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Extinct Languages Term Paper

… Extinct Languages

There are two definitions of an extinct language, according to a science forum. The first definition relates to a language that is extinct due to the fact that no more people speak it, even if some may be able to read and even write it. Such examples include Old English and Ancient Chinese. Furthermore, in this group, one can also find scholarly or biblical languages such as Sanskrit and Slavonic, which can be recited, but which have no basis for correct pronunciation or fluency.

The second definition relates to a second group. This "stricter" definition of such a language is one that has left so few traces that it cannot even be reconstructed. This is truly an extinct or dead language, as it…. [read more]

Extinct and Endangered Languages Term Paper

… Threatened Languages

The, major languages of the world are spoken by millions of people, but there're languages with far fewer speakers, languages that may go extinct within the next few years as the number of speakers dwindle and as other forces change the language until it is unrecognizable. The process of the extinction of language has been ongoing for centuries, and many languages once spoken widely in a given area are no longer understood by anyone today. A recent report suggests that more than half the languages now in use could disappear by the end of this century.

It is estimated that there have been more than 130,000 languages over the last 100,000 years. The peak of diversity was reached 10,000-year ago when there were…. [read more]

Chinese Culture and Language Research Paper

… "Chinese is not only the only civilization whose history goes back five thousand years, but it is the longest surviving and continuing literary tradition in the world." (Gu, 2011, p. 7)

It would be safe to say that China has managed to preserve its culture due to its ability to appreciate ideas related to a monarchy, with Mao's governing being somewhat similar to keeping a kingdom. Regardless of the condition of its peoples, China managed to maintain its literary tradition and this played an important role in shaping its language and the way that it interacts with Chinese-speaking individuals. "This historical accumulation of idioms substantially expanded the horizon of Chinese imagination and elevated its reasoning." (Gu, 2011, p. 7)

The Chinese culture is impressive because…. [read more]

Nheengatu: A Not-So Dead Language Thesis

… Nheengatu: A Not-So dead language

There has been a recent drive to preserve so-called dead languages. A dead language "is a language which is no longer learned as a native language," which means that it is a language that has usually become static and fixed, and incorporates no new vocabulary from the modern world (What is, 2009, Wise Geek). There is no word for 'computer' or 'digital' in Latin or Ancient Greek, for example, despite the fact tht these words have their roots in these respective dead languages. Other examples of dead languages include Coptic and Sanskrit, and though many words from these languages might live on in English and many other native tongues, as linguistic systems and sets of vocabulary they are entirely fixed…. [read more]

Foreign Language Education in High Term Paper

… So even on a personal basis, more knowledge means more choices, and that alone would seem to be a cogent reason for foreign language study for any student, college-bound, tech-school bound, or workplace bound. It is worthwhile to note that plumbers generally earn more than elementary school teachers, and could actually better afford foreign travel if they had been enculturated to expect it and sufficiently instructed to be able to handle it linguistically and culturally. As it is, descendants of people from Italy, whether they are plumbers or CEOs, will travel there, so there is no reason not to offer the skills and knowledge to provide other possible choices for those plumbers and CEOs.

Clark offers several other reasons as well for studying a foreign…. [read more]

Linguistic History of the Insular Celtic Language Family and Proto Thesis

… Linguistic History Of the Insular Celtic Family and Proto-Celtic

The Celts were ancient people in Europe who spoke the Celtic languages forming a branch of the European languages including other languages which are unknown but which have been associated with Celtic cultural traits in archaeological evidence. Celtic is used in contemporary times to describe the languages and cultures of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man and the French region of Brittany however the Celtic language family includes the Gaelic languages of Scottish, Irish and Manx and the Brythonic languages of Welsh, Breton and Cornish.

