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Child Adoption Term Paper

… Child adoption is a process sanctioned under the law which makes a new and permanent parent-child relationship. The proceeding of adoption is normally done in front of a Judge. And adoption confers on the parent who adopts all the rights and obligations of that a legal parent and present the adopted child all of the emotional, social and legal duties and rights of a member of the family. Often, the court may use in its language the terms of "as if born to" to define the relationship of the new child-parent. Prior to the assumption of the parental rights by the parents who are adopting, the court finds out that the biologically related parents have in legal terms and with complete appreciation, either willingly renounced…. [read more]

Foster Care Community Assessment Essay

… National research shows that these youth from foster care may not have acquired the life skills necessary to handle adult tasks and few have a family support network to fall back on when problems and challenges arise.

In comparison to other young adults, youth with a foster care history are at greater risk of low educational attainment, homelessness, non-marital pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, joblessness, poverty, physical and mental illness, and engaging in or being victims of crimes (Krinsky, 2010). Foster youth who are also involved in the juvenile justice system are at even greater risk. These youth very often are released from the juvenile justice system on their 18th birthday with little or no family support, no home to return to, and few, if any,…. [read more]

Foster Care Canada Essay

… Foster Care in Canada

There is a darker side (injustice, bureaucracy, insensitivity, discrimination) and a brighter side (family-centered reform, more parental training, etc.) to the discussion of foster care in Canada. This paper will review the many sides of the issue, and offer potential solutions from the literature. The issue is urgent. To wit, in reviewing the literature relative to the current situation in foster care it is apparent pivotal changes must be forthcoming in order to benefit the children who find themselves in the middle, and at the mercy of a system that is fragile and even failing in many aspects.

Review of Literature: Basic Numbers of Canadian Children in Foster Care

An investigative scholarly article in the journal Child Welfare (Marquis, et al.,…. [read more]

Children, Especially Teenagers, Are at a Vulnerable Essay

… Children, especially teenagers, are at a vulnerable age where desires for acceptance and love reach beyond their families, resulting in a risk that did not exist before. With the increasing popularity and lack of monitoring of the internet within the United States, there is an ever growing risk of internet predatory action, resulting in an increased victimization of children. One of the greatest concerns is the lack of control and protection available to parents and the inability of parents to adequately protect children from these predators.

Children are at a greater risk than ever before for internet predatory actions. With the increasing amount of online social networking sites, including many that are specifically geared toward young children, more and more time is being spent socializing…. [read more]

Child Welfare Biased in System Term Paper

… Child Welfare Biased in System

Info: "some legal scholars and civil rights activists have raised the challenge that child welfare in the U.S. is biased. they argue that states act against low-income families, particularly single mothers and families of color, far more than middle or upper income families. state child protective service administrators argue that they have explicit criteria to determine child abuse or neglect and caseworkers apply those evenly, case by case. their imperative they point out, is to keep children safe without regard to any other factor" my argument is that children of single mothers suffer more in the system because being a single mother and on welfare has a stigma in society that the government is unwilling to address. that these women…. [read more]

Children Being Raised by Stepparents That Are Not of the Same Race or Culture Term Paper

… Children Raised by Stepparents

Of Different Race Or Culture

This work in research investigates the inherent problems that exist in families characterized by parents and stepparents of a biracial union, or of a union that is characterized by diversity in terms of ethnicity, cultural, or religious differences or the diverse households headed by lesbian or gay parents. The conceptual framework of this research is the socio-cultural theory of Tharp and the Spheres of Influence as proposed in the work of Epstein. The literature review in this work notes that there is very little subject matter in this area and this study concludes that longitudinal research is critically needed in this subject area for the purpose of gaining an understanding of the challenges faced by these…. [read more]

Child Abuse and How it Relates to the Developmental Stages of Erickson Thesis

… Child Abuse & Erik Erikson

On child abuse

Child abuse is a pressing problem that knows no race, color, ethnicity or religion. It transcends geographic lines and cuts across socio-economic brackets.

Child abuse comes in many forms. Section 10 of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act defines child abuse as "any act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker, which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm" (Legal Information Institute, 2003). It encompasses everything from something seemingly more subtle as mild neglect or failure to provide the child with basic needs, to verbal abuse, to more severe physical, mental,…. [read more]

Foster Children Term Paper

… Another provision of the Adoption and Safe Families Act was designed to expedite adoption for children who could not safely be returned to their birth families. For children who spent 15 of the previous 22 months in foster care, and could not be returned to their families, before requesting determination of parental rights could be filed, and upon approval of the child would be placed for adoption (Homes, 2002).

