Viewing papers 1-15 of 15 for experimental nonexperimental designs

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Experimental and Nonexperimental Designs Experimental vs Essay

… Experimental and Nonexperimental Designs

Experimental vs. non-experimental designs: An overview

An experiment involves the use of the scientific method: a researcher does preliminary research, constructs a hypothesis based upon the past knowledge he or she has surveyed, and then constructs a test or a study to prove or disprove the hypothesis. An experiment usually examines the effects of an independent variable upon a dependent variable. The independent variable is the variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher, and the dependent variable is the response or result (IV & DV, 2008, UNCP).

An example of an experiment might be the decision of a psychological researcher to study the effects of loud noise on students' ability to study. Some individuals claim that noise helps them…. [read more]

True Experiments vs. Quasi-Experimental Designs Essay

… Q2. Why didn't the researchers choose to use a "true" experimental design?

A true, perfectly controlled experimental design would have been logistically impossible. The program being studied was a 'real world' program specific to an area of the country -- it would have been impossible to randomly assign different domestic violence complaints to the Second Response team. The program was concentrated in a specific geographic area. Thus the quasi-experimental design of using a neighboring area as a control group was the only option.

It should be noted that a quasi-experimental design is not necessarily a 'badly' designed research project, merely one in which certain controls are lacking. "Specifically, a quasi-experiment is a study that includes a manipulated independent variable but lacks important controls (e.g., random…. [read more]

Categories of Research Designs: True Essay

… • Multiple case study design.

Potential Research Method

The correlational ex-post facto research design is useful when it is impossible, impractical, expensive, or unethical to conduct an experiment, particularly because it is not possible to control and manipulate the variables necessary to study cause-and-effect relationships directly (Cohen, et al., 2011; Lammers & Badia, 2005). The correlational ex-post facto is practical when the independent variable lies outside the researcher's control and when it is not possible to take a rigorous experimental approach (Cohen, et al., 2011; Lammers & Badia, 2005).

A case study design is useful when the research is intended to answer how and why questions, yet the behavior of the sample being studied cannot be manipulated by the researcher (Baxter & Jack, 2008). Case…. [read more]

Fulfil Two Primary Aims First Term Paper

… In this study we are making use of the cross-sectional format because of the time frame that has been given to us.

Data Collection Methods

The use of following data collection methods is done in most of the studies whether they are qualitative or quantitative:

1. Structured interview;

2. Unstructured interview;

3. Survey containing both the questionnaire and interviews.

4. Semi-structured interview;

5. Questionnaire (Trochim, 2006).

We are going to be using the semi-structured interview to go on with the study and to achieve the goal of the study.

The Interviews Process

As, in this paper the semi-structured interview is being conducted, it would allow the researcher to gather a lot of flexible data which would not have been possible in a formal environment. The…. [read more]

Children With Conduct Disorder Research Paper

… All of this would have to be rated with the Conduct Disorder Scale (CDS), an efficient and effective instrument for evaluating children exhibiting severe behavior problems who may have Conduct Disorder ( They would then be rated a week following the culmination of the program in order to assess whether their initial rating has improved, stayed constant, or declined. In order to assess whether or not the program has long-term impact, the students will also be examined after the lapse of a year using the same instrument. As possible supplementation, parents and teachers may be approached for their feedback of improvement of child during the past year. As per requirement of empirical experiments, guardians of child will be approached before program for permission of child…. [read more]

Social Work - Literature Review Term Paper

… Finally, to successfully reach our social change goal, we must ensure that we are presenting relevant information to the adolescents. In the Psychology Today article, "What kids need to know; most parents and school systems fail to provide teenagers with relevant sex education" by Sol Gordon (1986), this common failure of sex education attempts is discussed. Gordon points to ignorance and unresolved curiosity as the cause for much of the destructive sexual behavior of teenagers. Poor education, poverty, racism, and sexism are noted as social factors that encourage unhealthy sexuality. Sex education is the key to combating these issues, however insufficient education is received from parents. "One reason parents have for not educating their children is discomfort with their own sexual feelings and behavior. Part…. [read more]

Defense Mechanisms and Psychodynamically-Oriented Psychologists Research Proposal

… The therapy clients along with participant substance abuse counselors will complete the necessary release forms and will also complete informed consent forms.

Assessments. Participant counselors will be administered the TAT cards in the standard TAT administration fashion with instructions as to explain what is happening in the picture, what led up to those events, what the characters are thinking and feeling, and what the outcome will be. Responses to the cards will be recorded verbatim and then later coded for defense mechanisms according to Cramer (1991).

The counseling clients will also be administered the drug/alcohol scales of the ASI6 in order to compare relapse rates by group and by counselor defense mechanism use in a quantitative design.


Individuals that suffer from substance abuse or…. [read more]

Semi-Structured Interviews Research Proposal

… Interestingly, the subjects in the control group also showed strong shifts in their perceptions about substance abuse.

(b) Justification of Statistics Used.

