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Federal Public Budget Problem Research Paper

… Budget Problem

Health care is viewed by some as the biggest point of crisis in the federal budget. Americans currently spends $2.2 trillion on health care every year and this cost is expected to rise to over $4 trillion by 2017 at current estimated rates of growth. The federal government is responsible for part of this, through the Medicare and Medicaid programs. In the 2009 budget, those two programs accounted for $676 billion, or 19% of the federal budget. In the project 2011 budget, the estimate for Medicare and Medicaid is $788 billion, 20.5% of total outlays. Health care costs are rising faster than other budget costs, and this trend is expected to continue. The baby boom generation is entering its retirement years, and therefore…. [read more]

Budgeting Management Term Paper

… The budget management process is as follows:

1. The top management will need to determine what the company's budget for the future period of time will be. This will need to take into consideration both the company's possible revenues during this time and the expansion strategy that the team has decided upon. It may be the case that the management team has designed an expansion on the market that will take up more of the resources than otherwise. While this may be the case, the spending must be determined by realistic plans and future achievements.

2. The top management team needs to organize the portfolio of projects and the investments it wants to develop in the subsequent period of time.

3. Before the actual spending…. [read more]

Federal Budget Process Every Year Term Paper

… After thorough debate on the topic the conference committee places the concurrent resolution on the budget in the House and Senate are required to vote to approve the concurrent resolution without modifications. The concurrent resolution is not considered mandatory and is not given assent by the President and therefore has no strength of the law. (The Federal Budget Process-Resolution, Reconciliation, Authorizations, and Appropriations)

After completion of the action of the Congress on the concurrent resolution of the budget for the federal financial year it is generally not the practice to think of legislation on that does not adhere to the constraints on spending and revenue spelled out in the resolution. The concurrent resolution may include the directives to the House and the Senate Authorizing Committees…. [read more]

Budget Cuts to the Correctional Essay

… Modern prisons are currently dealing with a number of problems and issues that take devotion, time, and funding to work out. Here, Tewksbury and Dabney (2008) present a number of examples of specific contexts that need devotion and allocation of funds in order to best protect the well-being of both inmates and staff. Unfortunately, many prisons have to deal with both employee and inmate misconduct in appropriate manners that will help lead to viable solutions for the well-being of the facility (Tewksbury & Dabney 2008). This forces prison authorities to have plans on how to deal with specific instances of misconduct, even from prison staff. In order to best approach this, funding and effort is needed to train and educate staff and executive authorities on…. [read more]

Federal Reserve System Term Paper

… Federal Reserve System more commonly known as the Federal Reserve or simply 'the Fed' functions as the Central Bank of United States. It was established by the Congress in 1913 to ensure the nation with a safer and flexible monetary and financial system which would provide stability. Presently the responsibilities of Federal Reserve involves formulation of the monetary policy of the nation by regulating money and credit in pursuit of full employment and stable prices, monitoring and regulating the banking institutions to safeguard the safety and soundness of the banking and financial system of the nation simultaneously safeguarding the credit rights of the consumers; maintenance of the financial stability and management of systematic risk arising out of the operation of financial markets; entailing some financial…. [read more]

Yearly Budget Is an Integral Essay

… The various Congressional committees responsible for overseeing each element of the federal government begin exhaustive review of the budgetary requests made in the President's budget proposal. Congress has the authority to add and reduce spending and to do so in whatever manner it deems appropriate. Subject to presidential veto, Congress is empowered to make alterations to the President's proposed budget and, in the final analysis, has the ultimate power to approve or vote down whatever funding measures are required to support the federal budget.

The first step taken by Congress in regard to the approval of a federal budget is the passage of a budget resolution. A budget resolution is not an actual budget but merely a blueprint that provides a basic framework for how…. [read more]

Classical Budgeting Term Paper

… Budgeting

Prior to the classical budgeting era that emerged in mid-19th century and continued till mid-20th century, we had another model of budgeting which was grounded in the concept of decentralization. But this model was found ineffective and when it came apart, its demerits were all too obvious. United States is heavily indebted to Britain and other western countries for shaping of its various institutions including the public budgeting system. The disruption of decentralization budgeting system paved way for classical budgeting model in early 19th century. The earliest records of the emergence of this system are found in the statements of Baron Louis who was the French minister of finance in the period right after the Napoleonic Wars. He was probably among the pioneers of…. [read more]

Federal Reserve in Stabilizing Essay

… The Federal Reserve has made it mandatory for the commercial banks in the country to keep a certain amount of their funds as a reserve in its centrally deposit so as to meet the uncertain outflow requirements in the long run. These reserves also help the Federal Reserve in controlling the money supply in the country. For example, when the Federal Reserve has to decrease the money supply, it increases the reserve requirements for the commercial banks so as to minimize the lending capacities to the general public. In contrast, the Federal Reserve can decrease the reserve requirements for the commercial banks to encourage more public lending and investments in the country.