The Act was added to help reform the foster care provisions of the social security act. The main goal was to keep children from spending too much time in foster care, and either return them to their biological families or find adoptive families in the quickest amount of time. Foster care is growing, since more children…. [read more]

Youth Aging Out of Foster Care to the World of Homelessness and Crime Research Paper

… Foster Care Aging Out

Societal Problem

Annually, about 20,000 of 542,000 youths age out of foster care across the United States (Courtney, 2005). Except for incarcerated youth, foster youth are the only individuals who are involuntarily removed from their families through government intervention. Despite the fact that this separation is mandated to protect these young adults from harm by their caregivers, when they leave their homes, the state becomes responsible for helping them handle their new independence. Due to the youth's already unstable upbringing, this separation often aggravates problems, such as severe health problems, participation in crime, substance abuse and unemployment. Courtney (2005) reported that 37% of foster youth who are 17 to 20 years of age do not have a high school degree; 12%…. [read more]

Foster Care and Its Effects on Young Children in the U.S Term Paper

… ¶ … Foster Care on Young Children in the U.S.

In the past few decades, the negative long-term effects of foster care associated with young children in the United States has reportedly steadily increased, raising concern among parents, governmental programs and policy-makers alike. The United States federal government estimated that 542,000 children were placed in foster care as of September 30, 2001 (Pecora, 2003). The numbers of children in foster care have risen substantially since 1980; the average age of a child in foster care is 10 years old with an average length of stay of about three years. A review of the literature indicates that the length of time that children are spending in foster care has began to diminish in recent years,…. [read more]

Child Poverty Effects Crime Rates Capstone Project

… This fierce competition within the industry requires the professionals to be more skillful and competent than ever. In this race, the people with the lowest income group fall behind other because they did not got the opportunity to attain education with facilities that can enhance their skills and talents. In fact, these people have been deprived with the basic educational facilities at many instances. This lack of educational attainment causes them to stand in the last position in the job market. Adverse consequences of it create anger and frustration, which promotes them to be engaged in activities that are considered offensive and criminal (Maynard & Feldman, 2011).

Empirical studies have concluded the fact that young adults and teens who belonged to the family of unemployed…. [read more]

Child Foster Care Term Paper

… Foster Care

Kang, H. (2007). Theoretical Perspectives for Child Welfare Practice on Kinship Foster Care Families in Society 88 (4): 575-82

Kinship foster care is defined as "out-of-home placement with relatives of children who are in the custody of state and local child welfare agencies." As a result, numerous studies have been conducted on kinship care, and various policy and practice principles have supported this approach. However, in the report Kang stated that all research and practice and policy supports for kinship care have been conducted without well-conceived theoretical support. The main purpose of the paper, therefore, was to provide expanded theoretical discussions about kinship foster care and the motivations of kin caregivers. The report was written to help researchers organize their findings and guide…. [read more]

Children, Grief, and Attachment Theory Term Paper

… Children, Grief, And Attachment Theory

When a child, age 7 to 11, experiences the death of a nuclear or extended family member, the experi-ence generates subsequent grief reaction/s. During the mixed methods study, the researcher investigates ways attachment theory may positively compliment grief reaction/s and concerns challenging the grieving child that may include feelings which include, but not limited to anger, confusion, fear, and self-blame. When not addressed, these reactions may link to the child experiencing ensuing health and/or mental health problems in his/her later life. The study also relates a number of ways to help to confront bereavement issues that children experience.

Relating to Death

Addressing "Something Else"

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of Study

Significance of Study

Scope of Study

Rationale of Study…. [read more]

Effect of Single Child Family Structure on the Communication Process Research Proposal

… ¶ … Child Family Structure on the Communication Process

"the family is an extraordinarily rich context or gathering information on human social behavior"

(Floyd & Haynes, 2005, p. 79).

During a hard-line speech in 1979, Deng Xiaoping initially stressed that China's one child policy be put into practice, Steven W. Mosher (2006), president of the Population Research Institute in Front Royal, Virginia, reports in the publication, "China's one-child policy: Twenty-five years later." By 1981, the one child policy had been implemented throughout China. The "technical policy on family planning," which followed two years later, is still in force today. The "technical policy" requires:

IUDs for women of childbearing age with one child, sterilization for couples with two children (usually performed on the woman), and abortions…. [read more]

Black's Law Dictionary ), Child Abuse Essay

… ¶ … Black's Law Dictionary (1991), child abuse is "any form of cruelty to a child's physical, moral or mental well-being. Also used to describe form of sexual attack which may or may not amount to rape. Such acts are criminal offenses in most states" (p. 239). By contrast, the legal definition of abused and neglected children describes children who "are suffering serious physical or emotional injury inflicted upon them including malnutrition" (p. 11). The first step in providing social service treatment to physically abusive families is therefore to ensure the physical safety of the children involved (Herschell & McNeil, 2005). This response, typically from the law enforcement community, can range along the entire continuum of severity, up to and including incarceration of the offending…. [read more]