Standard error bars are an approximation of a t-test, but with some advantages (Radford, 2011). Standard error bars provide a visual way to evaluate statistical differences by graphically illustrating the variability of the data (Radford, 2011). Also, standard error bars can be used to compare more than two means, which is useful in this analysis because there is a mean score for the positively rated question set (Question 1 -- 3) and a mean score for the negatively rated question set (Questions 4-6 ) (Radford, 2011). The main caveat is that there is a greater threat of obtaining false positive result -- that…. [read more]

Scientific Research Collect Methods Comment Essay

… The researcher will manipulate one variable and control the others. The quasi-non experimental research method is similar to the experimental research group however there is no control group and there is only one level of measurement (Trochim, 2006). Empiricism is an important part experimental research. Empiricism is based on the researcher utilization of their sensory system such as being able to see or taste the observable data, which is based on evidence. Positivism is concept that some researcher believes experimental research is the only way to obtain true, objective knowledge. Interpretivism the collection of data is based on pure facts.

Criticial theory discussion groups are utilized by individuals to share ideas, discuss topics of importance and gain insight into specified topics. A case study is…. [read more]

Growing Recognition of the Changing Term Paper

… Usually, needs to know on how to understand material without feeling compelled to agree with it.

Abstract Conceptualization (AC): Connects information with prior learning. Learns through linking new knowledge with previous knowledge and experiences. Sees the big picture. May have difficulty with organizing information, finding focus, or attending to details. In writing essays, may appear to be "all over the place."

Active Experimentation (AE): Has a need for immediate feedback. Learns best by asking questions. May jump ahead of the instructor and interrupt with questions. Is often an academic rebel, i.e. likes to "buck the system" or look for exceptions to the rules. Works well with group tutorials and group study.

As explained by Kolb and Smith (1986), in order for learning to be effective,…. [read more]

Intervention Nursing Research Article Review

… This data was given numerical values and then used to determine the significance of the COPE intervention provided as compared to the control group and the group that received standard care plus friendly visits.

It is significant to note that the authors have developed a manual outlining COPE Intervention and conceivably stand to profit from the sale of this publication. Unfortunately, this taints the findings as it is apparent that the authors have a vested interest in the study's outcome. The authors state that, "Although not effective in improving all outcomes, the intervention was effective in decreasing overall symptom distress in the study's patients."

Another significant point of interest is that the authors paid the nurses and home health aides from the hospice to work…. [read more]

Satisfaction of Registered Nurses (Kovner, Brewer, Cheng Research Proposal

… ¶ … satisfaction of registered nurses (Kovner, Brewer, Cheng, & Suzuki, 2006) examines the influencers of the work satisfaction and attitudes of a national sample of registered nurses (RNs) in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Thus, the title is good, but could have been a bit more descriptive by including the geographical scope.

The dependent variables are clearly identified as work attitudes and satisfaction, but the authors never even discuss what they actually mean. For instance, does satisfaction mean that nurses would not leave their present jobs or does it mean something else?

Independent variables are broad, including work related factors such as social support, job stress, promotion opportunities, professional values, disposition, direct patient care, job hazards, pay, and fairness of pay and benefits. The definitions…. [read more]

Offender Reentry Program Proposal Term Paper

… Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 22, 119-142.

Kurki, L. Incorporating restorative and community justice into American sentencing and corrections, Research in Brief, Sentencing & Corrections: Issues for the 21st Century, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, September 1999.

Maguire, K., & Pastore, A. (I 998). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics, 1997. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Martin, B. (2000). Calendar year 2000 time served report, Columbus, OH: Office of Policy, Bureau of Research, Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction.

Petersilia, J. When prisoners return to the community. Political, economic, and social consequences, Research in Brief, Sentencing & Corrections: Issues for the 21st Century, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, November 2000.

Piehl, A. (1998). Economic conditions, work,…. [read more]

Knowledge Concerning Ethical Issues Involved in Counseling Research Paper

… ¶ … knowledge concerning ethical issues involved in counseling teenagers with alcoholism, including informed consent contents in psychotherapeutic settings, dual relationships and psychological testing considerations in personnel selection in organizational settings. In addition, the paper examines the rules governing sexual intimacy with clients and former clients as well as the value of personal psychotherapy as a requirement of a graduate training program. A discussion concerning deception in research is followed by an analysis of special concerns and particular benefits of an outpatient setting. Finally, a description of the relevant minimum HIPAA requirements is followed by a discussion concerning how psychologists become involved with fraudulent practices and an evaluation of professional responsibilities. A summary of the research and important findings are provided in the conclusion.

Ethical…. [read more]

Mixing Methods Within Research Projects? Research Proposal


The objective of this work is to discuss some of the issues involved in 'mixing' methods within research projects? This work will further answer whether it is possible to work with more than one methodological approach simultaneously? This work finally will discuss the use of examples of specific research from the literature. This work is an essay on the philosophy of social research that has the intention of exploring the issues with regards mixing qualitative and quantitative methods within research projects and the advantages as well as disadvantages. This work will also examine how the two research methodologies can be meaningfully combined.

Quantitative and Qualitative Research

The work of Weinreich (2006) entitled: "Integrating Quantitative And Qualitative Methods in…. [read more]

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