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Flow States and Sport Essay

… It is also essential to note the tendency of relationship between hypnotherapists to gain significant personal performance regardless of the competition within the sporting arena (Flaymonville et al., 2006). Unconscious mind is the driving force between most of the beliefs and behavior of individuals. This makes it ideal for the technique, which elicits change at unconscious level to be highly effective. This is an indication that hypnosis is a critical technique that offers the drive for the development of positive change in the sporting performance and the concept of flow. Hypnosis is essential in enhancing the ability of athletes to overcome performance anxiety and jitters before the competitions thus gaining optimum performance. This is because of the ability of the technique to facilitate the acquisition…. [read more]

Psychology in Sports Thesis

… Sports Psychology

Athletes can often be seen and heard giving themselves positive affirmations concerning how they are going to perform. This scenario often happen before and even during competitions. The purpose of such murmuring is to prepare the mind and the psyche for the task ahead. The topic of sports psychology has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years. Athletes and trainers alike recognize that being successful in the sports arena involves more than physical strength. It also involves mental strength and stability. The purpose of this discussion is to explore psychology in sports and the impact that the techniques utilized in sports psychology have on athletes and their ability to perform at an optimal level.

Psychology in Sports

Sports Psychology is defined…. [read more]

Sport Psychology Most Forms of Games Require Term Paper

… Sport Psychology

Most forms of games require not only physical skills but also a very strong mental capacity and these include golf, tennis and skating. According to the view of most coaches, sports are 90% mental and 10% physical. This is very important in athletics where even a difference of a hundredth or a tenth of a second can be the difference between champions and ordinary athletes. The requirement of an extra edge is very important. Thus many psychological techniques are being used by athletes to take them up to the next level. There are uses of imagery in solving different problems in sports is in mental practice of particular performing skills, enhancing confidence and encouraging positive thinking, solving problems, having control over arousal and…. [read more]

Sports Management Term Paper

… This indicates that sport can be advantageous not only through involvement of people in it, but also through other types of participation and therefore recommends that the necessity for a broader evaluation of the influence on involvement and participation on sport, post games. (Literature Review: The impact of major sporting events)

The quality of service has been analyzed in the field of business management for years since the market is more competitive and marketing management has shifted its concentration from inherent performance like production to outward objectives like satisfaction and customers' perception of service quality. But the term service quality has only focused in the field of sport and recreational literature during the last twenty years. SERVQUAL that indicates the conventional disconfirmatory model was considered…. [read more]

Why Does Gender Matter in Sport? Research Paper

… ¶ … Gender Matter in Sports?

There may well be reasons that gender should not matter in sports. However, sidestepping questions of morality or justice, gender does currently matter in sports for several reasons. Gender definitions have traditionally created and perpetuated differences that make gender matter in sports, though these gender definitions are being challenged. In addition, studies have found gender differences in injury, specifically regarding concussions among high school athletes. In any event, due to current circumstances in sports, gender matters.

Gender Definitions

Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males (Messner, 1989). Furthermore, a public masculine identity is fundamental for males within society (Messner, 1989). The actual content of any individual's identity comes from that person's choices in areas such as…. [read more]

Youth Sports Development Center Business Plan

… Youth Sports Development Center will be organized as a Limited Liability Corporation under the existing state laws. A centralized facility has been rented to provide a full range of coaching and instructions services in the sports of baseball, basketball, football, soccer, tennis, volleyball, and lacrosse. This facility will contain the finest fitness equipment necessary to provide the young athlete with all his or her individual needs. Additionally, the Center will hire the best available coaching and instructors.

