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Experimental Research Research Proposal

… Experimental Research

One of the many important decisions a researcher must make during his or her work is which design to use for the research. Two main experimental designs include within-subjects and between-subjects design. Each has its own merits and drawbacks, and researchers tend to choose these according to the purpose and nature of the experiments or surveys to be conducted. For the experiment in question, where three different types of survey invitations are offered online, either the within- or between-subjects design can be used.

According to MacKenzie (2013), most empirical evaluations of input devices or interaction techniques, like the one to be conducted here, will be comparative. In this specific experiment, three types of online survey invitations are explored; the first containing only a…. [read more]


Experimental Research Methods in Business Literature Review

… 123). The research approaches to which the authors refer in their definition include, for example, data collection and analysis, inference techniques, qualitative perspectives, and quantitative perspectives. When placing a mixed methods approach in the research -- as a type of research -- the authors suggest research employing mixed methods "would involve mixing within a single study; a mixed method program would involve mixing within a program of research and the mixing might occur across a closely related set of studies" (Johnson, 2007, p. 123).

As we have said, research methods can be described as fitting within any one of three research paradigms: The qualitative research paradigm, the quantitative research paradigm, or the mixed methods research paradigm. Greene (2006) further parsed research methodologies into four domains:…. [read more]


Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Research Paper

… It is because of the difficulties of creating and conducting perfect experimental research, that true cases of this type of investigation are relatively rare. Perhaps it is almost impossible to have true experimental research in most real-world situations because of all the necessary components of the investigation.

Trochim & Donnelly then describe quasi-experimental research. This type can be very similar to experimental research methodology. The major difference between the two is that quasi-experimental research does not require random assignment (Trochim 2008). Another major difference has to do with the test's internal validity. Quasi-experimental research also looks into causation for certain circumstances, but does not have to be the sole explanation for the set of circumstances. It is perhaps less scientific because it is not a…. [read more]


Experimental vs. Quasi-Experimental Research Evaluating Client Profile Research Paper

… Experimental vs. quasi-Experimental research

Evaluating Client Profile

There are a number of differences between experimental and quasi-experimental research. For experimental research, there are a few basic things that one would need. First of all, a hypothesis for a causal relationship is needed as well as a control group and a treatment group. The next thing needed is a way to eradication confounding variables that could have the potential to ruin the experiment and stop them from illustrating the causal relationship. Larger groups are also important and they should have a carefully sorted constituency -- preferably randomized so that accidental differences will not ruin the experiment.

Trochim (2006) notes that experimental designs are the most rigorous of all the research design methods and all other methods…. [read more]


Experimental Theatre Research Proposal

… Experimental Theater

Trends in globalism and technology have changed the existing structures and systems of power in the modern world. This rather fluid evolution has, really since the end of World War II, evolved towards breaking cultural and political conventions and moving towards new paths -- whether to a more Utopian world or the dystopian paradigm so popular in modern literature.

This is true in the Arts as much as in Politics, especially in a time in which the old political and social boundaries no longer exist. Too, building off Sartre and others, in the modern Developed world, the individual no longer need exist in complete isolation -- modern communications make it entirely possible to reach out with art and culture to almost everywhere in…. [read more]


Experimental Research Design the Research Process Research Proposal

… Experimental Research Design

The research process is stated to be of the nature that utilizes scientific techniques in the investigation of phenomenon and a research process that is focused on acquisition of new knowledge about the phenomenon. (Experiment Resources, 2009) the Experimental method is stated to require the basis of "observable, empirical and measurable evidence, to be termed scientific" and it also must "follow some principles of reasoning." (Experiment Resources, 2009)

Experimental Design Process

The experimental design process includes the following:

(1) Research question (Hypothesis)

(2) Design Experiment

(3) Data Collection

(4) Data Analysis

(5) Conclusions

Definition of Experimental Research

Experimental research is generally used in the sciences including sociology, psychology, biology, chemistry and other areas of science. Experimental research is a systematic and scientific…. [read more]


Experimental Method Design Project Impact Research Paper

… ' "The basic idea of the grounded theory approach is to read (and re-read) a textual database (such as a corpus of field notes) and 'discover' or label variables (called categories, concepts and properties) and their interrelationships. The ability to perceive variables and relationships is termed 'theoretical sensitivity' and is affected by a number of things including one's reading of the literature and one's use of techniques designed to enhance sensitivity" (Borgatti, n.d).

