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Food Safety, Urban Sprawl Essay

… In the field of environmental psychology, research indicates that contact with highly aesthetic environments can impact well-being. Research indicates that being able to contemplate natural landscapes generates various affective responses that are correlated with the aesthetic judgments of the landscapes. These affective responses of pleasure and stimulation are associated with biological well-being. Sterile environments in which there is no reference to nature or access to natural visuals, can lower energy levels and increase stress. Different types of urban nature, such as gardens, parks, and even derelict sites, impact health and well-being, both positively and negatively.

Access to natural environments and gardens have been shown to reduce mental fatigue, reduce aggressive tendencies, increase relaxation, and have important restorative impacts on people who are ill or recovering.…. [read more]

Food Biotechnology Term Paper

… Food Biotechnology

The objective of this work is to critically review at least six sources of literature related to food biotechnology which contain arguments against the use of food biotechnology and to then summarize the key concerns and arguments and construct an Issues Management Plan which outlines how a food company or the client of the food company would manage consumer concerns of incorporating a GM ingredient into food products. Some of the issues may include legal labeling, responses to public inquiries and proactive strategies.

Due to the increase in food biotechnology there exist an increasing requirement for packaging and labeling both for health and consumer concerns. This work examines the specific issues in today's food biotechnology specifically as to the concern of consumers in…. [read more]

Biotechnology Applies Technology on the Industrial Term Paper

… Biotechnology applies technology on the industrial or manufacturing aspects of the life sciences. It uses biological systems, living organisms or their derivatives in effecting processes for specific use. It is a high-tech industry, which requires high research and development and intensive investment on its star scientists to command vast markets through the acquisition of patents, worth hundreds to millions of dollars, for these scientists' discoveries, knowledge and skills. The industry is young but promises to feed the world's increasing population, clean up the environment and create products consumers want. Already, the biotech industry is growing, reaping huge profits and employing more and more people. But currently, American consumers do not have sufficient awareness of the nature and effects of biotech to decide whether to accept…. [read more]

Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology Research Paper

… Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology: Questions

Would the enactment of the DSHEA have changed the outcome in Nutrilab Inc. v. Schweiker, 713 F.2d 335 (1983)? Assume the manufacturer promoted the product as helping to maintain a healthy weight.

In the 1983 case of Nutrilab Inc. v. Schweiker, 713 F.2d 335 (1983), the case involved so-called 'starch blockers' that were supposed to inhibit the body's digestion of starch and thus facilitate weigh loss. The manufactures of the product called the item a foodstuff, given that its ingredients, some of which were natural (such as fibrous beans) were consumed as food in some contexts. Nutrilab's case failed upon appeal. The "FDA had received seventy-five reports of adverse effects on people who had taken starch blockers, including…. [read more]

Food Safety Human Nutrition Essay

… The food handler should always wash their hands in between preparing food. When preparing food, it should be well cooked and not under-cooked. People should also be careful with raw food and avoid taking raw foods. Dairy products should be pasteurized, and food should be washed before cooking and eating. Using swabs and sanitizers are used to destroy pathogens. It is also important that infected people do not handle food to prevent contamination.

Recommended sources

Sources that would educate people on food security include media, which plays a major role through televisions, radios and the press. Broadcasters and journalists communicate on such food programs and newspapers reserve pages to communicate on food issues (Kass 2004). Centers and organizations that control food and diseases should present…. [read more]

Biotechnology Exploring the Pros Reaction Paper

… The alterations to the DNA of these organisms have not been studied enough in large contexts in order to truly understand what negatives could come along with them. Additionally, there is research suggesting that the process of altering these organisms's DNA does have the side effect of producing dangerous and unhealthy toxins. Essentially, it involves the "unexpected production of toxic substances ... In genetically engineered bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals with the problem remaining undetected until a major health hazard has arisen" (Cummins). The issue here is that these products are automatically being marketed as safe, without the traditional testing process that goes along with new food on the market. This ultimately places the consumer at risk, especially in regards to individuals with certain allergies…. [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Essay

… 1).


There are always at least two sides to every contentious issue. To wit, the National Research Council (in 2010) issued a report that detailed "…the long and impressive list of benefits" from GM crops (Ronald, et al., 2010). The report showed that a sorghum breed has been genetically engineered to produce helpful "micronutrients like zinc," and that GM technologies have produced a "potato designed to contain greater amounts of protein" (Ronald, p. 2). Moreover, the report reflects on that fact that the Hawaiian papaya was about to be wiped out by the "deadly papaya ringspot virus"; but a due to a genetically engineered breed of Hawaiian papaya, the important crop is now resistant to the ringspot virus (Ronald, p. 2). On the other…. [read more]

Tyson Foods, Inc Case Study

… Tyson Foods Inc.