Participation in organized sports has exploded in the past several decades and parents are increasingly eager to provide their children with any available edge to enable them to be more competitive. Informal surveys indicate that within a 20-mile radius of the Youth Sports Development Center there are over…. [read more]

Hockey in the United States Essay

… Hockey

In the United States, hockey is sometimes the subject of light-hearted mockery about its being the "whitest of sports." Part of the reason is that it is true - few sports in North America have a higher percentage of white players. But the other part of the reason is that hockey's racial makeup often goes undocumented or consigned to the curiosity bin. Canadians celebrate that Jackie Robinson played in Montreal before breaking baseball's colour barrier, but few would recognize the name of Willie O'Ree. Fans are familiar with names like Bryan Trottier, Wade Redden and Sheldon Souray, but few could tell you that they are all Metis. This paper will explore the topic of race as it relates to Canada's national game. Is the…. [read more]

Cornell Sports Marketing Strengths Term Paper

… Customer Base: Far broader, drawing on a much larger non-Cornell base. Also more of a focus on marketable men's games and spectator sports, as opposed to less popular female and boutique sports, like crew and lacrosse.

Reputation: Depending on team and sport, reputation for giving 'better game' in professional sports, overall, Ivy League athletes, fairly or unfairly, looked upon in a dim fashion.

Financial Position: More leeway to experiment, as profit margin higher.

Business Strategy: Marketing of high profile sports, teams, and professional athletes The most important strengths we possess and the best opportunities we face are:

First: There is a heightened disillusionment with professional athletes, given recent doping scandals, and a heightened interest in amateur and less popular sports, given the recent Summer Games.…. [read more]

Non-Verbal Communication in Athletic Competition Research Paper

… Nonverbal Communication

Non-Verbal Communication in Athletic Competition

Non-verbal communication (or NVC) is carried on through presentational codes such as gestures, eye movements, or qualities of voice. These codes can give messages only about the here and now. My tone of voice can indicate my present attitude to my subject and listener: it cannot send a message about my feelings last week. Presentational codes, then, are limited to face-to-face communication or communication when the communicator is present. They have two functions.

The first, as we have seen, is to convey indexical information. This is information about the speaker and his or her situation through which the listener learns about her or his identity, emotions, attitudes, social position, and so on. The second function is interaction management.…. [read more]

Are College Scholarship Athletes Really Amateurs? Essay

… College Sports as Amateur Athletics: A Critical Analysis

The term amateur in college athletics seems to no longer be applicable. Without a doubt, the college sports arena has become a spectacle of its own, allowing players to become overnight celebrities and guaranteeing their positions as future professional players There have been some subtle and not-so-subtle changes to how sports are viewed and accepted in the main stream that have led to this shifting of focus from "amateur" in college to a level all on its own. Much of this has to do with the amount of attention and money pouring into college level athletics recently, but there have been other factors as well.

Media attention has created an entirely new division of sports within the…. [read more]

Hockey the Universal, Individual Hockey: The Sport Essay

… Hockey

The Universal, Individual Hockey:

The Sport as Art and Community in Canada

In Gruneau and Whitson's Hockey Night in Canada, the authors present Canada's most famous and identity-forming sport as a symbol of the universal contrast between high and popular culture as well as the contrast between Canadian and American cultures. While Gruneau and Whitson remark that some have criticized the sport for a variety of regions -- ranging from commercialization to association with lower, or mass, culture to an overwhelming masculinity -- others contends that hockey is an important part of Canadian mythology, not only uniting the past with the present, but also bringing communities together. In today's society where gender is a primary, if not the primary, issue in contemporary culture, however,…. [read more]

High School Marketing in American Term Paper

… The competition for such academic assistance is stiff and schools that position themselves to promote their students are providing their students with a distinctive advantage

The reality is that there are very few superstars that automatically gather all the attention of college recruiters. The majority of student-athletes that participate on the collegiate level were good athletes in high school but not necessarily great athletes. The great ones do not require assistance in getting noticed but the good ones often do. An aggressive, sales oriented marketing person working on behalf of a school's athletes could effectively place such athletes in college athletic programs that benefit both the athlete and the college program.

The advantage of an in-house marketing person working on behalf of a school's athletes…. [read more]

Steroid Use Controversies of the Sports World Term Paper

… Steroid Use

Controversies of the Sports World

Tough Choices: A Book about Substance Abuse

Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids in Adolescence: Winning, Looking

Good or Being Bad?

Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game

Anabolic Steroid Abuse

Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed

Romanowski: I broke RB's finger, took steroids, damaged brain

The Demonization of Anabolic Steroids I: What Makes These Hormones

So Evil?

What are Steroids?

Types of Steroids

Who Uses Steroids?

Reasons for Steroid Abuse

Performance Enhancement in Sports

Increasing Muscle Size

Problem Behavior

How Are Anabolic Steroids Used?

The Effects of Steroid Abuse

Masculinization in Women

Effect on Men

Cardiovascular Diseases

Liver and Skin



Telltale Signs of Steroid Abuse

Use of Anabolic Steroids in Baseball and Pro-Football

Jason Giambi

Bill Romanowsi…. [read more]

Wooden a Lifetime of Observations and Reflections on and Off the Court Book Report

… Wooden

The legacy of John Wooden extends well beyond any of his games, because the philosophy that guided his actions as both player and coach includes insights into success above and beyond the game of basketball. In his 1997 book Wooden: A Lifetime of Observations and Reflections on and Off the Court, written with Steve Jamison, Wooden offers insights from his life, demonstrating how the same ideals that helped him to become the only person to enter the College Basketball Hall of Fame as both player and coach also helped him through his personal life (Forck, 2010, p. 20). By comparing the advice and insight Wooden offers in his book with contemporary sports psychology, it is possible to identify a few relatively simple ideas that…. [read more]

Ancient Greek Olympics and Their Influence on Sports Today Term Paper

… Ancient Greek Olympics and Their Influence on Sports Today

Most of Greek history has been recorded and printed in great numbers. However, no authentic historic records illustrate Olympic activity before 776 B.C. Nonetheless, it is worth noting here within the contests in Homer's Iliad, clear indications have been given to these competitive games. The Olympic activity had been carried out mainly in the honor of their god Zeus. Games took place in the great city of Olympia for 4 consecutive days, and sometimes even 5 days, after every four years.

Due to their deep-rooted and extensive history, Olympics held a very prestigious place amongst the Greeks. A variety of games were played, which comprised the Isthmian at Corinth, the Pythian Games at Delphi, as well…. [read more]

Ethical Effects of Steroids in Baseball Sports Research Paper

… ¶ … baseball policy and federal law in the United States of America have been violated by especially by players in Major League Baseball who have been for a long time involved in the wide spread of illegal anabolic steroids and other types of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). During the evaluation of players, it has always been a routine by club officials to scrutinize all possibilities of such substance use. Most of the players who have illegally used this substance range from those who had brief careers in the major league to Baseball Hall of Fame potential members. These players include position players and pitchers, who have diverse backgrounds as the major league players.

In the past few years, many baseball players have achieved an…. [read more]

Volleyball Is an Olympic Sport Term Paper

… Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms, or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. Each team is allowed three hits to get the ball over the net to the other team. A point is scored if the ball hits the ground in the opponents' court, if the opponents commit a fault, or if the opponents fail to return the ball properly (NCAA).

Volleyball can be very active. Vertical Jumping is an athletic skill emphasized in volleyball, because many offensive plays involve contacting the ball above the top of the net.

The history of volleyball stretches from February 9, 1895 to today, with the game…. [read more]

High School Sports Impact on Student Academics Thesis

… But the NCAA reserves the right to overrule principals' decisions. The NCAA's modest response followed meetings with national education groups, including AASA. The Minnesota Association of School Administrators has submitted to AASA for consideration a resolution that states it is not the NCAA's role to dictate course content to high schools.

The U.S. Department of Justice also has challenged the NCAA for automatically rejecting courses involving special education services. Some students who had attained acceptable college entrance test scores despite their disability were not allowed to participate as freshmen because they had taken high school courses involving special education assistance. The NCAA argued in several court cases that it does not have to follow the Americans with Disabilities Act. After months of…. [read more]

Women Historians United States Historian Arthur Schlesinger Term Paper

… Women Historians

United States historian Arthur Schlesinger stated that historians' silence about women made it seem that half of the American population had not had any impact on the country's history. "Any consideration of woman's part in American history must include the protracted struggle of the sex for larger rights and opportunities, a story that in itself is one of the noblest chapters in the history of American democracy," he wrote in 1935.