One issue I intend to explore in my questioning is what constitutes good vs. bad support. What constitutes overly intrusive support vs. positive support? Overly intrusive support, such as overbearing relatives could increase a women's anxiety level about being a 'good enough' mother. Also, for women without support in the form of…. [read more]


Experimental Design for Hypothetical Research Research Paper

… The independent variables in this experiment are a.) the duration between ingestion of chocolate and testing, and b.) the gender of the subject being tested. The dependent variable in this experiment is the test score obtained from each subject.

Results: The statistical analysis functions provided by the Microsoft Excel add-in Analysis ToolPak will be utilized after the receipt period for test score data collection has concluded. After the raw data has been manually recorded and sorted, the information will then be entered into an Excel spreadsheet. A frequency distribution analysis will be conducted to assess whether or not the respondent sample is truly representative of the test scores using the particular examination test subjects utilized, because the relatively simple process of calculating the frequency distribution…. [read more]


Experimental Methodologies: Bulimia Nervosa Annotated Annotated Bibliography

… Homan, Philipp, Grob, Simona, Milos, Gabriella, Schnyder, Ulrich, and Hasler. (2013). Reduction in total plasma ghrelin levels following catecholamine depletion: Relation to bulimic and depressive symptoms. Psychoneuroendocrinology, published online 16 Jan. 2013 ahead of print, 1-8.

To better understand the relationship between mood, plasma ghrelin levels, and eating disorders, Homan and colleagues conducted a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of catecholamine depletion using alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT). The experimental subjects enrolled in the study were 23 females between the ages of 19 and 39, with a clinical diagnosis of bulimia nervosa under remission for the past 6 months. Exclusion criteria included lifetime psychosis, Axis I psychiatric disorder, major medical problems, psychoactive medication within the last 6 months, pregnancy, lifetime substance abuse, current suicide…. [read more]


Experimental Research Term Paper

… Quasi-Experimental Designs make the identification of causal relationships more valid than do the pre-experimental designs described above. One form of a quasi-experimental design is a two-group post-test-only design. Two groups are conducted with subjects randomly assigned to each condition. The groups are only test once, after the presentation of the experimental treatment to the experimental group. While this random assignment reduces this chances that the groups differed before treatment, it is impossible to be certain because there is no pre-test to discover pre-treatment differences between experimental and control group subjects on the variables being measured. Therefore, post-treatment differences between the two groups could b attributable to pre-experimental differences between them. Another type of Quasi-Experimental Design is the post-test only with control group. In this design,…. [read more]


Spotlighting Samplings 4 Qualitative Research Research Paper

… Magilvy and Thomas (2009) explain that "qualitative research data are usually text data, narratives, and stories told by people about their experiences recorded digitally, on tape, on film, or in photographs, or in notes taken by the researcher" (¶ 4). After being analyzed, described and explained, the ensuring retrieved data may offer a detailed account of the experience "as lived."

As explained earlier in the study, research design illustrates the entire research process from the first notion of the research problem, to creating the data, analyzing and explaining the findings and ultimately publishing the results. In addition to the phenomenology method, the survey method, the ethnography method, and the case study method, the methods the current study examines, research designs also include, however, may not…. [read more]


Mixed Methods Primary and Secondary Research Research Paper

… ¶ … mixed methods; primary and secondary research as different research methods. The study identifies qualitative research as a research method that immense into the phenomenon to gain deeper understanding in the research interest. Qualitative research uses tools such as interview, focus group, and observation for data collection. However, quantitative research uses positivist approach to gain understanding in the research interest. Quantitative research uses instruments such as survey, and questionnaires to collect data, and a researcher is able to correlate mass of data to produce research findings. The shortcomings identified in both quantitative and qualitative research makes this paper to suggest mixed methods as other type of research method.