Tyson food inc

The first and most significant reason why people work is to sustain their lives. It is for this very reason that several investors have put their resources in the food world market today. There are many companies and business ventures that have been born from this entrepreneurial opportunity. The food companies can be considered as the earliest of all industries in the world. The foods market will never end as every person has to eat. There are hence different types of businesses and companies, depending on the food service they offer. There are some that deal exclusively with fruits, some with fast foods, some big companies with all services in one place and others that specialize in one service.…. [read more]

GMO Food Essay

… It was later found that Taylor was a former lawyer of Monsanto and under the current Obama administration, he is an adviser to the FDA and a "food safety expert" (U.S. FDA, 2010).

Currently, the FDA believes that it is Monsanto's responsibility to ensure that the foods marketed are safe and in compliance with the legal and regulatory procedures while Monsanto believes that its interest is to sell as much as possible and assuring the safety of these foods is the role of the FDA (, 2012). In this conflict, it is the consumers who are getting increasingly affected.

Should the FDA require food to be labeled as GM?

The FDA is not mandated by any law to label food as GM. Though mandatory labeling…. [read more]

Biotechnology's Influence on Human Life Is Growing Essay

… Biotechnology's influence on human life is growing exponentially, and has already made significant advances in the areas of agriculture with Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) (Johnson,, gene splicing therapy including DNA mapping and the practice in certain countries of trying to influence the intelligence of babies (Swedin, The ethics of biotechnology are just the beginning of the controversies in this area, with the highly productive uses of this technology to increase crop yields and increase the likelihood of defeating life-threatening diseases on the one hand yet threaten privacy and human life on the other. The intent of this paper is to compare how biotechnology can make significant contributions to human life, in addition to potentially threatening it as well.

The Promise of Biotechnology

The…. [read more]

Biotechnology Business Focused on Charles River Laboratories Term Paper

… Biotechnology Business Focused on Charles River Laboratories

The biotechnology industry is relatively new, but is has been responsible for some of the most important scientific discoveries that have benefited humanity to date. A concomitant to these contributions by the biotechnology community, though, has been the increased use of animals that are bred specifically for this purpose, a practice that has been roundly criticized by animal rights activists and the general public alike in recent years. Despite these criticisms, though, the use of animals in scientific experimentation is a highly regulated practice, but even these safeguards fall far short of providing any ultimate protections for laboratory animals and calls for an end to the practice continue today. Nevertheless, laboratory animals are big business and the industry…. [read more]

Food and Drug Law Biotechnology Term Paper

… Food and Drug Law Biotechnology

Food and drug laws

What will be the likely outcome of this case and why?

According to the law, a corporation is a fictional 'person.' Shareholders and corporate officials are not responsible for the actions of such a fictional entity, under most circumstances, as they are officially employees of the company. An employer is legally responsible for the actions of its employees "if the employee was doing his or her job, carrying out company business, or otherwise acting on the employer's behalf when the incident took place" (Employer liability, 2010, Nolo). In this instance, the employees on the Board of Directors were not trying to intentionally commit fraud or deceive the public or the government, rather there were oversights committed…. [read more]

Is Genetic Engineering a Solution to the Food Security Problem in Developing Countries? Term Paper

… Genetic Engineering of Food

"Protagonists argue that genetic engineering entails a more controlled transfer of genes because the transfer is limited to a single gene, or just a few selected genes, whereas traditional breeding risks transferring unwanted genes together with the desired ones. Against that advantage, antagonists argue that the side effects in terms of potentially adverse impacts on the environment and human health are unknown…" (Neilsen, et al., 2000)

Genetically Modified food (GM) has been controversial since it first appeared on the agricultural scene several decades ago. While the corporations that produce GM seeds and foods -- notably Monsanto, the giant international corporation -- assert through myriad public relations strategies and studies that these genetically manipulated products are safe, serious questions remain. Monsanto, in…. [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Thesis


The report of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations states that GM crops are "commercially available and planted on more than 40 million hectares across six continents. These plants represent the largest-scale experience in the introduction of GMOs into ecosystems, and they have become the focus of environmental concerns." (2001) However, the truth is that most consumers are very little informed about genetically modified foods.

It was reported by the Government Accounting Office on May 23, 2002, that modern agricultural biotechnology is that which refers to "various scientific techniques, most notably genetic engineering, used to modify plants, animals or microorganism by introducing their genetic make up genes for specific…. [read more]

Gmfood Biotechnology Is Still Developing and Requires Term Paper

… GMFood

Biotechnology is still developing and requires rigorous evaluation and regulation before it can be safely accepted. With the present divided opinion among the scientific community and the absence of biosafety standards in many countries, embracing the 'biotechnology way' as an answer to the food requirements of the world, presents a difficult choice.