Diversity and Child Abuse Prevention Term Paper

… The discovery of child abuse in the urban industrial world and organized attention to child abuse took place more than a century ago with the foundation of the 1874 New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. This was an organization of its kind and it spread throughout American cities and into Europe. By 1910 more than 200 such societies existed in the U.S., and by 1921, formal efforts to rescue children from cruelty at the hands of their caretakers and parents lost momentum (Myers, 2008). However, by late 1950s and 1960s, the efforts got revived when child abuse became a grim social problem that instigated a flood of professional and public concern. The term child saving was useful as an umbrella characterization…. [read more]

Biracial Children Proposal for Study Term Paper

… Today, with so many biracial children being born every year, representing a wide variety of ethnic mixes, (Schwartz, 1997), it is crucial for society to foster the positive development of these individuals by respecting and appreciating their unique heritages.

It is also extremely important for educators and counselors to understand how best to serve the unique developmental and educational needs of their biracial students, and to develop the most appropriate strategies to support their families' efforts to nurture them and help them develop a positive sense of self.

The logic behind this methodology reasoning is the method of triangulation. The logic works on a system of triangulation, identifying how the identity of biracial children is affected by society and how negativity can be altered. This…. [read more]

Women and Children Essay

… Women and Children

Research and examine the history of social welfare policy as it pertains to this population, discussing their specific needs from a social welfare program.

The history of social welfare policy with respect to women and children began in the late 1800s, when laws were passed to protect child orphans from placement in "mixed almshouses"; by 1900 the foster care system was partially in place (Bortz, 1980). Other laws in the 20th century protected children from abuse, neglect, and hazardous occupations, and enforced minimum age and maximum working hours requirements (Bortz, 1980). As for women, initial legislation was slow to progress and didn't even exist until the turn of the century. After 1900, legislation to protect women aimed to safeguard them from industry…. [read more]

Psychological Effects of Divorce Research Paper

… Weakened Parenting after Divorce

Another factor that causes children to become stressed is when parenting they receive is inept, clumsy and incompetent. Extreme marital conflicts have severe effects when it comes to the adjustment of children. Mothers, in specific, tend to become less affectionate and more negligent when there are harsh agreements during marriage. They are reprted to become more ruthless in maintaining discipline in the house. Fathers, on the other hand, withdraw from their children and involve themselves in more interfering activities. In addition to this, when after divorce a child has to live with a parent who is disheartened, miserable and upset, it becomes difficult for that child to adjust emotionally, socially, and academically. The traumatic condition, anger and stress of the children…. [read more]

Child Called it Understanding Development: Human Behavior Research Proposal

… Child Called It

Understanding Development: Human Behavior and Social Environment Theories in David Pelzer's a Child Called it

In general, developmental theories try to explain "normal" behaviors and childhood development in individuals who do not face extreme adversity and conflict in the development process. That is, the primary goal of most of these theories is to explain how normal development occurs and can be encouraged through interaction and environment. It is from the establishment of such "normal" developmental processes and mechanisms that other situations can be effectively studied, and corrective measures for those with apparently aberrant or detrimental developmental conditions and/or environments can be suggested and implemented. This does not mean, however, that the examination of abnormal developmental situations and environments does not yield useful…. [read more]

Alternative and Traditional Therapeutic Methods Term Paper

… al, 1994; Halfon,, 1993).

Often, these professionals are uncertain of where to begin with a child who has recently entered foster care, and therefore these assessments play a vital role in determining the course of treatment. This has long been a traditional method of determining how best to help foster care children, as they often have trouble with basic issues such as socialization, communication, and motor skills (Horwitz,, 1994).

Unfortunately, different professionals often assess these foster care children in different ways. This is part of human nature and cannot be helped, but because of this, some children do not get the proper diagnosis of their problems, which can make treatment difficult. Children are done a disservice when they are treated for things that…. [read more]

Lost Boy by Dave Pelzer Book Review

… He thus constantly strives for his mother's attention and for her recognition that he is a good boy, an admission which, the reader knows, can never happen.

The only respite for the child comes in the form of Ms. Gold, who he calls an angel, and who is his assigned social worker. It is astonishing to see how David describes the complexity of his feelings towards this woman:

"Her long, shiny blond hair and bright face matched her name. "Hi," she smiled. "I'm your social worker." And so began the long and drawn-out sessions in which I had to explain things I did not totally understand. In the beginning of our first session, I huddled at the far end of the couch while Ms. Gold…. [read more]

Young Diverse Children Living Term Paper

… The Casey Foundation was formed based on the supposition that children "do best when their families do well, and families do better when they live in supportive neighborhoods." (AECF, 2004). Officially titled the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the community organization was founded to help disadvantaged children and their families realize better futures and better opportunities within the United States. The primary mission of the organization is to help foster "public policies, human service reforms, and community supports that more effectively meet the needs of today's vulnerable children and families."