Introduction

Research is defined as the systematic system of searching for knowledge to solve existing problems,…. [read more]


Experimental, and Survey Research Social Essay

… 183).

Although field research also provides researchers with the opportunity to ask questions, the types of questions that are used in survey research typically differ from the open-ended questions used and rely on closed-end questions, the responses to which can be coded analyzed for thematic content and patterns (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005). It is important to note, though, that just as field research can employ a wide range of methods, survey research can likewise use different approaches to gathering information (Mason, Chang & Griffin, 2005). This point is also made by De Vaus (1996) who emphasizes, "A survey is not just a particular technique of collecting information: questionnaires are widely used but other techniques, such as structured and in-depth interviews, observation, content analysis and so…. [read more]


Experimental and One Non-Experimental Almanda, Pam, Carafoli Term Paper

… ¶ … Experimental and One Non-Experimental

Almanda, Pam, Carafoli, Karen, Flattery, John, French, Douglas and McNamara, Mary (2004). Improving the retention rate of newly graduated nurses. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 20(6), 268-273. (Non-experimental)

Blanzola, Cheryl, Lindeman, Roslyn and King, Major (2004). Nurse internship pathway to clinical comfort, confidence and competency. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, Insert Vol & No. As above, 27-37. (Experimental)

Fairly critiquing an investigator's research endeavor is a task that must be taken seriously. Although it is quite easy to have an opinion of another's research it is something quite different to be able to evaluate the research activity in terms of topic specificity and soundness, intent or purpose, data analysis, and informational importance. When embarking upon a critical…. [read more]


Network Research Encountering -- and Countering Research Paper

… Network Research

Encountering -- and Countering -- Unstructured Attacks: Current Issues in Network Security Monitoring

As technology and information networks continue to grow in complexity and in sheer size, and as they become more prevalent and important to industries and organizations of all sorts, the problems encountered in network security and network security monitoring are themselves growing in number and complexity. Hardware changes, software developments, and an ever-adapting range of purposeful and accidental security threats through unauthorized activity have led to the rapid evolution of network security monitoring in many ways, while at the same time certain basic elements and frameworks for understanding issues remain the same. This juxtaposition of the old and the new in the world of network security monitoring means that basic…. [read more]


Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Non-Experimental Designs Term Paper

… Experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental designs are all utilized in nursing research. An example of an experimental design is found in a study by Bird, Jones, Korten and Smithers (2007). These researchers explored the outcomes of a predominantly psychosocial approach to the treatment of dementia. The intervention group received treatment that focused on problem behavior from a psychosocial angle along with medication, while the control group did not receive this treatment and only received psychopharmacological treatment. The results indicated that the intervention (psychosocial approach) was effective in treating dementia, and allowed the treatment group to reduce medication levels.

An example of a quasi-experimental design is found in a study by Mounir, Mahdy, and Fatohy (2003). This study assessed whether a reproductive health education program could impact…. [read more]


Experimental and Nonexperimental Designs Experimental vs Essay

… Experimental and Nonexperimental Designs

Experimental vs. non-experimental designs: An overview

An experiment involves the use of the scientific method: a researcher does preliminary research, constructs a hypothesis based upon the past knowledge he or she has surveyed, and then constructs a test or a study to prove or disprove the hypothesis. An experiment usually examines the effects of an independent variable upon a dependent variable. The independent variable is the variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher, and the dependent variable is the response or result (IV & DV, 2008, UNCP).