The Celtic language family is said to be a branch of the larger Indo-European language and it has been hypothesized that the Celtic prototype language may have derived from…. [read more]

Alaskan Native Languages Term Paper

… Alaskan Language Project

The continuance and historical understanding of the remaining approximate 200 tribal languages in Alaska (Krauss, 1996) is a significant cultural and educational concern for the American Indian and Alaska Native societies. Recently, the tribes and educators have spent considerable resources to ensure they capture the present languages and allow for their survival. Richard Littlebear relates the emergency of this problem:

Our native languages are in the penultimate moment of their existence in this world. It is the last and only time that we will have the opportunity to save them. We must continue to promote the successful programs throughout Alaska and Indian Country. We must quit endlessly lamenting and continuously cataloguing the causes of language death; instead, we must now deal with…. [read more]

Physical Anthropology, Language, and Evolution the Study Essay

… Physical Anthropology, Language, And Evolution

The study of evolution is one of the main tasks in physical anthropology, as the domain is concerned in analyzing human and nonhuman development over time, looking into biological bases and variability. In its essence, evolution can be defined through the theory that biological species have adapted to the environments they inhabited across time and are responsible for the creation of other species. All species apparently change over time, with these changes being more or less obvious. Also, every species that has ever lived in believed to have the same ancestor as the rest of contemporary and extinct species (Chapter 3, p. 36).

One of the first individuals to bring a large contribution to the physical study of evolution is…. [read more]

Pittsburgh the City Term Paper

… Pittsburgh

The city of Pittsburgh has long been known as a 'steel' tough city filled with a variety of individuals who are as rough and coarse as the city itself. This perception of Pittsburgh and its inhabitants began to change in the early 1980's with the decline of the steel production for which the city was famous. Pittsburgh, from the time of the Civil War until those early 1980's, was a city filled with steel mills and other factories whose sole purpose was to provide America and the world with the steel it needed to fuel unprecedented growth. With competition and a decline in the need for steel, Pittsburgh had to transform itself from a city of steel mills to a city that provides (primarily)…. [read more]

Anthropology Andrew Bank's Evolution and Racial Theory Essay

… Anthropology

Andrew Bank's Evolution and Racial Theory: The Hidden Side of Wilhelm Bleek is focused on challenging how Bleek has been romanticized in recent years by those in Southern African scholarship. While his research into San mythology was very important during is Bushman period, it was not the only aspect of his life worthy of note. Because so many scholars spend their time on his San information, they fail to address that Bleek also contributed to racial theory and other intellectual issues in the region during a 25-year period. That is important, as well, since it paints a picture of Bleek that is more than just an anthropologist. With his focus on the importance of San rock art and his equally important focus on race…. [read more]

Linguistics the Phones Essay

… i) the morphological process which manifests in the list is infliction in the form of affixes.

ii) The root word is seen to modify when I. prefix is added. II. suffix is added. III. infix is added

iii) allomorphs are seen within the words, yet the word takes on a different meaning. this is seen with the adding of affixes

19. a. Infliction

b. Infliction

c. Lexeme

d. Lexeme

e. Stress

f. Lexeme

g. Lexeme

h. Infliction

i. Lexeme

j. abbreviation

k. allomorph

l. Lexeme

m. Abbreviation

n. abbreviation

o. Lexeme

p. abbreviation

q. abbreviation

r. acronym

5. a.) Leave

Guests Should


b. Ate

Maria Never

A brownie

c. Fall

Shelf will that

d. Broke



e. Lost

The Student

The debate

f.…. [read more]

Turkey Language Policy Term Paper

… Linguistics

The Republic of Turkey: Language Policy and Nationalism

Despite surface appearances, many modern countries exhibit a considerable amount of linguistic diversity. One notable example, the Republic of Turkey, officially endorses Turkish as its national language while many minority groups within its territory actually speak other languages - many of them entirely unrelated to the national tongue. A number of these linguistic minorities actually represent ethnic enclaves from neighboring populations. Among these are the Greeks, Albanians, Serbians, Bulgarians, and so forth. Others, such as the Kurds, consist of a population that is largely geographically homogeneous, but lacks its own national state. Still others, as for example Armenian, are, or were, once fairly widely dispersed throughout what is now modern Turkey. According to the site,,…. [read more]

Native Americans the Aleutian Islands Term Paper

… ' who owned titles and resources, while the commoners, although free, did not. The 'ruling class' did not, however, rule by divine right. Instead:

Inherited chiefly or elite status had to be validated by performance -- leadership of raids to acquire slaves and booty, management of trade and political alliances, and success in organizing food and wealth production by the corporate kin group. Successful 'rich men' organized feasts (potlatches) and ceremonies which served to redistribute goods and enhance personal and group... household size was thereby linked to potential political influence. (Crowell, unpaged)

There were also occupational and ritual classes, which included artists, shamans, whalers and the Alutiiq kas'at, or 'wise men.' The communities supported these specialists, especially the shamans. (Crowell, unpaged)

While the political arrangements…. [read more]

Anthropology Andean Indigenous Interest Term Paper

… The largest concentrations of native peoples are found in Mesoamerica and the Andean region. The greatest territorial dispersion is found in the Amazon Basin. They speak more than 400 different languages, display a wide range of lifestyles, and have achieved different levels of development. They occupy diverse ecosystems and maintain differing relationships with the countries and societies within which they live. A large percentage of the inhabitants of high-lands are peasant farmers and herders; while in the tropical forests, they are mostly farmers, hunters and fishermen. Those who live in the highlands have a long tradition of contact and involvement with the societies and economies within which they live. People living in the tropical forest regions, however remained relatively isolated until the 1950s and are…. [read more]

Strong Issue Term Paper

… He saw prisoners tortured, shot and worked to death by the thousands, their money and property stolen and their lives ended suddenly and with maximum brutality. In April 1939, a typhus epidemic in Buchenwald that spread to the Germans in the surrounding districts led Hitler to issue an order that all Jews who had visas to leave the country would be released from the camps. Bettleheim noted the irony of inmates who "began thinking of their tormentor as their savior," but he was fortunate to escape to America before Hitler issued his Final Solution order (Pollak, p. 89). Once he and his family escaped, of course, he did everything possible to warn the Allied nations of the true situation in Germany and what was really…. [read more]

US Endangered Species Act Research Proposal

… Endangered Species Act

US Endangered Species Act: An Annotated Bibliography

Preserving our biological heritage in an important issue for all of humanity. For various reasons many species of plants and animals are in danger of extinction (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, SEC 2, 1973). These plants and animals serve many purposes in our world. They are important for the beauty that they add to our world, are of ecological purpose. They are educational, historical, recreational, and many are of scientific value (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, SEC 2, 1973). The plants and animals that inhabit the landscape are of national and global importance. Therefore, the U.S., along with other nations through the use of treaties, has pledged to attempt to preserve the species that are,…. [read more]

Aboriginal People in Australia Research Proposal

… Aboriginal People in Australia

Aboriginal People in White Society

Protection and Segregation From the Mid-Nineteenth to the Mid-Twentieth Century

On February 13, 2008, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd made a move toward equality and openness for all ethnic groups in Australia with his apology to Australia's Indigenous Peoples. A motion to parliament, the apology specifically cited the controversial topic of the Stolen Generations as one for which the Australian government was sorry. Rudd apologized "to the mothers and fathers, the brothers and sisters, for the breaking up of families and communities," and hoped that the apology would allow Australians to become "fully reconciled to their past" in order to "open a new chapter in the history of Australia" (2008, n.p.). The apology came ten years after…. [read more]

Environmental Ethics and Morality Thesis

… Environmental Ethics and Morality

What kind of ethical posture does the United States Government put forward with reference to the environment? Is the U.S. considered a nation that protects and nurtures the wildlife and its habitat? Are their policies and mission statements in the federal government that reflect a deep moral concern for protecting the planet? These are all excellent questions and the answer overall is that yes, the United States Government, through its laws and stated policies, most certainly has an environmental ethic. That having been said, it is also true that because of very different executive styles of managing resources and responding to environmental challenges the United States Government does not always live up to its stated mission vis-a-vis the environment. This paper…. [read more]