Discount Window Lending:

Discount Window Lending is another tool which the Federal Reserve…. [read more]

Federal Budget in a Speech Essay

… Federal Budget

In a speech given before Congress in February, 2010, Senator Judd Gregg states that both Republican and Democrat Senators "acknowledge that our country is on an unsustainable path (and that) next to terrorism and weapons of mass destruction, the single biggest threat that we face as a Nation is the fact that we're on a course toward fiscal insolvency" (Gregg, 2010, p. 48). The primary purpose behind Senator Gregg's words that day was an attempt to overcome the bipartisan infighting concerning the national budget. He was correct in his statement, the assumption that if something is not done soon looms even truer today than it did just slightly less than two short years ago when he made that statement.

The political shenanigans present…. [read more]

Budgeting the Current Economic Crisis Case Study

… Budgeting

The current economic crisis is having ripple affects for the New York City Public Schools. This is because lower tax revenues and declining budgets are exacerbating the various problems that have existed in the system; the most notable would include underperforming schools and budgets. These two issues are important because many of the politicians and schools officials have been attempting to close down those schools that are underperforming. A recent example of this can be seen with the City's plan to close down 19 underperforming schools, despite an injunction that was granted by the Manhattan State Supreme Court. (Otterman, 2010) The reason why this contentious issue is being brought to the forefront is the sobering reality that the achievement scores of many students throughout…. [read more]

Federal Government: Improve Efficiency of National Economy Term Paper

… Federal Government Improvement of the National Economy

Productivity has been a key driving force behind the United States' rapid economic growth, especially in recent years, and a key to future economic growth rates (White 2001). Governor Laurence H. Meyer stated that maximum sustainable growth was achievable by promoting both full employment and price stability. The past few years have shown the positive effects on the employment-price stability combination. Productivity has helped the Federal Reserve in maintain maximum sustainable growth level. Michael H. Moskow, president of the Federal Reserve Board of Chicago, said that maximum sustainable growth could be determined by adding growth in the labor force to growth in productivity. Many macro-economic factors influence the unemployment rate and inflation rate and their effects on maximum…. [read more]

Federal Reserve System and Its Control Over US Economy Term Paper

… Federal Reserve Bank is the central bank, and therefore plays a critical role in the American economy. The Federal Reserve is charged with developing and implementing monetary policy, while Congress and the White House are charged with developing and implementing fiscal policy. Monetary policy is economic policy that relates to the control of the money supply, and the Fed has a number of tools at its disposal that can allow it to exert influence over the money supply. The main areas where the Fed seeks to exert its influence on the macroeconomic environment are in the inflation rate, the unemployment rate and the GDP growth rate. The Fed also conducts a significant amount of research and publishing, in order to improve the amount and quality…. [read more]

Public Budget Cycle Term Paper

… Budget cycle of the U.S. government in an ideal world provides for a regular and regulated process by which budgets can be proposed, evaluated and spent. It should provide for transparent, representative government that Congressional constituents can report to under their constitutional mandate to represent the people. However, in reality, this can become complex in the sheer size and magnitude of the Federal government budget and budget cycle, especially with regard to "black" budget in defense and intelligence budgets. In order to grasp this challenge to democratic government, this paper will deal in detail with the phases of the budget cycle of the U.S. government.

Federal Government budget cycle is rooted in two primary pieces of legislation: the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and the…. [read more]

Banking Budget Analysis Opportunity Essay

… The initial budge for marketing for that crucial first year would be set at $90,000 (C-Metrix Solutions 2).

For the second and third years, there will be continuing costs from the first year as well as additional maintenance costs. First and foremost, rent and employee salaries will continue at the same rate. Rent would be around $60,000 annually. Additionally, manager's salaries would be $180,000 annually and bank tellers would be $29,000 each for a total of $522,000 for all three years for six bank tellers. According to the research, once a bank is set up, its maintenance costs should be around 20% of its overall operating profits (VFA 4). In the second and third years, it will also be important to work on generating a…. [read more]

Museum Budget Cuts One-Page Memo to Staff Term Paper

… Museum Budget Cuts

One-Page Memo to Staff Members Indicating Where Cuts Will Impact the Museum:


My fellow employees, the Montana Museum of Native American Art is facing a financial crisis. Unfortunately, with the loss of the major funding sources, the museum is now facing a 40% cutback. As you may have already heard, we will be making necessary cuts in staff and services in order to allow the museum to survive and eventually thrive again. Although we must make these cuts because of financial reasons, we hope that you will remain with us in spirit as we seek to continue serving the public and eventually return to full staffing and services. We do not know how long this may…. [read more]

Capital Budgeting Essay

… This is a part of a longer term effort to reduce the outstanding obligations while interest rates are low. To achieve these objectives, officials have been increasing the size of sinking fund and paying off the highest yielding obligations first. At the same time, they have been refinancing under a new program with a lower interest rate. ("Comprehensive Annual Financial Report," 2012) ("Statistical Section," 2012) (Lee, 2012)

The net effects are that property taxes and the total amounts of debt have increased. While the sinking fund, is also rising, in order to continue with the debt exchange program. The below table is illustrating these changes over the last two years.

