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Exercise Physiology Research Paper

… "

2. Background for the Study: Here, the authors sought to see whether "capacity [to exercise] declines with age and improves with exercise training," as well as "whether changes in oxygen efficiency, defined as the oxygen cost per unit work, contribute […] to the effects of aging or training […]."

3. Methods Employed in the Study: The method utilized by authors consisted of a sample of 61 subjects that were separated into the following groups: younger women (ages 20 to 33 years, n = 15), younger men (ages 20 to 30 years, n = 12), older women (ages 65 to 79 years, n = 16), and older men (ages 65 to 77 years, n = 18). According to the authors, "all subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise…. [read more]

Exercise Science the Physiological Benefits of Childhood Research Proposal

… Exercise Science

The Physiological Benefits of Childhood Exercise

The problem of childhood obesity has worsened in recent years as children tend to engage in less physical activity, to eat less nutritionally and to lead generally sedentary lifestyles. The result is a set of negative health indicators which include juvenile diabetes, increased risk of heart disease and diminishing physical dexterity. Therefore, the research conducted here makes as its primary focus the positive implications of regular physical activity and exercise for children. Considering the anatomical implications of regular healthy exercise, the research will reveal an array of benefits to immediate and long-term health maintenance.

The physiological indicators produced by the exercise science discipline illustrate that there are causes in terms of both shaping emphasis and preempting risks…. [read more]

Exercise Science and Term Paper

… De Humanis Corporis Fabrica by Vesalius "can only be compared with Hippocrates in stature and importance" in the field of medicine, according to Vesalius, Humanist. (University of Virginia Health Sciences Library Web site.)

Vesalius had studied Cicero and Celsus, among the ancient writers, and so he knew that the ancients had dissected human bodies. (University of Virginia Health Sciences Library Web site.)

Vesalius believed that anatomy:

should be recalled from the dead, so that if it did not achieve with us a greater perfection that at any other place or time among the old teachers of anatomy, it might at least reach such a point that one could with confidence assert that our modern science of anatomy was equal to that of old (ancient Greek)…. [read more]

Electromyography Biopac Exercise Discussion Term Paper

… Electromyography BIOPAC Exercise Discussion

This discussion of the electromyography exercise will begin by first describing and discussing the exercise that was preformed. The results and corresponding data will then be contrasted with the original hypothesis. In this instance, the hypothesis created before initiating the experiment was shown to be supported by the data collected. Furthermore, the discussion will relate this exercise to other experiments that have been recently performed by members of the academic community in the field of medical research.


The data collection in this laboratory exercise relied solely on the BIOPAC computer-based data acquisition and analysis system. This system includes all of the necessary equipment to detect electrical signals that are emitted by the skeletal muscular system. The sophistication of this equipment…. [read more]

Sex and Exercise Research Paper

… In the summer of 2009, a study consisting of 24 students was carried out in Tehran. The participants were instructed to continue their normal routines and not to bring any changes in their activity and diet. The main finding of the study suggested a significant increase in the testosterone level of the individuals after 6-12 weeks of resistance training. This implied that the responsiveness of testosterone was dependent on the intensity and volume of exercise[footnoteRef:12]. [12: Shakeri and Nikbakht et al. 2012]

Sutton et al. carried out a study consisting of 29 individuals. The participants were observed after their training sessions twice a day. Specific testosterone assays performed on serum from the male students during exercise showed that the rise in androgens was predominantly due…. [read more]

Effect of Endurance Training on Muscle Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise Research Proposal

… ¶ … Endurance Training on Muscle Fat Metabolism During Prolonged Exercise

In this paper, the effects of endurance training will be discussed with special reference to their impact on the muscle fat metabolism while prolonged exercises. The paper will talk about the overall increase and decrease in the levels of different acids in the body as well as the overall bodily fluids within the body and how they then impact the overall mobility of the muscles. The paper will also give special attention to the importance of exercise for athletes and how the use of endurance exercise impacts their muscle metabolism. We will further discuss the differences in the fat metabolism between men who are endurance trained and those who are not. Furthermore we will…. [read more]

Muscular System and Exercise Essay

… Muscular System and Exercise

The muscular system in an integral component of the human body. Muscular tissue movement within the system is caused by the contraction of muscle fibers within the body. Movement is caused by the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy through a variety of processes. Muscle tissue is categorized into three types including skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Furthermore, these tissues are categorized as voluntary and involuntary muscles. 1(p39) Through proper care and exercise, muscles can strengthen or weaken.

