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Public Budgeting A-Level Coursework

… Public Budgeting

Over the last several years, the issue of public budgeting has been increasingly brought to the forefront for all levels of government. The main reason is because of the large budget deficits that are being realized by: local, state and federal governments from the stagnant economy. This is causing these entities to experience a shortfall in revenues. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the debt levels for the federal government between 2000 and 2010 (which is illustrated in the below table).

National Debt Levels of the U.S. Government from 2000 to 2010

Total Amount of Debt

$5.674 trillion

$5.807 trillion

$6.228 trillion

$6.783 trillion

$7.379 trillion


$8.507 trillion


$9.008 trillion


$9.008 trillion


$10.025 trillion


$11.910…. [read more]

Finance Ameritrade Essay

… Finance

Ameritrade is about to make a substantial investment in new equipment and needs to estimate its cost of capital. The company has strong historic returns on investment of 40%, but uses a discount rate of 15%. One analyst has used a discount rate of 12%. Some managers think only the cost of debt is relevant, so they will need to have it explained to them why they are wrong. The company needs to make a determination about the cost of capital.

Therefore, the company's financial managers must make some assumptions. It is believed/recommended that Ameritrade will use a discounted cash flow analysis, with a net present value calculation, in order to make a determination about the financial merits of the project. Thus, the company…. [read more]

International Project Finance Essay

… Project Financing

International Project Finance: Commercial risk

Completion risk

Completion risk entails the concept of whether the project can be completed on the recommended period and within the set amount of budget

Completion risk is also known as Cost Overrun risk or the construction risk. Three common terms employed in order to allocate the completion risk. One of the concepts is cost-of construction. This entails the fact that the cost of completion tends to be fundamental to the financial liability of the project that is under construction. This is because the all the financial assumptions are dependent on the initial cost that was assumed during the start of the project. In some cases, the assumed ratios are also dependant on the cost of construction of…. [read more]

Public Administrator Term Paper

… But does the average man or women in the street know what a "hedge fund" is? Not likely. So understanding the need to regulate these money-related institutions goes over the public's head in most cases.

TWO: When taxpaying citizens -- already stretched financially by the recession, by the loss of jobs and the housing crisis -- witness the government bailing out banks with the $700 billion bank bailout bill (Troubled Assets Recovery Program -- TARP), they demand regulations that prevent future financial disasters. In other words, when things are going well, conservative politicians calling for a loosening of regulations have a strong appeal. When there is a financial crisis, however, progressive politicians calling for stricter regulation get a lot of attention.

THREE: The Gulf Oil…. [read more]

Public Corruption Is an Obstacle Essay

… Moreover, I attest to the fact that corruption has escalated because of human stratification and changes that go hand in hand with adoption of modernism from the western societies.

Public corruption is an undertaking that has taken root in the modern society because of the attributed courses of human interaction. The westernization of the traditional human activities has led to decay of the strict rules and regulations that governed or shun public corruption in the society. Therefore, the westernization of the human activities has resulted in the generation of a society that has loose stratifications or attachments of management. Dealing with corruption should be attributed to the specified avenues of legal advancement and human willingness. For instance, corruption escalates because of the intent people develop…. [read more]

Finance in Public Term Paper

… Finance

In public finance, there are a number of ideas that are used to discuss specific concepts and strategies. This helps administrators to comprehend what is happening and the long-term effects of various events on their fiscal position. To fully understand how they are applied requires carefully examining the fundamentals of public finance, the euimarginal principle, pareto criterion, the justification for government action, public choice and how these topics relate to the budgetary process. Together, these elements will highlight the different strategies that are utilized for discussing various ideas and how they are impacting public entities. (Ekstedt, 2012) (Holzer, 2011)

The fundamental principles of public finance

The fundamental principles of public finance are to collect enough taxes and utilize them to effectively provide numerous services…. [read more]

Business Finance Essay

… The problem with taking loans in long-term is the high interest rates which increase the cost of the business. Another issue that banks and institutions require is security in the form of business assets which business might lose if it did not repay the money. And last but not the least problem that although banks do not control the business but they keep asking for regular updates.

