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Ancient Civilizations: Society Subcultures and the State Essay

… Ancient Civilizations: Society Subcultures and the State

The dynamics of early civilizations that in their totality form the society that subordinates itself to the state, or leadership, and perhaps in very early civilizations means the stronger forces within the society. Those dynamics fall into subculture categories like religion, trade and exchange, the protections afforded the society in the action of warfare, and the technology that is created to support the society and to protect it; and the need to coordinate these subcultures and to organize it into an effective and cohesive working system gives rise to the state. Through archeological excavation and study and analysis remains and artifacts from the ancient civilizations, a pattern emerges in the socialization of the ancient society, the rise of…. [read more]

Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern Society Research Paper

… Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern Society

The ancient period is the historical era determined by the convention. It includes the studying of the past life activities and events. The modern is the contrary of the ancient. However, it is imperative to realize that for there to be the present, it was a process of development. History shapes the lives, practices and beliefs of people through long periods of influential civilizations

Civilization is characterized by advancements in the system of writing, cities as well as social classes. The inventions of the early civilizations, for example, ancient Greece, china, Mesopotamia and classical Rome have remarkably shaped the current world that we inhabit. Among the labels that define the transitions is "Late Antiquity." This is the period that…. [read more]

Formation of Ancient Societies Essay

… Formation of Ancient Societies

The Ancient Near-East

The different religious beliefs of the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Assyrians tell us many things about the differences in these societies. However, since there was much cultural contact in the Fertile Crescent, similarities exist between the various religions and rules as well. The Mesopotamian cultures (Assyria and Babylon), for example, like the Egyptian culture had several gods: the deities influenced the way cultural perceptions were formed (for example when it came to burying the dead and preparing them for the afterlife): Egyptian beliefs featured Isis and Osiris, Amun and Ra; and Egyptian rulers were believed to possess a certain kind of divinity (Johnston 9).

The Hebrew religion, however, was strictly monotheistic -- and the Hebrew peoples were often…. [read more]

Egyptian History Ancient Term Paper

… This end of the Old Kingdom Period can be thought of as the Golden Age of Egypt because all of the forces seen in Mann's IEMP Model were present to their greatest extent. After this period there were wars with powerful neighbors, longer periods of famine, the economy was not as reliable and other religions replaced the old religion in the minds of many. The late Old Kingdom saw the greatest growth in architecture, land accumulation, kingly power, political structure, academic achievement, and economic growth. Much of this is evidenced in the enormous building projects, especially in the burial tombs of the kings, that the government initiated. Many now believe that these projects were a form of welfare and public works initiated by the government…. [read more]

Ancient and Modern Communications Essay

… The ancient Egypt developed a police administration system for the protection of the Pharaoh, which involved the court having a high official responsible for conducting confidential enquiries. This is a major commonality that exists between the ancient Egypt and the modern world of today. Every state in this world these days has an established law and order, a court and a police administration system with separate intelligence organizations working on the communication of intelligence, specifically military intelligence which was the major area intelligence was made use of in the ancient times as well.

Lastly, just like today's modern era, the ancient times had a complete and proper administration system which consisted of the governors assigned for every state, special agent who could be called spies…. [read more]

Societies in the Classical Period Essay

… Societies in the Classical Period

Thought and Faith: Moving from One Culture to the Next

No matter our distances based on linguistics or locality, all men are the same. We breathe the same air, walk the same earth, and feel the same emotions. It would not be a leap of faith then, to understand prominent philosophies and religious traditions as related to one another in some internal way. Through thorough analysis of Classical societies, it can be seen that philosophies are developed, spread, and the morphed to fit the needs of proceeding generations. As seen in the case of the development of Greco-Roman culture as we see it today from its earliest roots in Minoan and Mycenaean thought. As a culture continues to spread and…. [read more]

Free Were the Ancient Greeks Term Paper

… She married and had a daughter, before reputedly killing herself when rejected by her lover, Phaon. It is not for her marriage or for her entanglement with this male lover that Sappho is chiefly known, however, but rather for the intensity and intimacy of the relationships she had with girls and women, and which form the content of her surviving poetry. In the only complete surviving poem of Sappho, the 'Hymn to Aphrodite', there is simultaneously a passionate celebration of love and a passionate desire to be free from its grip.