An example of an experiment might be the decision of a psychological researcher to study the effects of loud noise on students' ability to study. Some individuals claim that noise helps them…. [read more]


Experimental Research Argument by Examining Essay

… Facts are provable, but what is proof? Scientific proof is not the same as religious proof, for example - meaning that not all researchers will see proof the same way (Freedman, 2009). Many also confuse correlation with causation, in that they assume A+B=C when that may not be the case. In reality, A and B. might have only been in the same area, and it may be D+E that actually equal C. Researchers have to know what they are looking for, and they have to know what they basically expect to find and how to find it (Freedman, 2009). They really are not locating new facts with experimental research. They are taking what they already believe to be true and verifying that it is fact…. [read more]


Recreation Proposed Quantitative Research: Outdoor Research Proposal

… Recreation

Proposed Quantitative Research: Outdoor Recreation and Academic Performance

The background of outdoor activity as an aspect of education parallels the relative history of progressive education in the United States. During the 19th century, as formal ideas regarding education had begun to give way to a broader discourse on the opportunities available to our children, so too did it become clear that the child benefits considerably from an environment which balances structure and recreational freedom sufficiently. The concept of 'outdoor activity' is based on the understanding that the host of benefits which are affiliated with physical activity, socialization, rule-making and the formulation of a healthy lifestyle are best implanted at an early age in children. These recreational opportunities can help to form the types of…. [read more]


Experimental Critique You Have Just Essay

… The findings have been demonstrated to be robust and spurred a whole generation of research and speculation regarding obedience and persuasion. For example the famous Stanford Prison Study was performed as a direct result of Milgram's findings on obedience and found that assigned roles can make people perform behaviors that are totally out of character for them normally (Haney, Banks, & Zimbardo, 1973). Students given the roles as prison guards or prisoners shockingly and realistically fulfilled these roles in a simulated jail in a college environment.

One of the areas that Milgram did not fully investigate was the behavior of the dissenters in his studies; a look at disobedience. Some more recent research looked more closely at this and has determined that dissention in the…. [read more]


Nursing Research Findings Into Clinical Research Paper

… He accumulated a lot of abdominal fluid and had trouble breathing. After trying various drugs, the medical team settled on morphine which the patient was most comfortable with. A few days later, the patient developed pneumonia with fever. He died peacefully shortly after that.

Discuss recommended interventions for your case study for the symptom you have selected, based on the data you have reviewed, and how you will evaluate outcomes.

I would like to divide the patient's case in two: the pain he felt after his first post-cancer experience and the intermediate years before he was readmitted; and the pain that he felt with the remission of the cancer.

Stage 1:

The patient had pain even before he was admitted to hospital. Recommended interventions then…. [read more]


Statistics in Research and Analysis the Experiments Research Paper

… ¶ … Statistics in Research and Analysis

The experiments, analysis and statistics-5

Uses of statistics in experiments and research-5

Tools of Analysis-7

Experimental Design-9

Common uses in every day life-12

USE of STATISTICS in RESEARCH and ANALYSIS

This paper concerns itself with the use of statistics as a means and the important tool in research and analysis -- both in the scientific and social sphere. Statistics can be defined as a study of variability and enumeration. It tries to quantify and enumerate uncertain things in a scientific manner. That is because there is an element of uncertainty in all affairs of research and information processing. For example measurements made by scientists and other people are mostly uncertain in some way. One example cited by Kault…. [read more]


Psychological Research Descriptive and Inferential Research Paper

… A variable is then tested on the test group, while the control group remains unaffected. The results from the test group are then compared to the control group, which has not been involved in the actual testing, and the results are observed.

By using a "true experiment" design, the results are difficult to refute, but there are things that can invalidate a study. These are known as threats to internal validity, or "confounds that serve as plausible alternative explanations for a research finding." ("Threats to Internal Validity") There are a number of different threats which can serve as alternative explanations including what is referred to as a patient's history, maturation, the effects of testing on a subject, the instrumentation used, chance, attrition, and even the…. [read more]


Quasi-Experimental Quantitative Pilot Study Into the Prevention Research Paper

… ¶ … quasi-experimental quantitative pilot study into the prevention of further weight gain in overweight schoolchildren. More specifically, the study consisted of involving school nurses in weight gain prevention activities in children who were already overweight in order to determine whether school nursing involvement is an effective means of improving childhood obesity prevention efforts. The study demonstrated that school nursing intervention is one possible means for preventing further weight gain and reducing obesity in children (Melin & Lenner, 2009). However, the concept was much less effective than it might be in principle, because of the way that it was implemented. Likewise, the study was relatively ineffective for several reasons having to do with its inherent limitations and fundamental design and methods.