Anatomy and Physiology

Skeletal muscle tissue, also referred to as striated or voluntary muscle tissue, composes 40% to 50% of the body's weight and is called striated muscle due to its striated composition, visible when analyzed under a microscope.1(p126) the contractions of this…. [read more]

Healthy Heart vs. Coronary Disease Human Pathology Research Paper

… Healthy Heart vs. Coronary Disease

Human pathology typically has associated abnormal physiological conditions. Further understanding the physiological differences between healthy and diseased hearts is critical for diagnosis, treatment and future research. Coronary artery disease, according to Shirato and Swan, is the leading cause of death in women, killing more women than all forms of cancer combined. This paper will discuss the normal physiology of a healthy heart and then compare it to a heart suffering from coronary artery disease. These physiological differences will be connected to the normal anatomy of a healthy heart and the pathological condition of coronary disease.

Physiological Condition of a Healthy Heart:

In a healthy heart, the coronary blood flow provides the oxygen supply for the body. This myocardial oxygen automatically…. [read more]

Biomechanical Priciples Biomechanical Principles Biomechanics Term Paper

… Instead, the swimmer must find the optimal point in their pull where the most water will be moved. This results in the best and most efficient stroke.

There are currently two strokes that swimmers use to optimize their thrust. The first is a traditional pinwheel stroke. This stroke involves keeping the arm straight in the water and producing a semi-circle. The second stroke is known as the caterpillar arm and involves bending the arm slightly to keep a straight line in the water. This second move efficiently pushes more water out of the way and minimizes the strain on the shoulder (Richardson, 1986).

As can be seen, freestyle swimming is as much a science as any other athletic move. It requires precision of motion to…. [read more]

Fitness Trends: Dvds and Their Research Paper

… Still other DVD series have specifically crafted their appeal around promoting the purchase of an item which then can be used in conjunction with the DVD's fitness program. "For instance, the Bosu Cardio Fusion video uses the Bosu for an aerobic workout. The Bosu is half a stability ball with a dome side and a platform side. And sales of elastic resistance training DVDs have been increasing due to numerous products marketing these as a solution for anyone who is short on time and money" (Kaczanowska 13). Although these equipment-based programs can be 'fads' they can experience a brief upsurge in popularity due to the novelty factor which alleviates boredom for consumers and the appeal of getting additional gear in conjunction with a workout DVD.…. [read more]

Prescription, Nonprescription and Herbal Medicines Term Paper

… The effect of certain drugs on the enzymes in the liver must also be taken into consideration. Different sorts of drugs have a range of affects of the Cytochrome enzymes that exist in the liver. The drugs either induct or inhibit their performance these enzymes in the process of catalyzing other drugs. The effects of such activities are of particular importance in those patients that have been prescribed an assortment of drugs. The effect of a drug on the performance of an enzyme must be calculated in order to prescribe the proper dosage of the drug, so that it can be sufficiently be administered to the individual, who can receive it without having most of its quantity being reduced by reactions with enzymes in the…. [read more]

Physics of Swimming Term Paper

… Pressure drag as a result of the body moving, between the upper part and lower part of the body while swimming reduces the pace of a swimmer. The turbulence along the body can only be minimized by the ridges made along the suit. Similarly, such suits are made to cover all parts of the body with the exception of feet and arms to minimize water drag. Such full body swimsuits aids in reduction of muscle fatigue, as the moving parts of the body will only require minimum energy to propel the swimmer.