Shimmering-throned immortal Aphrodite,

Daughter of Zeus, Enchantress, I implore thee,

Spare me, O queen, this agony and anguish,

Crush not my spirit. ('Hymn to Aphrodite', lines 1-4)

Sappho thus articulates both love as focus…. [read more]

Gender a Society Is a Community Essay

… Gender

A society is a community of people who love in a particular and are related to each other either by relationships, cultures or norms. While a society includes people of both the gender, however, for a great deal of time societies around the world have proven to show gender biases and conservatism as far as women's contribution in the society is concerned. In most societies around the world, male have been a more dominant member in the society. Females were only confined to the private familial buildings. Although the advent of information technology, media exposure and educated modern societies have changed problem of gender discrimination to a great deal, the problem still persists in many parts of the world where woman are still headed…. [read more]

Roman Religion Although the Ancient Term Paper

… "

Aeneas marks this altar as specifically Roman according to not only the city's religious tradition, but also its cultural tradition of dress of mythical history. One can see a possible motivation for this intentional linking when considering the other figures depicted in the Ara Pacis' friezes, and particularly the image of Augustus. The procession of which Augustus is a part represents "the processions that would have taken place in 'real life' around the sides of the precincts, leading up to the altar itself -- and perhaps, more specifically, that procession which took place on the day the altar was first consecrated."

Recognizing this is crucial for understanding the depictions relation to both Roman religious practice and political life, because the particular representation of Augustus…. [read more]

Ancient Civis an Examination of the Cultural Essay

… Ancient Civis

An examination of the cultural contributions to the first City-States in the History of Ancient Civilization, the essay looks at the advances in architecture, arts and letters, astronomy, governance, and urban planning in Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and the Rome from the Bronze Age to the Early Christian Empire.


Newly sedentary agriculturalists, the Mesopotamian cities of Babylon, Jericho and Ur saw a range of structural compositions in building, evidenced by the extensive record of a complex of both private and public civic foundations. The stability of fixed domestic locations near the fields gradually pushed into the foundation of towns, cities, laws, and government, which led to the proliferation of those civic projects. Perhaps the first 'sustainable' communities in human record, Mesopotamia's…. [read more]

Ancient Ballgame of Mesoamerica Term Paper

… The teams would often be made up of seven players, though the number did vary, usually between two and eleven players. In some cases, the game would be played in large massive groups without team formations, where the goal would be for each individual playing to win, rather than to play as part of a team. The goal of the combatants was to get a rubber ball through the stone rings attached to the walls. Almost every description that has been found detailing the playing rules of the game specify that neither the hands nor feet can touch the ball. Especially the no-hands rule seems to be consistent throughout all versions of the game, yet some historical items contradict this information. "Two 8th century Maya…. [read more]

Indira Gandhi (India), Empress Myeongseong Essay

… Indira, Myeongseong, and Hatshepsut suppressed rebellions within their respective societies using iron or murder. Indira, during her reign as the prime minister of Indian society, ordered the attack of the temple that housed the Muslims and the Monks that were rebelling against her rule

. This led to the killing of most of the occupants of the temple showing her method of the administering authority over her subjects. Myeongseong reign in the Japanese ancient society is characterized with numerous cases of assignations and murder from the authority side of the society. In ancient Egypt under the reign of Hatshepsut, rebellious individuals were put down by the essence of sword. This was done to prevent future riots or rebellions in the ancient societies led by the…. [read more]