Research Design and Methodology…. [read more]


Experimental Research and Report Writing Research Paper

… Therefore this experiment does not prove our hypothesis that words organized into hierarchical categories should result in a higher rate of word recall that words that are randomized. One possible explanation of the disparity between our work and that of Bower et al. (1969) is the small sample size. Our study only involved 20 participants, while the Bower et al. (1969) study involved 48 students. Additionally, we conducted only one trial while Bower et al. (1969) conducted four trials.

Even though the group of participants seems to be similar, our results seem to be closer to the middle than the results achieved by Bower et al. (1969). For example, our group of participants who received the uncategorized word list correctly recalled 37.9% of the words…. [read more]


Experimental Study of the Effects of Distant Intercessory Prayer on Self-Esteem Anxiety and Depression Research Proposal

… Intercessory Prayer

"Religion and spirituality are not consistently addressed in medical school curricula, and even may be considered inappropriate teaching subjects. However, physicians are beginning to recognize the role of spirituality and prayer in the healing practices of their patients, as indicated by conferences sponsored by the National Institutes of Health" (Friedman, et al., 1997).

How much is really known about the power of intercessory prayer? For centuries religions have taught that prayer is a powerful communication link with God, but this paper will provide evidence that prayer can go deeper than just communication with God. Indeed intercessory prayer can have a positive impact on serious health problems. This proposal, backed by an investigation into the literature, will show that indeed intercessory prayer is a…. [read more]


Role of Research and Statistics Essay

… Role of Research and Statistics in the Field of Psychology

Research is the study of a particular field or phenomenon with the intent of learning something new, either from the perspective of the individual doing the research (like a student doing a term paper) or a researcher using the scientific method to answer an open-ended question still perplexing the scientific community, such as the best way to treat various types of cancer. The scientific method is one way of doing research, and usually involves several definite steps (Research: The scientific method, 2008, SIEM HI Research). The first of step of the scientific method is to define a problem that can be asked in the form of a specific question that can be observed or measured…. [read more]


Criminal Justice -- Research Methods Short-Term Counseling Research Paper

… Criminal Justice -- Research Methods

Short-term Counseling for Juvenile Criminals

Extant literature on criminals, adults and juveniles alike, showed that the threat of incarceration has not been an effective deterrent to committing crime. For novice and teenage criminals, in fact, the idea of being incarcerated has been synonymous to being the "rite of passage," an event in a teenage offender's life that is necessary for him to be considered a 'bona fide' offender/criminal. However, recent studies on crime deterrence and novice criminals uncovered the usefulness of short-term counseling as an alternative approach to deterring crime, as compared to incarceration.

In this research proposal, the usefulness of short-term counseling will be further evaluated, as this approach will be proposed as the primary approach/intervention and deterrent against…. [read more]


Second Language Oral Production in High School Within the Context of CLIL Research Proposal

… ¶ … SECOND LANGUAGE ORAL PRODUCTION IN HIGHSCHOOL WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF CLIL

This study is motivated by theoretical and pedagogical interests: to inform instructional design intended to integrate language and content and to explore how form and meaning intersect in SLA (second language acquisition). Both interests draw on an extensive body of research that encompasses theory and practice underlying three different yet related frameworks and lines of inquiry: content-based language teaching, form-focused instruction and attention and awareness in SLA (second language acquisition). All three of these areas are linked by a concern with the intersection of form and meaning in second language classrooms. Content-based language instruction was originally inspired as an alternative to traditional approaches to language teaching that favored form over meaning. Form-focused…. [read more]

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