divergent qualifications of terminology -- domestic abuse has nonetheless shown itself to be a real and self-perpetuating condition in the American family and community. Domestic violence is usually a term used to describe physical assault or sexual assault levied by a family member, romantic partner, caretaker or acquaintance against such a relation. This typically is a crime which is committed against women or children, most often by husbands or fathers respectively. That is less exclusive than conditional upon…. [read more]

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