Ancient, Early Church, Middle Ages Term Paper

… Because of the stronghold that Christianity had over people, the role of Papacy went beyond the realms of religious affairs; the Pope had become immersed with the political and economic state of the Christian society. Economically, the Church civilization had brought about the formation of serfdom, wherein the working class, creating class stratification in the society, cultivated land owned by the ruling class. The most important contribution of the Early Church civilization is the emergence of modern universities and educational institutions. These schools and universities were primarily built to support and encourage the teaching of Christianity to the people, but the development and changes in the education system had resulted to the educational institutions that are still attended to and valued by the society of…. [read more]

Since 1500 a History of World Societies Term Paper

… ¶ … 1500 History of World Societies

European average income per person began to rise in comparison with the rest of the world beginning in about Answer:

1450 b. 1650 c. 1750 d. 1850

All of the following statements characterize world economic development in the 19th century except:

industrialization generated global inequity in wealth and power.

railroads drastically reduced transportation costs.

the opening of the Suez and Panama canals facilitated trade.

the world's leader in importing foreign goods was America.

All of the following technological innovations were crucial to European imperialist expansion in the late nineteenth century except:

the machine gun.

the telegraph.

c. quinine.

The airplane.

Causes of the so-called new imperialism (1880-1914) include all of the following except:


a. economic competition in…. [read more]

Ancient Greek History the Persian Wars Term Paper

… Athenian Greeks vs. The Persian Empire Army

At the beginning at the fifth century B.C., the city states of peninsular Greece allowed themselves to embrace their own selfish separatist ideas, confident that no outside enemy threatened them. The northern Illyrian tribes, from where the Achaeans and Dorians once came, ceased their attacks on Greece. In the south, the power of Egypt continued to decline. In the west, Rome and Carthage were only on the eve of their existence. But danger lay in the east. The Persian Empire, now at the height of its power, was advancing west. Already the Greek cities of Asia Minor had been conquered. The Persian army crossed the Bosphorus straits into Thrace and conquered Macedonia and the islands of Lemnos, Chios,…. [read more]

Social Impact of Cold War Essay

… Innocent civilians are often at extreme risk in the battles for gathering information or in the battles run by remote. In an interesting way, it might also be seen that this kind of distance campaign strategy is like the way some see the U.S. As contributing to the near collapse of the world economy. The U.S.'s lax financial rules and regulations pulled in other countries and set them up for many of the challenges they now face -- many of which are bringing about social and cultural unrest. It clearly would not be difficult for terrorists or even other nations to see this as an extension of the type of attitude that America picked up when it did its victory dance after the melting of…. [read more]

Economics in Ancient Civilization Literature Review

… Source: Stein, Kenneth, 1995.

Egyptologists point to the extent by which tributary construction was attributed to leaders of Ancient Egypt is evidence that continuity was sought in proclamations of economic and political stability; composed in perpetuity as a standard of perfection dictated by those rulers. Tomb paintings referencing elaborate banquets and trade activities in the afterlife, give some inference into the sophistication of everyday economy in the region (de la Croix and Tansey). Mummies provide important support of this fact, and dietary assessments reveal much about the abundance and fortitude of Ancient Egypt at a time when the inhabitants of Europe were largely migratory with caves as the only source of protection from the elements.

According to Wharburton (2000) in Before the IMF: the economic…. [read more]

Dark Age and the Archaic Term Paper

… Spartan males were raised to be warriors and Spartan females were raised to be subservient and serve Spartan males. Examining the system, it is clear that Spartan women suffered from systemic political gender discrimination, but it is equally clear that the rigid gender roles deprived Spartan males of many of the aspects of life generally considered critical for happiness and good mental health. In fact, the Spartan ideal for manliness was one of physical perfection, so that imperfect male infants were left to die or placed into slavery. This is one way where Spartan males were placed to a much higher standard than Spartan females. Males were also deprived of significant maternal contact and comfort; they were raised by wet-nurses and they were not shown…. [read more]

Origins of Christianity Term Paper

… Origins of Christianity

The history of religions throughout the world represents an endless source of controversies. During the early civilizations there were several aspects that have been interpreted and adapted differently and have catered for different needs of the societies. In this sense, the religious teachings have stood as an entire system of guiding principles which served at the development of the social life altogether.