Their initiatives and projects include help promoting education reform to address critical issues children face in big cities, programs to ensure familial economic success and juvenile detention alternatives initiatives, which are targeted toward keeping youths out…. [read more]

Abused and Exploited Children Term Paper



This agency is involved in child protection services in many states and may be known by different names such as department of families and children and department of social services. The agency takes action when a report is filed by a person close to the child. The child may be immediately removed from his or her home and placed in foster care. However the agency would try to reunite the child with the family after providing counseling to families and children involved.


This department known commonly as HHS is involved in the protection of health and safety of all Americans and can be contacted in case of child…. [read more]

Homosexual Parents on Children Conversations Literature Review Chapter

… However, the division of roll and responsibilities are clearly defined in heterosexual relationships, and homosexual relationships have a tendency to avoid division of roles. Children in homosexual families learn lifelong relationships with share the responsibilities of being a parent (Chan, Brooks, Raboy, & Patterson, 1998). A child's adjustment under any type of parental upbringing is dependent upon the decisions by the parents and not by their sexual orientation (Chan, Brooks, Raboy, & Patterson, 1998).

Studies regarding gender development and sexual orientation from children of lesbian and gay parents face criticism on the "grounds that atypical gender development and/or nonheterosexuality are neither illnesses nor disabilities." (Patterson, 2009) Behavior by a child that conforms to familiar norms is constantly under scrutiny, but there has been a limited…. [read more]

Child Psychological Development Child Developmental Case Study

… As she is almost one year she speaks clear words. Mother told me how she observed her baby during the developmental phase.

Erikson Theory of Psychological Development

Erikson recognized different stages of child development that are; Infancy, Early Childhood, Play age, School Age, Adolescence, Young Adulthood and Old Age. According to him, the child must go through and solve a conflict rising from biological and social experiences in every stage of his development. He described the conflicts ranging from infancy to adolescence. These are; "Basic Trust verses Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, and Identity vs. Role Confusion. If child brings and gains a positive result from each conflict that means a virtue is established.

Erikson's model describes that…. [read more]

Children Should Be Assigned to Classes on the Basis of Their Intelligence Term Paper

… Children Should Be Assigned to Classes on the Basis of Their Intelligence

Assignment of children and intelligence

The issue of the allocation or assignment of children to different classes on the basis of intelligence is a controversial issue. On the one hand there are numerous practical and pedagogical reasons for this process of differentiation and assignment. On the other hand there are many counter arguments which tend to emphasize the advantage of an inclusive and heterogeneous class situation. However these arguments are dependent to a great degree on the meaning and the application of the term 'intelligence'. Modern theoretical views show that there are many competing views of this term and a general rejection of more conventional assessments. This would tend to invalidate or at…. [read more]

Psychological Capital Thesis

… Psychological Capital and Learners K-12

Throughout its long history, psychology developed into a field that deals largely with abnormal conditions. Recently, a new trend has developed within the field that highlights positive psychological attributes and the ability used them to provide a more productive and meaningful life. Rather than focusing on he negative aspects of a person's psyche, psychological capital focuses on uses positive traits such as self-efficacy, hope, resiliency and personal motivation to drive the person to greater achievement. This research will explore the psychological capital that is represented by resiliency and its impact on academic achievement in Middle School learners in grades 6-8. This study will examine the development of resiliency and the factors that contribute to it throughout the child's school career.…. [read more]

Inner City Adolescents Thesis

… Custodial Grandparents

The Effect of Family Structure on the Mental Health and Educational Implications of Adolescents from High-Risk Neighborhoods, with Special Emphasis on Custodial Grandparents.

Because of the United States' impressive diversity, it is not surprising to realize that family structures vary greatly across the country, especially in urban centers. While different family structures must be recognized as legitimate, in order to empower their caretakers to raise children, it is important for sociologists, psychologists, those in the educational field, and others to understand that certain family structures may be associated with certain negative trends. Understanding these associations gives social service workers the ability to prevent such negative events from happening in the lives of adolescents and children in the inner city. A potent example of…. [read more]

Lack of Policy Protecting Children From Abuse Neglect Essay

… ¶ … Future Generation

Listen to any discussion of public policy and it won't take too long for you to hear somebody talk about how children are our most precious resource and how we have to do everything possible to protect them. And yet -- while these statements are unarguably true -- when it comes to funding and designing public policy, it is all too often children who find themselves ignored and mistreated -- not only by their caregivers, but by our social welfare system. This paper examines one possible way in which the harm that befalls children from neglectful and abusive caregivers might be mitigated. There are other possible ways, no doubt, to reduce harm to children. But this one has the advantages of…. [read more]

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