Subcultures of Nebraska Term Paper

… Teaching in Multi-Ethnic Classrooms

Experts in education talk about "cultural competence," or the need for teachers to understand the cultures their students come from (Battle et. al., 2002). It's an important concept in education, because The United States is becoming a country of increasingly diverse subcultures (Araoe & Nelson, 2000). Teachers have to understand their own cultures well, and learn about the cultures of their students, so they can better understand not only the students' cultures but how the majority culture interplays with other cultures within the classroom. Teachers have to work hard at that. Even though our student population is becoming more and more culturally varied, the number of teachers not from the majority culture (American of European descent) has been decreasing (Araoe &…. [read more]

Human Evolution and Ecology Research Paper

… The Clovis hypothesis argues that early settler came from Siberia. The hypothesis reveals that men who came from Siberia were unable to return because of the glaciations blocking the area presently known as Canada. An archeologist such as James Adovasio believes that ancient people of Meadowcroft site in Pennsylvania are the earlier settler in the United States and they came from the Canadian ice-free corridor. Thus, there is genetic evidence that the early settler of the site came from Siberia based on the DNA comparison of the modern American and Siberian. However, the pre-Clovis evidence reveals that there is genetic diversity among the settler of the site. On the other hand, the linguistic evidence reveals that there are language diversities among Native Americans.

However, Goebel,…. [read more]

Moma Ref.: The Artistic Importance Research Proposal

… MoMA

REF.: The artistic importance of "The Persistence of Memory"

The aim of this memorandum is to prove to the board the importance of Dali's greatest painting, "The Persistence of Memory," for the artistic development of the 20th century and as a notable work of art in itself. The memorandum will focus on two different levels. The first part of the memorandum will include a descriptive approach to the painting, while the second part will look at the painting from an interpretive perspective, one that will also include some historical and philosophical background to the work of art.


The painting contains several watches and clocks in an apparently desolated landscape. The clocks and watches are melting or rather have a fluid consistency, different than…. [read more]

Environmental Economics and Nature Conservation Term Paper

… Following this line of thoughts, most of the previous environmental programs focused on a specific environmental problem, such as the threats upon a certain species. FEMAT however strived to offer an integrant approach of all threats characterizing the forestry sector and to offer a solution that leads not only to sustainable revenues from touristy activities for instance, but ensures universal solution that would better manage the entire forest ecosystem.

FEMAT was in fact born as a result of the conflicting views and interests of various categories. A relevant example was offered in 1988, as the Forest Service and the Seattle Audubon Society were unable to reach a compromise that would protect the owl, an endangered species, and ensure sufficient limber for the industry. At that…. [read more]

English Literature - Short Stories Historical Perspective Term Paper

… English Literature - Short Stories


Thank You, Ma'm by Langston Hughes (1902-1967) represents a time period of American social culture characterized by different attitudes, language, and values than those prevailing in contemporary American society. In particular, the story emphasizes a very different dynamics between adults and adolescents that cut across all demographic distinctions. It recalls the entire genre of first generation black & white television series of the 1950s-era when virtually all young people replied "yes sir" and "no ma'am" to adults.

In many ways, the attitude of respect that was common at the time is entirely extinct in contemporary social relations except in the most formal circumstances. In the past, adolescents deliberately used substantially different language to address adults than…. [read more]

Children's Books Belitz, L. The Buffalo Hide Annotated Bibliography

… Children's Books

Belitz, L. The Buffalo Hide Tipi Of the Sioux. Pine Hill Press: 2006

This book beautifully weaves together historical quotes, photos and illustrations of the dwellings of the Dakota Indians. This book examines the entire process of making and living in a buffalo hide tipi.

Hardcover: 91 pages

ISBN-10: 1575793385

Binkow, H. Howard B. Wigglebottom Learns to Listen. Thunderbolt Publishing: 2006

A book created to help children improve their listening skills and learn how to pay attention. Contains cute, colorful illustration of a mischievous rabbit.

Reading level: Ages 4-8

Hardcover: 32 pages

ISBN: 0971539014

Bix, D., Buddy Unchained (Sit! Stay! Read!). The Gryphon Press: 2006

Contents thought provoking dialogue about responsible pet care. Winner of the ASPCA Henry Berich Children's Book Award.