From the point-of-view of the religious perspective, it can be said that there are several differences between the major issues that the main religions take into consideration. More precisely, the status of women in the major religions of the world is an essential aspect with differentiates Judaism, Islam, or Christianity. The present paper however focuses on the role of women…. [read more]

Nile River Significance in Egyptian Civilization Thesis

… Overview of a Relatively Equitable Scheme from the Old to New Kingdom (ca. 2453-1077 BC)”, Water History, 8 (2016):8] [9: Ibid., 8]

Food and Agriculture

As previously indicated, Egyptians relied on agricultural activities as a means of subsistence and survival in ancient times. The reliance on agricultural activities generated the need for adequate water supply to meet their needs. This in turn became the foundation through which River Nile contributes to the success of Egyptian civilization. One of the ways through which the Nile River is connected to the success of the Egyptian civilization before 500 AD is through impacting food and agriculture. Similar to Mesopotamians, Egyptians had to adapt to life with river floods. However, unlike floods from Tigris and Euphrates, Nile River floods…. [read more]

Monolithic Theories of Myth Essay

… ¶ … Monolithic Theories of Myth

Much of what is known about Ancient Greece and Rome has been ascertained via the artifacts which those cultures have left behind them. These artifacts include artwork in the shape of pottery and statuary, and even architecture. One of the more lasting impressions of life within these societies exists in the form of the classical mythology that comes out of that period in world history. The Ancients had mythical stories in abundance on topics as vast as the creation of the universe and the pantheon of Gods at the helm, to the explanation of how man acquired fire, to suppositions on the origins of animal and insect species. Almost all civilizations have some form of mythology or cultural storytelling,…. [read more]

Globalization, the Culture of Western Civilization Term Paper

… ¶ … globalization, the culture of Western civilization is taking root in areas of the world which possess much different cultural values from the West. For many Westernizing countries, Western culture is typically valued for its scientific achievements and material culture. However, for many Westerners, it is the political culture of Western Civilization that is most valued and treasured. The defining characteristic of Western political culture is democracy practiced at a very sophisticated level.

The recent emergence of an imperial, nation-building United States intent on building liberal democracies has provoked much reexamination of our notions regarding democracy. The failure, thus far, of American nation-building in Iraq has led to questions about the potability of democracy. Some suspect that democracy is unique to Western civilization because…. [read more]

Death Rite or Ritual Essay

… Egyptian Death Rituals

Ancient Egyptian death and burial rituals have been among the most elaborate in history. Even today, having uncovered many of the mysteries behind the rituals and mummification process, scholars cannot claim to know everything about the reasons behind every ritual and pyramid text. However, it might be assumed that, at the heart of most of these, lies the common human dread of complete annihilation. Believing in an afterlife, a divinity, and a reality beyond the physical is a basic human need that it might be assumed was as alive in ancient Egypt as it is today. Algthough scholars today cannot claim to understand the precise paradigms behind ancient Egypt and its people, we might use the psychological perspectives of our own time…. [read more]

Geology: Ohio Caverns and Cave Formations Thesis

… Ohio Caverns, Geology, And Cave Formation

The following paper explores the fascinating and natural wonders of Ohio Caverns, the premier cave system in the state of Ohio, the general geology of the state of Ohio, and a basic overview of cave formation related to the various geological features of a limestone-based cavern system such as found in Ohio Caverns. In addition, this paper will briefly examine how Ohio Caverns compares to other cave systems in the world, especially to Carlsbad Caverns in the state of New Mexico.