Another common source used for raising long-term finance is the issuance of shares in the company. This way company stays away from external problems but then it has to pay dividends at the end of year in order reward investors for their investment. The shareholders also take risk by investing because the value of shares keeps fluctuating. This…. [read more]

Public Finance Proposal New York Essay

… Transport has been a crucial problem to the people of New York. Annual funding set apart by the New York government to finance the improvement of transportation systems in the State, used to construct bridges and highways which aid in improvement of the transport network, with approximately $920.7 million set for the road improvement projects. Alternative sources of fuel projects focusing on the increment of natural gas supply, which will serve as an alternative fuel for both light and heavy duty engines vehicles. Introduction of Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) aimed to improve bus programs in the state, which will boost the bus market as an alternative source of transport. Also, the use of hydrogen in New York is also a step for a long time…. [read more]

Private and Public Budget Strategies Research Paper

… In all cases, though, profit is the driving force. If the company does not make any profit, it means that it is going down the drain (Lee, Johnson & Joyce, 2012).
State agencies are funded through fiscal transfer, fees, charges borrowing and taxes. Fiscal transfers are done through intergovernmental transfers and money transfers from foreign governments and organizations. It is hard to predict revenue in government because it is determined by factors beyond the control of the public entities such as the performance of the economy at both local and national levels. Property taxes rise over 30% of the revenue generated from tax sources at national level. The taxes are mainly from capital and land. One important high point of property tax is that it…. [read more]

Public Budgeting Public Schools Are Financed Essay

… Public Budgeting

Public schools are financed by a number of means. Property taxes are one source of funding. Often, to comply with the 14th Amendment, states must ensure that there is an equivalent amount of money available to all districts, and that often means that the state must top up the contribution that each county, city or district makes through the property tax. In addition, some states contribute lottery or gambling revenues, or money from general revenue. Federal grants make up another source for educating funding. This paper is going to focus on the property tax issue, however, and some of the challenges associated with using the property tax to finance education.

Voters often want property tax reductions. In some places, they vote on the…. [read more]

Public Policy and Unintended Consequences Thesis

… In this way, transparency in action and behavior is also important to the public as end-user. From a managerial perspective, the incentive to become transparent is, in a way, related to the monopolization within a certain industry. If the regulations exist where it is illegal or unfavorable for a firm to hold a monopoly (i.e. In the presence of certain government regulations), it will have more of an incentive to be as transparent as possible. This statement holds true only when the firm is not also incentivised to give first stakeholder priority to the government, through unneeded and unmoderated regulation.

These rules and understandings of market forces and transparency also have a direct application within the UK's party finance realm. This means that as exceptionalism…. [read more]

Public Private Comparator Public Sector Term Paper

… As one can see, a variety of factors affect the public-private partnership. Not all countries treat public-private partnerships in the same way. They have different agencies for administering public-private partnerships, different ways of dividing risk and different ways of defining the public-private partnership. There are many differences in the types of transactions, payment methods, and rules that govern the public-private partnership. In order to understand the public sector comparator, one must first understand the various factors that influence the public-private partnership in its many forms.

The PPP in the UK, Australia, USA, Germany, and in Korea

The UK. In the UK several debates, such as the use of public sector comparators, the initiation process of PPPs, choice of discount rate, and cost of capital between…. [read more]

Finance One Difference Between Industries Multiple Chapters

… DQ1, Chapter 5, 6. Investors are seldom made whole with the "make whole" provision. A premium of 0.4% over Treasury is not consistent with the risk level of the firm. The YTM on the bond will reflect the actual credit quality of the bond, but ECY is not nearly large enough to have AAA credit, so the make whole provision does not apply a significant enough risk premium to the bonds -- the investors are not entirely made whole.

7. I would recommend regular coupon issue for a couple of reasons. The first is that the company raises more money in the short run, though it pays out more in interest down the road. However, regular coupon bonds are also more common and therefore have…. [read more]

Finance Such as Present Value and Capital Term Paper

… ¶ … finance such as present value and capital asset pricing model to name a couple. This paper will explore three business models in order to better understand present value and discount rates. This paper will look at the security of equity future and more specifically Wal-Mart's performance. This paper will also examine the relationship between CAPM vs. APT and discuss the method used when determining a rate of return and capital budgeting purposes.

You inherit an oil well. This oil well is believed to have three years worth of oil left before it dries up. Here is how much income this oil well is projected to bring you each year for the next three years: Year 1: $160,000; Year 2: $210,000; Year 3: $320,000.…. [read more]

Public Relations Research Paper

… Juggling the demands of a wide variety of contributors to the annual report can also be a management challenge for public relations practitioners. It is a good idea to gain agreement and consensus on the directions of the annual report right from the start. This can avoid too many deadline-halting changes down the track (Cutlip, et al. 2012).

Public relations often use targeting strategies to hone a message to special differentiated publics. However, for an annual report, the audience is so diverse that it must appeal to a very 'general' public. Alternately many companies now produce the annual report in a number of versions, providing a different annual report for each different audience. Australia Post produces a special employee annual report, which is simpler, shorter…. [read more]

Public Budgeting and Finance Term Paper

… Public Budgeting

The idea of a sales tax has circulated as a means of addressing the budget deficit. A national sales tax exists in many developed nations around the world to support governmental revenues. The rates range from 5% in Canada and Japan to over 20% in most of Europe. The United States would come in the lower end of that. This paper will investigate how a sales tax would work in the United States.