Swim suits are made of very smooth surfaces as rough surface lower swimmer's movement in water as it increases the opposing force between swimmer and water (Gibo, T., 2). In addition, some suits…. [read more]

Spaceflight on the Cardiovascular Term Paper

… As a result they seem to 'forget' their normal functioning and when the astronauts return to a normal gravity environment, such 'forgetfulness' causes a shortage of blood flow in the upper body. Changes in the functioning of the heart, including irregular heartbeat, have also been noted during spaceflights of longer duration.

The net effect of the above-mentioned cardiovascular changes is that 20% of male astronauts (and almost all female astronauts) experience some degree of dizziness or fainting during the first few days after their return from spaceflights. The degree of effect is directly proportional to the time spent in micro or zero-gravity environment.


Bird, Patrick J. (1996). "Keeping Fit" Spaceflight and Exercise. University of Florida Website.

Snare, Carolyn C. (2002). "Research Examines Adaptations…. [read more]

Animals Thermoregulation Term Paper

… However, this balance is not maintained, and a horse's sweat is more concentrated in electrolytes. If there is not a minimum electrolyte replacement, a horse can suffer from ailments such as kidney impairment, cardiac arrhythmias, and poor tissue perfusion.

Heat Exhaustion and Olympic Horses

In 1992, at the Barcelona Olympic games, several horses suffered from heat exhaustion, which lead to concern about the welfare of the horses at the 1996 Atlanta games, due to the hot and humid climate. While there were talks about modifying or canceling the equestrian events, the Animal Health Trust in Newmarket, England set up a project in order to make recommendations on transport, acclimatization periods and modifications to the competition to ensure that horses were not placed under unnecessary stress.…. [read more]

Atkins Diet Metabolic Term Paper

… Atkins Diet Physiology: Metabolic or Not?

In this study, we examined the effects of a high fat/low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and composition, in comparison to the effects of a calorie-reduced, fat-restricted diet. We conducted this particular study in an effort to answer the question of whether weight loss occurs because of a metabolic advantage, where the body begins to use fat as energy due to a lowered carbohydrate intake, or because of a negative energy balance, where the energy expenditure of an individual is higher than the energy intake. Our findings suggest that weight loss occurs because of a negative energy balance, which supports other studies on calorie theory (Golay, et al., 1996; Freedman, et al., 2001).

By comparing the total daily calorie intake…. [read more]

Sports Science and Sports Medicine Term Paper

… (Patrick, 2003) This is known as neuromuscular training, these programs seek to enhance balance, body/joint awareness, movement technique and muscle strength, a mixture of biomechanics and physiotherapy. (Patrick, 2003)

When pro-basketball player/coach Korie Hlede tore an ACL five years ago, she began an ACL injury prevention routine that she follows religiously so as to prevent the injury from recurring. (Patrick, 2003) These routines are also followed by many professional and college teams, NCAA Division I women's college soccer players, Norway handball teams, all with significantly improved ACL injury statistics. (Patrick, 2003)

Another area that has developed increasingly in sports science is exercise physiology. It is specifically the study of how people respond to acute and chronic exposure to physical stress in a variety of environmental…. [read more]

Physiological Effects of Endurance Term Paper

… When this happens, the lungs are able to slow and down and the heart does not need to work as hard to supply the extra needed oxygen. It is these physical changes that allow endurance training to decrease a person's risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes (3). These are the benefits of endurance training that have a long-term lasting effect.

Submaximal exercise is exercise that is maintained at 60-70% of a person's maximum heart rate for the prescribed duration. The maximum heart rate is defined as the point where the heart is not able to keep up with oxygen demand and cannot produce at any faster rate. Exercise maintained at the submaximal heart rate is considered to be a moderate exercise level. At this…. [read more]

Houdini Was Able to Modulate Case Study

… Summary and Conclusion

Harry Houdini was an individual that was repelled by trickery at the expense of the feelings of the individual such as in the case of fake mediums who claimed to communicate with the dead however, Houdini was a master of illusion. But that is not all because as it is well-known now and as this study has clearly demonstrated, Harry Houdini had a unique ability to modulate or alter his body's physiology to enable him to sustain his breathing, slow his heart rate, and had the ability to keep himself calm under pressure so that he could remain in a small chamber with little air for an extended and almost unbelievable period of time. The technique utilized by Harry Houdini while being…. [read more]