The formation of a cavern system is perhaps one of the most amazing aspects of geology, due to the fact that caverns often display formations and features that seemingly defy natural forces like gravity, erosion and the passage…. [read more]

Presence of Non-Romans Throughout the History Research Paper

… Presence of Non-Romans

Throughout the history of Rome, there were a series of transformations that were taking place. One area where this was most evident is inside the Roman army. As these changes, were designed to deal with current and future challenges. Yet, many of these adjustments were based upon: addressing underlying needs and reflecting the social changes that were occurring in society. Over the course of time, these shifts would transform the identity of Rome itself. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at: how these adjustments were occurring and the lasting effect they had on its characteristics / loyalty. Together, these different elements will highlight how these changes transformed the way Rome looked at itself. This is the point that these…. [read more]

History of State Formation Prompt Us Term Paper

… ¶ … history of state formation prompt us to reexamine our assumptions about what is natural or universal about social organization? In other words, knowing that we know things can be different, and that they are often different, how could we challenge the belief that western civilization is the cultural "peak?"

Studying the past is an important part of understanding the present. By understanding how states formed in the past, we are better able to contextualize the development of our own culture and nation-state system. Organized states are far from new, and the social stratification, organizational complexity, and diverse cultures and worldview which we tend to think of as particular to modernity also existed in early states. Some of these early societies, while not 'perfect'…. [read more]

Unions Labor Unions in Ancient Term Paper

… (Reuther, Encarta Article). Most of all, Labor Unions have performed the important task of lessening social inequalities in the American society by improving the incomes of the working class and creating a vibrant middle class.

Some Drawbacks

Despite the undoubted benefits of workers' unions and their impressive list of achievements in the past, we find that there has been a steady decline for the past 40 years in the union's influence and its membership. The most important reason for this (which is also a major drawback of unions) is that unions, by raising the wages of unionized workers substantially above the wages of nonunion workers, have made many union-made products very expensive. Such expensive products cannot compete with products produced by workers getting lower wages;…. [read more]

Shape and to Create Essay

… William the Conquerer was a rule who made it clear that he was to be treated as one more powerful and more popular than the pope, and that even the pope's envoys needed to enter England with the permission of William and that same permission was needed in order for members of the papal group to publish.

While these moves might appear incredibly controlling, William was one of the people who was able to push England into being an ideal European nation, a nation that was simply better organized and more powerful. And part of these achievements were connected to the fact that he took power away from the papacy and some of their more archaic tendencies for ruling and controlling -- old fashioned regimes…. [read more]

Origen's Doctrine of Reincarnation Thesis

… Origen remains one of the most tantalizing, and often frustrating, thinkers of early Christianity for multiple reasons; Origen's own work is already complex enough, because his hypotheses regarding some of the theological and dogmatic issues facing the young Church necessitated the formulation of a complex cosmology, but the difficulty in understanding it is complicated by the fact that central components of Origen's work was subsequently deemed anathema, precipitating the destruction or alteration of many of his texts. In fact, there is even evidence to suggest that "his friends imposed a sort of informal censorship on works and passages that seemed to them to besmirch his orthodoxy," such that the only extant versions of Origen's work comes to us through a variety of redactors and Bowdlerizers…. [read more]

Israeli Politics and Society Term Paper

… Israeli Politics

Separating Religion from National Identity: Interview with Avraham B. Yehoshua."

Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics, and Culture

When researching the Middle East, one of the most important concepts to question is the idea of 'identity.' The state of Israel is based upon the commonly shared Jewish identity, religion, and history of all of its citizens. However, its notions of citizenship and identity extend far beyond its physical borders. Everyone who is Jewish is potentially a citizen of Israel. This sense of citizenship encompasses many different individuals within its definition, including people of different races, ethnic groups, and levels of religiosity. The state of Israel illustrates one of the paradoxes of the region. Every Middle Eastern person has intense tribal loyalties, not…. [read more]

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