There are basically two types of sales tax proposals, a sales tax and a value-added tax. The difference between the two of these is subtle but distinct. A sales tax is applied throughout the supply chain, but a value-added tax is only on the value-added through the supply chain. Under…. [read more]

Public Budgeting: A Significant Amount Essay

… These opportunity costs include enabling budgeters to monitor organizational functions, provide a mechanism for comparing actual results with budgets, compels the management to plan for the future, and enhances distribution of scarce resources ("Chapter 4 - Budgetary Control," n.d.). On the contrary, the opportunity costs of management concerns include promoting clear definition of areas of responsibility, stimulating employee motivation, and promoting communication and coordination.

Question 4:

Planning, management and control orientations have considerable impacts on the characteristics of budgeting. The budget development phase of the budget cycle is controlled by the prevailing orientations of department and executive budget policy makers. As a result, these different orientations have significant effect on the concerns and decision priorities of budget policy makers. Generally, different orientations compel these individuals…. [read more]

Public Debt and Tax Cut Term Paper

… Public Debt and Tax Cut debt that has been accumulated by the Federal Government in either its Treasury or in its Financing Bank is referred to as a 'Public Debt'. The debt could have been incurred by either the selling of 'securities' and bonds to the public, or through the borrowing of funds from a Federal account. A public debt can also be defined as the total amount that the Federal Government has accrued due to all its borrowings in the past. (Definition of Public Debt) Federal Debt, on the other hand, can be defined as the total amount of debt that is owed by the Federal Government that is as yet unpaid. A federal debt can consist of both public debt and agency debt.…. [read more]

Public Budgeting Essay

… Public Budgeting

There have been a number of proposals put forth to deal with the different issues in the federal budget. As one of the largest components of the federal budget is Social Security, that program has come under some scrutiny from people seeking to balance the budget. Social Security provides retirement benefits based on the amount that the person has earned during his or her lifetime.

Social Security is funded through payroll taxes, and should be revenue neutral at worst. The baby boomers of today who are expanding Social Security's beneficiary rolls were the ones who paid into it through decades of surpluses. However, from a budget perspective this is a problem because past governments spent those surpluses. Now, tax receipts to pay into…. [read more]

Public Sector Unions Research Paper

… In 1947 the Taft Hartley act was passed which removed many union gains from the Wagner act. It very explicitly denied public workers the right to strike, and required that workers who did strike would be dismissed (brown, 2010). This legislation was hard to overcome, but support began to grow for allowing public unions to form.

At this time, public sentiment began to change, leaning more toward unions, as public employees were demanding change. One challenge of the sixties was the battle for collective bargaining rights. The age of teacher militancy began in November 1960 with a one-day walkout of the united federation of teachers of New York City; two years later the UFT won the first comprehensive teacher contract in the country (Edwards, 2010).…. [read more]

Public Economics Term Paper

… Public Economy

The percentage of government spending as a proportion of GDP is often used as a measure of the size of government is this measure typically correlated with the underlying influence of the government in the economy? Please explain. Then describe potential problems with this measure very clearly, illustrating the argument in your answer with relevant examples.

It might be tempting to make an easy correlation between a high level of government involvement in the economy and a high percentage of the GDP coming from government expenditures. However, although there is certainly a correlation between the size of a government and government spending as a proportion of GDP, it is not necessarily the case that the greater the government's expenses as proportion of GDP,…. [read more]

Making the Cleveland Cavaliers a Publicly Owned Team Essay

… ¶ … Going Public

While many entities elect to remain private in an attempt to avoid the public scrutiny as well as expenses associated with going public, the decision to go public could benefit an entity immensely. It is however important to note that the relevance of matching the various benefits of going public against the costs of such a move cannot be overstated. In addition to addressing what "taking the team public" means from a business perspective, this text will highlight the various advantages and disadvantages of going public. Further, I will discuss the process you as the owner of Cleveland Cavaliers should expect to go through as you seek to offer stock to the public. I will conclude with a commentary on whether…. [read more]

Public Policy Analysis Essay

… It is necessary on a school-by-school basis to create physical education programs that address the unique needs and challenges of student's physical health. For example, in a district where there is a large population of obese students, incorporating more cardiovascular activity may be preferred in gym class, because students do not have the time or money to devote to sports outside of school. In schools where only a few talented students dominate the gym class, less competitive activities like obstacle courses can be incorporated. "The students shouldn't be standing around. PE classes should keep kids active for at least 50% or more of the time they are in class" (Greenlaw 2012). Although healthy competition can be an important way to stimulate students' interest, it should…. [read more]

Public Policy and Service Research Paper

… The term leadership, of course, brings up additional theories, viewpoints and modes of operation, which then led me to even more research.