Reading…. [read more]

Indentured Servant Analysis Elizabeth Springs Essay

… This suggests that the treatment of indentured servants was up to the local practices, some of which were obviously cruel and inhumane.

Readers don't know how old Elizabeth was at the time she took the trip overseas to the colonies, but given the statistics presented by Tomlins, it is a safe estimate that she was very young, probably twenty years of age or younger. This would make the injustices against her even more frightening.

Author Dorothy Mays writes that most female indentured servants were vulnerable to "sexual advances" (Mays, 2004, p. 196). There was one female for every 6 males at that time, Mays explains, and these females "…were likely to be subjected to relentless sexual pressure" albeit they were not allowed to marry (196).…. [read more]

Environmental Ethics US Government Term Paper

… The 1930s brought about a strange environmental phenomenon called the Dust Bowl, which spread over several states that had been agriculturally important to the United States, and wreaked havoc on the country at a time when many people were suffering due to the Great Depression. The Department of Agriculture created for the promotion of farming in 1862, had become much more than a simple technology promoting agency. Now, the very survival of tens of thousands of farmers and their families was at stake. The U.S. federal government had to make an ethical choice, whether to assist these farmers in their troubles, or whether to allow them to lose all that they had created overnight. This was the beginning of an ethical age for the United…. [read more]

British Rule in Sub-Continent, 1857-1947 Essay

… Even politically speaking, Hindus and Muslims both started taking active part in politics. That was the time when the strength of Congress arose and Muslim League came into existence. Many reforms took place at grass-root level. Educational institutes were developing by the elite class of these two sects to strengthen their youth. And socially speaking, the scenario of sub-continent completely changed. At this point in time, the Crown started losing its hold over subcontinent. Also, the native nations had the hostility arisen among them which later on resulted in the partition.

Now at this point in time, when Subcontinent was facing a big social and political turmoil, the economy of Subcontinent was at its most vulnerable state. Property worth billions was demolished during the partition.…. [read more]

Lorax Probably the Most Ideological Thesis

… Older people remembered the poverty and deprivation of the Great Depression when the majority of people were poor, hungry and unemployed. Only the big revival of industrial capitalism during the Second World War and Cold War had provided them with jobs, cars, houses and a bonanza of consumer goods. They were mystified by the behavior of the mystics, hippies and counterculture dropouts of the 1960s, who seemed to reject suburbia, materialism and the values of the Affluent Society in events like the first Earth Day in 1970. At the time at least, it seemed that this generation would bring about radical changes when it finally came into power, since so many of them claimed to have values similar to the Lorax rather than the Once-ler.…. [read more]

Daimler a Long and Tangled Essay

… Kirk Kerkorian, a billionaire investor with Chrysler who owned significant shares in the merged company, sued in 2000 on the grounds that the Daimler-Benz company had committed fraud in their characterization of the merger.

An assessment that same year illuminates how badly the two companies fit together from the very beginning:

When the two companies merged in 1998, Daimler Chairman Juergen Schrempp promised a "merger of equals." But it wasn't long before Chrysler executives complained the bullheaded Germans wouldn't listen to the Americans.

"We don't demand things of people; we seek people's cooperation," says Gerald Meyers, former chairman of American Motors and now a professor at the University of Michigan business school. "These two cultures were therefore bound to collide."

And collide they did. (Jamieson,…. [read more]

Predators in Three Different Types of Ecosystems Thesis

… ¶ … predators in three different types of ecosystems. Research management strategies for predator control

Predators are a vital element in ecology, as they usually prevent their prey from thriving and growing in numbers uncontrollably. Evolution has made it possible for predators to adapt to various ecosystems from around the world. While a number of predators have been decimated and even brought to extinction by man (who is considered to be the planet's most competent predator), others have enjoyed a growth in population due to diverse beneficial factors.

Canid species are generally known to have the capacity to adapt to almost every environment, regardless of the harsh conditions that they come across. The largest member of the species in the present is the Gray Wolf,…. [read more]

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