Biotechnology has advanced at an amazing pace and what was only a talk in the last decade is now already a reality. GM food has become a topic of heated debate over the last few years. The ethical perceptions and opinions about GM food are quite varied. Robert Shapiro the CEO of Monsanto feels, "There now exists an opportunity to create a genuine science of nutrition, something that has never existed in…. [read more]

Transgenic Foods Genetically Modified Crop Thesis

… Transgenic Foods (genetically Modified Crop)

The objective of this work is to write the ethical issue, history, whole process, application, advantage or risk in regards to transgenic food or GM crops in a historical, factual or argumentative paper.

Transgenic crops or plants are those containing genes which have been inserted artificially rather than through pollination. The inserted gene sequence is known as the transgene often comes from another plan that is completely unrelated or even from a difference species. One example of this is Tb corn, "which produces its own insecticide, contains a gene from a bacterium." (Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004) Plants that contain transgenes are referred to as "genetically modified or GM crops." (Department of Soil and Crop…. [read more]

Agriculture and Genetically Modified Food in the Development of Third World Countries Pros and Cons Term Paper

… Agriculture and Genetically Modified Food in the Development of Third World Countries

The term genetically modified foods or GMOs (genetically-modified organisms) is used to describe agricultural crops and plants which are grown for both human and animal consumption, through the use of techniques from the science of molecular biology. The plants or crops are modified or 'genetically engineered' to enhance essential attributes which ostensibly improve their value and resistance to diseases. These improvements include increased resistance to pesticides and herbicides as well as improved nutritional content. (Genetically Modified Foods)

The traditional approach to improved crops and other agricultural products has been through the process of breeding. However this can be extremely time consuming and genetic modification is a technique that substantially improves this aspect. There…. [read more]

Aquaculture Biotechnology Essay

… Aquaculture and Biotechnology as Methods to Addressing World Hunger
The emphasis on fishery operations that are treated in the same
fashion as the world's land-born farming operations is something of a
double edge sword. Though it may potentially promote more sustainable
practices than free-roaming fishing operations, some tactics such as the
use of antibiotics can potentially introduce dangerous and problematic new
elements to the ecosystem. (Wikipedia, 1) Given the bleak projections for
the immediate future of available water-born food supplies, greater
regulation is necessary before we can approve too strongly of aquaculture.
Thus, there is more of an inclination to push for biotechnology methods as
a way to actually increase the food supply.
Of late, world hunger experts have begun to see virtue in employing…. [read more]

Genetically Modified Organisms Technology GMO Research Paper

… The potential to alter and cause harm to others is unknown. The case of Monsanto company, which sued farmers for having their GMO crops. The GMO seeds were blown into the farmers fields by wind, and the seeds infected the farmer's crop. The farmer was not responsible as he did not willingly grow the crops, but the company forced the farmer to destroy the crops together with his own. This resulted in losses to the farmer.

Incorporating animal genes in plant will adversely affect vegetarians. They would have to eat and survive against their culture, as the plants would contain animal genes. Research has shown that GMOs have the potential to increase yield, but in reality, the opposite has occurred. Soy farmers India recorded a…. [read more]

GMO Genetically Modified Organisms Term Paper

… GMO - Genetically Modified Organisms

Genetically modified organisms are organisms of which the genome is altered through genetic engineering. In other words, the DNA from an organism is modified in a laboratory, and then inserted into another organism's genome for the purpose of producing traits or phenotypes that would be useful in the new organism. This technology has been used on life forms for decades, but the area in which it is still the most controversial is food. In addition to the ethics, conservation, and poverty reduction issues, concerns raised regarding this technology revolve around human and environmental safety.

Proponents of the technology hold that there is no danger for any age group in genetically modified foods. Indeed, the beneficial and longer-lasting properties created in…. [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Research Paper

… This resulted in the adoption of alternatives to respond to the emergence of new strains of organisms resistant to the chemicals (Finucane & Holup, 2005).

Today, genetically modification of food has advanced across the globe. Statistical analysis shows that about 8.25 million farmers grew genetic modified food in 2005. They are expected to triple by 2015. In terms of market share, the soybeans account for approximately 60% of the genetically modified food, maize 23%, cotton, 11%, and canola accounting for approximately 6% of the global crop production. Country wise, the U.S. is the leading proponents of the advancement of the genetic engineering of food and animals. This implies that the U.S. leads in the integration of the genetic engineering technology and supply of genetically engineered…. [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Term Paper

… Data were collected from a random sample of 318 adults from two major Midwestern cities. These individuals provided social-demographic information and answers on prior beliefs about technologies and participated in a set of experiments. They then completed a short questionnaire on: "If a source of information were to give you verifiable information on genetically modified foods, who would you trust most?" This information was coded into the categories of third-party, government, environmental or consumer group, private industry or organization, none or nobody, and "other" (including no response).