I discovered that I was both a coach and a leader, and aspired to be more of both through knowledge and experience. Indeed, leaders and coaches, whatever the title is really mentors within the context of a particular organization or activity. In governmental service, leaders help communicate policy, but in that, they mentor staff, communicate with other stakeholders, and model the type of behavior that engenders confidence. In the workplace, we may define leadership as a coaching model, or a framework to use as an underlying structure to build teamwork, confidence, improve performance and behavior. In this way, someone with more experience and…. [read more]

Public Administration the Merit Pay System Term Paper

… Public Administration

The Merit Pay System

The initiative of merit pay seems very simple on the surface. If one pays high-performing employees more than low-performing ones, the high performers will remain and keep performing at a high level, while the low performers will leave or have inducement to get better. And it can function like that, if workers understand precisely what it takes to receive an elevated raise, if there are no other aspect but performance in pay assessments, if there are adequate finances to pay out considerable differences in raise quantities, and if supervisors have the confidence to be truthful, and stand up to emotional stress (Colter, 2003).

Employers have been attempting to connect performance evaluations to pay increases ever since the end of…. [read more]

Public Budgeting Discussion Chapter

… Public Budgeting

Whether it is known or not, public or governmental budgeting is different from non-governmental budgeting. Public budgeting is more concerned with the sustainability of programs whereas as private budgeting is more concerned with maximizing profits while minimizing losses.

Philosophy of Public Finance

The philosophy behind public finance has to do with financial matters relating to the government in terms of taxation among local, state and federal government entities. The government relies on taxpayers to fund the various government programs and agencies. At times, funds will be moved from one program to another to keep a program growing or budgets may be slashed because there aren't enough funds. Public Finance depends greatly on the taxpayers and if there doesn't seem to be enough funds…. [read more]

Public Administration Magna Carta Mercantilism Thomas Jefferson Research Proposal

… Public Administration

Magna Carta


Thomas Jefferson's famous phrase

Public Administration

Budgeting and Accounting Act of 1921

Full Employment Act of 1946

Annual Budget

Comprehensive Budget

Detailed Line Items

Identification of all transactions

Apportionment and Allotment

Planned-programming budgeting

Management by objections

Zero-base budgeting

Target-base Budgeting

Nondiscretionary spending


Sunset Legislation

Permanent Authority

Earmarked revenue

What are the challenges of state and local budgeting?

Cost overruns on federally mandated programs and rapid spending growth are a couple of challenges that state and local governments have when it comes to budgeting. When looking at revenue, the collapse of the stock market and the generally slow economy has kept tax receipts well below what most states expected. The largest errors that have been made in forecasting have been…. [read more]

Business -- Corporate Finance A-Level Coursework

… com, LLC, 2013). Simultaneously, the company's IPO was so disappointing in some respects that it was referred to as "The Facebook Flop" (Temple, 2012). The disparity between the wide popularity and wealth of Facebook vs. The questionable results of its IPO is intriguing.

3). Find out what you can about your SLP company's IPO.

Facebook, Inc. began its Initial Public Offering (IPO) by filing its Registration Statement on the required S1 Form with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on February 1, 2012 (Facebook, Inc., 2012). The company's underwriters were Morgan Stanley, J.P. Morgan and Goldman, Sachs & Co. On the included Preliminary Prospectus, Facebook, Inc. claimed to have 845 million active monthly users and submitted the following Consolidated Balance Sheet:

As of December 31,…. [read more]

Public/Government Finance Public (Government) Research Paper

… While the implications of that requirement are outside the scope of this paper, job creation presents its own painful challenges.

The Implications and Measuring Success

There is furious debate around the country about funding for social programs, so almost any recommendation will be considered controversial. Having said that, the obvious solution is tax reform that eliminates tax breaks and closes tax loopholes for wealthy individuals and corporations. This philosophy does not sit well with a number of people, but who else has the money? Certainly not the shrinking middle class or the growing disadvantaged class of people living near or below poverty levels. Moreover, the current tax structure makes no economic sense, nor does it advance any worthwhile social policy, in so far as it…. [read more]

Public Policy in the State Research Paper

… Maryland's forest lands future is greatly depending on private landowners.

Forest land in Maryland is owned by the following entities:

Individuals 51%

Public Sector 20%

Farmers 18%

Forest Industry 1% (State of Maryland -- Forest Taskforce, 2010)

It is reported that the Forest Conservation Act 9 FCA) has been successful in its implementation of the Forest Conservation Act (FCA) has "slowed the loss of forest land and has focused forested areas along stream valley corridors where water quality benefits can be most effectively realized." (State of Maryland -- Forest Taskforce, 2010)

VIII. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism

Ecotourism and sustainable tourism are presently hot items in the tourism market and this includes the destination of natural areas such as forest lands, lakes, mountains and streams in…. [read more]

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