Because of the male domination of history, and the lack of women writers, many events and people of the time were forgotten and received little or no recognition for their efforts.1 However, what if the situation was different? What if women historians did have the opportunity to be on par with their…. [read more]

Mississippi Valley State University (Msuv) Research Paper

… ¶ … Mississippi Valley State University (MSUV) during my internship and how has that helped me in integrating my education while doing MS with the practical aspect of applying the acquired knowledge.

The paper is divided into four sections all contributing towards the final conclusion of how the internship has helped me improve and use the knowledge acquired during my post graduation.


Practical experience is necessary in any field of education. Moreover, I believe that practical exposure is necessary for a student to learn the actual application of the theories taught in the classroom as it clarifies the concepts, strengthens the ideas and understanding of theories, teach the professional discipline and methodologies and makes a person confident to pursue his/her carrier.

I am a…. [read more]

Eliminating College Football Team Essay

… Football

In many universities, athletic teams have a very profound impact on the overall student experience. For one, athletic programs instill a sense of pride and accomplishment on behalf of the overall student population. Particularly, if the team is winning, students tend to feel better about their school and their overall affiliation with it. In addition, athletic programs are often seen as marketing tools used to help supplement the overall recruitment process. Although few perspective students attend college solely for the schools athletic programs, successful athletic programs do aid in the overall recruitment process. For one, students are often attracted to successful schools both athletically and academically. Most schools can excel in the academic component, but only a handful can be successful athletically. As such,…. [read more]

Hockey and Masculinity Violence Essay

… Violence in Hockey

This past weekend, hockey fans were treated to two of the biggest hits of this past season. In one, Milan Lucic of the Boston Bruins slammed Maple Leaf Mike van Ryn through a pane of glass. The hit electrified fans and has received a hundred thousand plays in YouTube since. The other hit saw Carolina forward Brandon Sutter crushed, with his head down, on a hit from Islander Doug Weight. That hit was a carbon copy of the hit Steve Moore put on Markus Naslund in 2004, starting in motion one of the worst episodes of hockey violence. In retribution for that hit, Naslund's friend and teammate Todd Bertuzzi attacked Moore in a game a few weeks later, effectively ending the Colorado…. [read more]

Roger Federer Is a Tennis Research Paper

… Finally, for skills, he focuses more on the combination of both definitive and non-definitive skills, as he states, "Your competition is too tough, they are trying too hard," and therefore, it is not simply about physical ability ("Roger Federer on Three Ingredients for Success").

Another source says that stamina, a definitive element, is the source of his success. At 29 years old, Federer is among the aged in the tennis world. However, he refuses to quit the sport he is so successful in and loves to play. In keeping his stamina, he realizes that rest and relaxation are key elements. To keep his stamina up, Federer told ESPN, he makes sure that he does not take longer breaks than when he was a younger tennis…. [read more]

Octagon Sports Organizational Structure Research Paper

… This is where the Octagon falls, alongside IMG and others. Third, is the sports services, which involves organizations offering sports as their end products. This segment is again further divided into three facets including the Event that involves organizations generating their revenues, either indirectly or directly from spectators (Staffa, Lewis, Braham & Griffins 2011). Here, the athletes are professional, and examples of such entities encompass teams and leagues. Second, are participants involving entities that provide opportunities for individuals to engage or involve in sporting activities. Finally, Job, Woods and Howard (2008) affirms that the hybrid aspect ensures the provision of a mixed organization of events and participants including government agencies. Here is a schematic showing the structure of the football industry. (See Figure 2)

An…. [read more]

Heat Pill Body Temperature Monitoring Term Paper

… Heat Pill: Body Temperature Monitoring

The 'Heat Pill' has made possible calculating core body temperature in a non-laboratory environment on a realtime basis. For assessing hyperthermia on the field, the 'heat pill' offers the best technological means and thus the most useful life saving screening method for the Trainers. The 'Heat Pill' could possibly eliminate heat stroke, which is currently the third leading cause of death among athletes in America. There is no question of doubt that the 'Heat Pill' will serve as a life saving technological advancement for athletes around the world.