An econometric model was used to establish linkages of trust to provide verifiable information on genetically modified foods. Five regressors were included in this multinomial logit model: a participant's household income, education, age, a dummy variable for prior…. [read more]

Knowing More About Genetically Modified Foods Essay

… The required sufficient information on safety tests has not been met. There are still no clinical studies published in peer-reviewed publications on the effects of genetically modified foods on human health. Testing methods used at present are not yet adequate. Animal trials should be conducted to assess the possible poisonous effects of genetically modified foods. Another objection is the difficulty in estimating the likelihood of their inducing allergy, as the insertion of a non-allergenic gene can arouse already existing allergens. GM food labeling is still another concern. Despite a global consensus, an internationally agreed system of labeling does not appear likely in the near future (Maghan & Ardekani).

The Two Sides of the Current Situation

Advocates of bio-engineering technologies profess that genetically modified foods are…. [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods: Rational Research Paper

… Some of the currently available genetically modified crops are designed to be higher in nutritional content than their natural counterparts. More adventurous genetic engineers are considering fusing genes "that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B; fish that mature more quickly; cows that are resistant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease)," with potential net benefits to the consumer and the global community (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013).

2c. Personal Viewpoint

Arguments in favor of the use of genetically modified organisms reveal potential benefits that are difficult to ignore. It is tempting to believe that genetic modification of foods will reduce poverty and malnutrition around the world, or reduce dependence on chemical fertilizers and pesticides. However, there are…. [read more]

Sustainability Foods Eaten Humans Impact Essay

… In addition to the fact that both animal and plant farming are responsible for polluting the atmosphere as a result of additives and methane being released on a daily basis, they also pollute indirectly when considering that they are transported around the world and the machines carrying them pollute heavily. People thus need to focus on consuming products that are produced as close to them as possible in order to contribute to assisting the environment. In the cases when foods are brought from other areas individuals would need to make sure that producers are properly compensated for their works, especially considering that it is up to them to create products that are as sustainable as possible.

The masses need to concentrate on consuming products that…. [read more]

Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology Research Paper

… Food and Drug Law in Biotechnology

For prescription drugs, what is advertising and what is labeling under the FD&C Act? What are FDA's requirements for prescription drug advertising? Please discuss both print and broadcast advertising.

Congress passed the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 (FD&C) in part as a reaction to the dangerous claims manufacturers were attaching to the medicines and potions of the day, and to safeguard the public from dangerous products. False labeling of drugs and cosmetics was prohibited, and labeling materials were identified as "written, printed or graphic matter accompanying the product" (21 CFR Part 201).

The FD & C. Act and subsequent Code of Federal Regulations restrictions on labels include misbranding of consumer products. The barred actions are use…. [read more]

Christian Biotechnology: Not a Contradiction Term Paper

… So in this area, it is relatively simple to analyze the use and importance of this field of research. Transgenic crops have proven to be vital food source for both economic and humanitarian purposes, while transgenic animals are quickly proving to be just what the meat, milk, and egg industry need to increase profits and production. Christians everywhere should be in support of biotechnology and genetic modification in food production, as this has the potential to erase world hunger and improve corporate profits all at once.

Genetically modified (GM) crops are safe and proven in the field. Scientists are not just tinkering with DNA for fun -- GM crops are being created that are far superior to traditional hybrid strains in hardiness and resistance to…. [read more]

Animal Production: Biotechnology Has Achieved Research Paper

… Works Cited

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).

Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)

Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Maurer, Stephen M., and Markus Fischer. "How to control dual-use technologies in the age of global commerce." Bulletin of the Atomic…. [read more]

Biotech in the Food Chain Thesis

… rBST in the Milk Supply

Position Statement: Is rBST Safe?

Dr. John Doe, American Medical Association

Biotechnology has gained momentum in the human food chain since the late 1990s. The use of biotechnology allows producers to increase their production and their profitability. We can be certain that these new food products have gone through rigorous testing according to FDA protocol before entering into the market, but one must ask if this is enough. This research will support the position that the decision to allow GMOs, and other biotechnologically altered foods into the marketplace is premature, as not enough studies have been conducted as to the long-term effects of them in the human food supply. It will particularly focus on the use of rBST in the…. [read more]

Presentation on Regulatory Affairs in Biotechnology Thesis

… Biotech Regulation

Regulation in Biotechnology


The Food and Drug Administration has been in existence since 1902

Even prior to the biotechnology age, the FDA had regulatory power over drugs and certain medical devices

In the mid 1980s, major reforms of FDA powers and responsibilities were instituted

The Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology (1986)

Legislation and policy reform that led to greater coordination between federal agencies

Established clearer criteria for biotechnological advances and products

FDA works within similar parameters to the USDA and the EPA, ensuring the quality and safety -- both personally and to the environment -- of biotechnological developments

Time and Costs Associated with Regulation

The FDA's drug approval process is slow and arduous, requiring large amounts of capital from producing companies…. [read more]

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