Heart Disease Relationship Between Cardiac Research Paper

… Essential parts of the heart are capillaries, arterioles and venous, which aids the functions of the heart. The capillaries have thin layers of walls, which functions mainly in the exchange of gas, it dissolves gas, aids in getting nutrients and discharge of waste products between the blood and its surrounding tissues (Martini & Nath, 2009). The heart is located in the chest, near the anterior chest wall directly posterior to the sternum. The arteries and veins of the heart are connected to the base of the heart. The base of the heart is at the level of the third costal cartilage, posterior to the sternum and centered about 1.2 cm to the left. The heart is divided into four parts, not equal mainly because the…. [read more]

Supplements in Sports Term Paper

… Sports Business and Ethics Issues

The Use Of Supplements

ethics - theoretical framework





The objective of this work is to research the issue of the use of supplements by athletes and how society views and deals with this issue including the moral theories and implications of this issue. This work will finally explain this stand on this issue and why it is morally defensible under "The Golden Rule" principle or the principle of (Life, Goodness, Justice, Honesty and Freedom)

The use of supplements by sports athletes is a highly controversial subject and one that Tommy Boone, Professor and Chair of the college located in…. [read more]

Pilates Method of Mental and Physical Conditioning Term Paper

… ¶ … Pilates Method of Mental and Physical Conditioning, as an aid to Hip and Knee Rehabilitation

Pilates, invented at the turn of the 20th century, was not popularized outside specialized dance and athletic worlds until about the past 15 years. However, it seems to be a perfect format for regaining function in a variety of knee and hip conditions. "An important aspect of the Body Control Pilates programme is that it is non-competitive, being geared to an individual's needs and degree of commitment. It balances muscular strength and flexibility asymmetries while working at the client's own pace. This means that it is as appropriate for the elite athlete as it is for a first-time exerciser' (Robinson and Thomson, 2002, Positive Health Web site). That…. [read more]

Dance Injury Prevention and Overall Level Term Paper

… Dance

Injury prevention and overall level of health and fitness often play a back seat role for dancers. In the effort to perfect their art, dancers focus on specific types of movements, techniques, and exercises over others. Specifically, exercises that can improve bone integrity, increase muscular strength, improve general aerobic fitness, and improve muscular endurance can help dancers avoid injuries. Injuries in dancers are common, affecting ballet dancers at least once per year (Twitchett, et al., 2010). For professional dancers, injury can upset careers; for all dancers, injuries can lead to poor health outcomes. Therefore, it is important to review literature on how to optimize the health and fitness of dancers.

The causes of injury are diverse, and depend on the type of dance, the…. [read more]

Educational Intervention on the Balance Between Diet and Exercise Term Paper

… ¶ … Educational Intervention on the balance between Diet and Exercise

Energy Balance is the key to a healthy body

More and more people are becoming victims of obesity. While on one hand, the precise causes of this disease are still unclear, the general conclusion most scientists have agreed upon is the disparity between the energy consumed and the energy used. This is to say, obesity occurs when individual lifestyles lead towards excessive food consumption and little to no energy-utilization activities. Zakus (1982) in his study pointed out that certain ailments, namely, Frohlich's, Klinefelter's, Praeder Willi, Klein-Levin, Lawrence Mood Biedl, and Mauriac syndromes, are the underlying causes of childhood obesity. However, these cases, he points out, occur in less than 5% of children (Zakus, 1982).…. [read more]

Health and Blind Spot Enlargement Term Paper

… This was necessary, as everyone's blind spot would be in a different place.

The subject was told to sit on the chair and place their chin on the box and to stay as still as possible. They were told to cover the right eye and fixate on the cross, appropriate for that eye. They were not to move their head, just fixate using their eyes. An assistant would slowly move the screen farther away or closer to the subject until the subject indicated that the large dot had disappeared and the ground appeared solid white. This is where the blind spot is located.