Heat exhaustion and heat stroke are a major concern for athletes around the world. Particularly for people living in hotter climatic regions, heat illness presents a dangerous situation. Prolonged exposure to heat…. [read more]

Hockey I Am I Canadian? Essay

… Hockey

I am I Canadian? Hockey as National Culture

An Interpretive Review

In her article, "Am I Canadian?': Hockey as 'National' Culture," Patricia Hughes-Fuller explores the connection between the sport of hockey and Canadian national identity. Fuller accomplishes this exploration through comparing media images of hockey and the United States in order to determine what effects the globalization of hockey will have on Canada's perception of the national sport. At one point, Fuller asks,

Are Coca-cola, McDonald's, and baseball perceived as less American simply because these highly visible cultural symbols are now consumed globally?" Her answer to the self-posed question -- "I suspect most of us would agree that they are not." -- suggests that Canadians will continue to see hockey as a symbol of…. [read more]

Racism in Football Term Paper

… Racism in Football

Football ('soccer') is the world's most popular sport. In every corner of the globe, matches are played with great fierceness and intensity among people of all ethnicity, race and social status. International matches have long been a sport identified with national pride and identity, likely because it is the one competition undertaken in all nations. Local matches have likewise developed a sense of passion among followers that is also quite intense.

There is a dark side to this notion of pride and passion, however. Whether in international competition or the league play, the fans, players and clubs have had a history of using racial epithets and slurs on opposing players. This has not only caused a great outrage in the football community,…. [read more]

Stretching Dynamic vs. Static Stretching -- Comparing Term Paper

… Stretching

Dynamic vs. Static Stretching -- Comparing and Contrasting the Pros and Cons

Everyone knows that athletes love debates. Who was the best hitter of all time? What is more of a test of athletic endurance -- swimming the English Channel or running an ultra-marathon? What is the best way to build up your triceps? But less physically obsessed people may be amused to hear that even stretching is an issue of controversy within the fitness community. Stretching, however, does facilitate a critical component of fitness, namely flexibility, which along with strength and endurance, are critical to performing not only feats of athletic prowess, but simply functioning in a healthy way during the normal acts of daily life. The debate about stretching usually revolves around…. [read more]

Tobacco Sponsorship: Spectator Perceptions at an Lpga Research Proposal

… ¶ … Tobacco Sponsorship: Spectator Perceptions at an LPGA Event," was written by Karen E. Danylchuck, hailing from the University of Western Ontario in Canada. Reviewing fan reactions to tobacco sponsorships for sports events, it can be found in Sports Marketing Quarterly from that year. In number 2 of the 9th volume, it begins on page 103 and proceeds for ten pages. The article is a description of a study conducted during a Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) game. In the study, researchers passed out questionnaires to the audience in order to judge the reaction of having a tobacco related sponsor involved in the athletic event. According to research assumptions, there is a natural conflict between sporting events, which are thought to promote good health,…. [read more]

Reforms at Universities - Athletes Should Receive Compensation Literature Review

… ¶ … college and universities should undergo reform, and that athletes should receive compensation from their institutions of higher learning is not a new idea. It's been around for many years, and the arguments pro and con have been hashed out in meaningful ways by untold thousands of scholars, economists, journalists, athletes and others. This paper presents many of those points-of-view, and takes the position that indeed, college / university athletes, in certain circumstances, should be paid for their efforts.

Notre Dame Law Review -- Play and be Paid?

Lee Goldman explained 25 years ago that the bowl games in the 1988-89 collegiate football season netted $66 million - $53 million of which went to the schools that participated in those bowl games. That pales…. [read more]

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