Outstanding Debt in Contrast with Property Taxes 2010 to 2011


Sinking Fund

Net General…. [read more]

Importance of a Budget Research Proposal

… ¶ … Budget

An old alliterative adage maintains that "prior planning prevents poor performance," and this is certainly the case with personal budgets today. In order to successfully navigate the difficulties associated with keeping a solid credit rating and ensuring that a household has sufficient funds available to meet day-to-day living needs, it is absolutely essential to understand how much money is coming in and where it goes every month. The personal budgeting process, though, is fraught with opportunities for fudging here and there in ways that can doom the enterprise entirely, but there is some solid guidance available to help the novice develop and adhere to a budget today. In this regard, this paper provides a review of Ivan Cintron's article, "The Art of…. [read more]

Working Life of a Grade Term Paper

… Each morning the teacher followed the same subject order. She explained to me that with children this young there are still students who do not do well with changes in routine. She preferred to keep their routine as consistent as possible. Each morning they class did reading first. The teacher believed that was the most highly focused skill to learn and she preferred to teach it when the children's minds were fresh. Each day they held lessons in all subjects. In addition the class had singing time, reading story time and art. Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays were the days the teacher held one of each of these activities. On Tuesday and Thursday the class went to PE in the gym which provided the teacher with…. [read more]

Hazard Awareness the Federal Government Term Paper

… Hazard Awareness

The Federal government recently made a report (Report by the Working Group on Natural Disaster Information Systems Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction, National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Rresources) called Effective Disaster Warnings. Neal Lane, the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology observed that:

Although the technology presently exists to build smart receivers to customize warnings to the users' local situation whether at home, at work, outdoors, or in their cars, substantial improvement can be made with better utilization of emerging opportunities provided by existing and new technologies. Current warnings can target those at risk at the county and subcounty levels and it should also be possible to customize the information for trucks, trains, boats and airplanes.…. [read more]

Public Programs Essay

… ("Cost Control," 2012)


Clearly, the cuts at the DOJ are having an impact on cities and states. This is because they are receiving less funding for law enforcement. However, to mitigate these effects, officials have been prioritizing and spreading them out. This means that any kind of decreases will be around 1.0% (on a year over year basis). At the same time, they have been increasing funding to those areas that are considered to be priorities. The combination of these factors is allowing the DOJ to maintain the current amounts of funding of $27.1 billion per year. This is down from previous years, when the budget was at $40 billion. As a result, the DOJ will be required to maintain this rate in the…. [read more]

Health Care Reform Federal Deficit Thesis

… The final score of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with reconciliation amendments was released publicly 20 March 2010. The CBO and the Joint Committee on Taxation estimated that the act would lead to a net reduction in federal deficits of $143 billion over ten years, with $124 billion in net reductions from health reform and $19 billion derived from education provisions (Eakin and Ramlet, 2010). Total subsidies in the act exceed $1 trillion over ten years. They include insurance exchange tax credits for individuals, tax credits for small employers, the creation of reinsurance and highrisk pools, and expansions to Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP). To finance the subsidies and reduce the deficit, total cost savings are projected to be nearly…. [read more]

Government Budgeting for Kelsey Essay

… An effective and innovative plan to fight crime needs to be coupled with such measures in order to best maximize the city's efficiency at reducing crime rates. A plan to address the crime issue could include reassigning police where they are needed, thus increasing police presence in the most troubled neighborhoods in Kelsey. This would help redistribute limited resources more effectively. Despite the limited budget, the city needs to follow up on its promises stated in the 2005 fiscal budget report and "continue to re-examine current programs, re-engineering processes and competitiveness in the City as necessary," (City of Kelsey 2006 p 4). Putting more officers on the streets during the overnight hours, when most crimes tend to occur, while helping to avoid overtime. Patrol already…. [read more]

History of Federal Aid to Education Term Paper

… ¶ … history of federal aid to education in the United States. The reader will gain sound knowledge about the history of this federal aid program through a detailed account

Education is the primary responsibility of a nation. It is the nation that established educational institutions along with the private and public sectors putting in their part. For the school year 2004-2005 it is estimated that the State, private and local sources contribute 90% of the total value spent on education throughout the nation which amounts to approximately $909 billion. This shows that the contribution by the federal department was approximately 10%.