As assistant moved a sharpened pencil horizontally in front of the paper until the tip of the pen disappeared from the subject…. [read more]

Anabolic Steroids Ergogenic Aids Are Devices, Drugs Term Paper

… Anabolic Steroids

Ergogenic aids are devices, drugs, procedures and other substances that are constantly used to increase energy level in an individual and increase his/her performance. Mostly these substances are used by sports persons who want results but instead of facing the other competitors on fair grounds they stimulate their muscles so that their metabolism does not work normally and thereby winning tournaments with ease. Ergogenic aids are prohibited in almost all sporting ventures with strict punishments attached to those found using them. Some of the substances that are regarded as energy complements are sold as food supplements (health supplements). Sometimes sports personalities use these substances without their knowledge; they might buy food supplements that contain some of the prohibited substances and end up being…. [read more]

Ephedrine Abuse Among Athletes Term Paper

… Ephedrine Abuse

The use of nutritional and dietary supplements continues to be on the rise among the youths of the nation. Herbal dietary supplements such as ephedrine, ginseng, etc., are particularly common among athletes and college students. As these products are classified as legal food products under the DSHEA act of 1994, they are easy to access and consequently the possibility of addiction is very high resulting in severe and sometimes fatal consequences. [Daniel Ari Kapner] Ephedrine, a crystalline alkaloid derived from the herb ephedra sinica (and other species of the ephedra genus) is widely promoted to college athletes as an enhancer of 'strength, dynamic power, energy...endurance levels...alertness and perception'. Besides this, the high metabolic rate induced by ephedrine and the consequent weight loss motivates…. [read more]

Animal Testing Negatives Research Paper

… Abusing animals in testing laboratories is unavoidable even if the researchers take utmost care to prevent them. Numerous studies by scientists and ethicists have shown that animal testing leads to pain, emotional distress, and post-traumatic stress syndrome due to invasive procedures, deprivation of basic physiological and environmental needs, disease, and social isolation. The loss of ability to fulfill natural needs also puts animals in stressful and painful conditions. But while medical research operates on a principle that human needs to be protected even for the detriment of scientific progress, when it comes to animal research questions, they are guided by the principle that puts scientific question ahead of animal interests (Fewdowsian and Beck 2). In a recent controversial study published by the journal Nature Methods,…. [read more]

Physical Therapy Assistant Job Description Research Paper

… It simply means that this profession has a bright future for everyone who wants to pursue it in the coming times. A physical therapy assistant is a healthcare employee who can have a variety of settings to work in such as hospitals, private physical therapy centers, rehabilitation centers, hospitals, old age houses etc. The job timings may vary and it depends on the person whether he/she wants to work regularly or in evenings or only on weekends ("Physical Therapy Assistant Training," 2013).

Growth Trends in the Field

According to an estimate made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of physical therapy assistant jobs will increase to 45.7% by 2020 ("Top 30 Fastest-growing Jobs by 2020"). This increase would be exceptional if mean average…. [read more]

Childhood Obesity Term Paper

… This implies that when the dietary treatment is stopped, weight regain almost always occurs.

The critical periods in the postnatal as well as the uterine environment pertaining to the development of childhood obesity have been identified by many researchers. Once these critical periods are well-understood by the midwives and nurses, it will be easier for them to devise ways for intervention and prevent the risk of childhood obesity in infants. Apart from the factors that have been identified in the beginning of this paper, recently attention has been given to the significance of the interaction between the physical and social environment with biology that is genes. Many epidemiological studies have suggested that there is a strong statistical connection between the maternal weight in pregnancy and…. [read more]

Kinesiology -- Human Kinetics Dunking Term Paper

… Both feet should be on the ground about a feet away from the hoop.

Hold the ball with both hands and jump as high as you can.

Extend the arms and push the ball through the basket.

Land softly on your feet and get back into the game.

This model can be used as a basis for designing a dunking lesson plan for students. Each student should be asked to do each step. The trainer should check if they adhere to the model and should work with them in areas where they need improvement.

Kinesiology Principles Used in Dunking

The major kinesiology principles used in this action are extension, supination, pronation and flexion. When the player is leaping in the air through the single take-off…. [read more]

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