The Department of Education came into existence in 1867 whose role was to collect information and compile data on the schools and the…. [read more]

New Jersey's Budget Crisis Matt Essay

… " Leonhardt states, "The real problem with most union contracts for public workers is not the money -- it's almost everything else." Contacts which delay actual costs have obvious political benefits. "Both politicians and union leaders have decided that generous future benefits offer the easiest way to hold down spending and still satisfy workers. The result is government pay that's skewed too heavily toward pensions and health insurance." Unfortunately, these deals are not reasonable, realistic or affordable.

Americans need to be realistic about what the government is capable of doing. Leonhardt notes, "Americans' [have a] collective desire for low taxes and generous government benefits. We want our politicians to promise us tax cuts, strong military, safe streets, good schools and unchanged Medicare and social security.…. [read more]

Expenditure Revenue Analysis NY PA Term Paper

… The deteriorating infrastructure could be addressed and since the ratio for capital projects is fairly low in New York, it is reasonable to suspect that these activities could be increased. However, in Pennsylvania the ratio is much higher, and as a consequence it should be maintained at its current rate rather than be increased.

Write your analysis and recommendation explaining your recommended course of action. Analyze the percentage of the major category of expenditure compared to the total net operating expenditures.

Since New York's capital expenditure ratio is well under ten percent, I would consider raising the ratio by five percent to make the total roughly thirteen percent. This would allow the state to address infrastructure and education issues while simultaneously stimulating the state's economy.…. [read more]

Oldest and Largest Federal Aid Term Paper

… Teachers work with students from kindergarten through 3rd grade, utilizing "Literacy Teams" and small-group dynamics - instruction which is offered in addition to regular classroom literacy instruction. Literacy Teams meet three times a week for half an hour, during which time 3 to 5 adults instruct large and small groups, outside the traditional classroom. Assessment of student achievement is based on actual student reading growth, not standardized testing.

For the lowest achieving students in first grade, for example, a program has been established called "Reading Recovery." Teachers trained in the Literacy Team skills work individually with four 1st grade students who are struggling with reading. Once students are "functioning independently at an average first-grade level" (MacKenzie, 2001) they are released from Reading Recovery (RR) -…. [read more]

Budget Components (Policy Document Term Paper

… The negative aspect of performance budgeting is that it is difficult to develop measurable performance goals for simple programs, such as street sweeping. It is hard to set measurable goals for emergency medical services and other less-quantitative programs. Also, data collection can be difficult." (


Provides information regarding the benefits received in accordance to the expenditure amount

Holds the performance of the department managing the budget as directly accountable


Some programs have to establish a net benefit when there is no obvious performance evaluation to uphold

Some programs have a mandatory tax payer effect, such as recycling. The performance management technique provides little value here

Zero-Based Budgeting:

Zero-Based budgeting is a function of starting each year with a clean budget and facilitating the…. [read more]

Assistive Technology the Federal Government A-Level Outline Answer

… Assistive Technology

The federal government has defined assistive technology (AT) devices as "any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially or off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities" [Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA 2004), 20 U.S.C 1401 (251)] (cited in Parette, Blum, and Boeckmann, 2009). In simpler language, one can say that an AT device is anything that helps people with disabilities lead more normal lives, particularly in an educational setting. As Parette, Blum and Boeckmann point out, AT is being used increasingly in early childhood settings for children who are at risk or have disabilities. The advantages of early intervention are clear and have…. [read more]

Legal Nurse Consultant Term Paper

… Legal Nurse Consultant Business Plan

First form a good plan, Franklin, (1868 (1996) stresses. Then, for an individual to help ensure his/her businesses' success, according to Franklin, (1868 (1996), he/she needs to: "make the execution of that same plan his sole study and business." The objective of the study, to make a business plan or a feasibility study for establishing a Legal Nurse Consultant's Office begins with Franklin's contention: forming a good plan.

The following lists details related to attaining the goal of attaining a good plan:

To study the history of the legal nurse consultant profession: their educational requirements and licensure to be able to practice;

To look carefully into the trend of the profession in terms of future demands for this profession;

To…. [read more]

Forcasting the Years Ahead Pose a Serious Term Paper

… Forcasting

The years ahead pose a serious difficulty for all analysts. Although chairman Alan Greenspan is trying to present the situation from an optimistic perspective, things do not seem so bright as Mr. Greenspan has presented them to the Senate and to the House of Representatives. Huge public debt and current account deficits have brought a significant deterioration of the U.S. public debt. Commentators see things differently, but the forecast prepared by Mr. Greenspan seems a little exaggerated.

Chairman Greenspan based his testimony on the principle that expansion is self-sustaining and that the result is not merely quantitative (a faster pace for the economy), but also qualitative (broad-based expansion and notable gains in employment). Higher performance has lead to higher demand and, as a consequence,…. [read more]

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