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Mill, Kant, and Torture Essay

… This, as Richard Weaver argues, dates back to William of Occam, who introduced nominalism into the philosophical arena in the 14th century -- which denied universals and began the subjective train of thought which has us creeping along today

Thus, the slow abandonment of philosophical inquiry has finally arrived at the modern's need to talk "about" the words that are used to articulate rather than the first principles that make up the articulations themselves. By getting back to true and objective first principles, one may hope to attain a philosophy that can help one decide whether torture is morally permissible. Weaver notes that "the whole tendency of modern thought, one might say its whole moral impulse, is to keep the individual busy with endless induction.…. [read more]

Entertaining Style While at the Same Time Research Proposal

… ¶ … entertaining style while at the same time not really making light of the situation. The author struck a nice balance between keeping the essay moving and almost humorous, but he still makes it clear that his attitude regarding cell phones is very real and somewhat serious. Another good balance found in the essay is between logic and emotion. In talking about the cell phone issue, Jonathan Rowe lays out a clear and rational argument for why cell phones should not be used as intrusively as they are, while at the same time making his frustration and the other emotional changes that cell phones have brought to humanity very palpable to the reader. Rowe's ability to cover all the areas of the issue makes…. [read more]

Broken Down Essay

… ¶ … broken down to the question of 'what exactly constitutes knowledge?' This is a question that has plagued philosophers since the beginning of time. Although the majority of the great philosophers seem to equate knowledge with belief, in at least its most basic sense, questions remain regarding what is fact and what is only believed to be fact. In this essay I will attempt to explain the various philosophical arguments that address this issue, will infusing some of my own personal observations and understandings into the fold as well.

Does Belief Constitute Knowledge?

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Rene Descartes developed a theory of "rational philosophy" that attempted to equate knowledge with reason. In Descartes' view, beliefs are usually constructed on a fragile…. [read more]

Ti) in Info Tech (IT) Essay

… The appeal behind the force of the imperative could be something measurable or it could be, as some leading experts believe, more of a case of instinct -- the gut reaction of those who have a good handle on changes that are beginning to occur even if the professional or logical justification cannot easily been seen. The true pull of the imperative is the fact that it makes a strong case that it is a smart tool whose value cannot be denied. When this happens during a technology revolution, there are usually some significant skeptics, but even they may still try to use the new tools & #8230; just in case. It could well be that this is the true secret behind the motivation that…. [read more]

Peculiar Ethics of Public Leadership Essay

… Without the trust of the public, public administration cannot exist." (Gray, 1996) Classical thinkers believe that legislators "if freely elected and guarded against corruption by special interests…could be counted on to reflect the consensus values of an essentially unified popular sovereign." (Gray, 1996) Progressives however, held that lawyers, prior to designing legal doctrines and institutions that would effectively meet the needs of the public must first "learn the facts about society" and then effectively become "social engineers, systematically investigating social problems, familiarizing themselves with the available methods of reform and testing whether these had the intended effects." (Gray, 1996) The work of Stever (2008) reports that Evans "makes it clear that pragmatism, as it was forged by John Dewey is a body of philosophy that…. [read more]

Arts and Humanities in Rosseau Essay

… Such a technique, whereby half of the sky represents storm clouds while the left of the sky represents the wilderness, is a subject that celebrates the power of nature and the pure American wilderness. This symbolism, "pure American wilderness" has a correlation to Rousseau's primitive nature of human beings. In that state, pureness described the human beings because they were innocent and knew only the language of nature until science came about. In the paintings, the right side represents a clear sky after a storm passes, and the neat tilled land depicts the influence of human behavior on the land (Rodriquez 63-73). This compares to Richard essay in that, after science revolution, the innovations worked well and brought about good things. However, the same way…. [read more]

Plato's Republic Term Paper

… ¶ … Plato's Republic

One of the most important concepts that Plato deals with in his book "The Republic" is that of justice. The focus the m is both on the individual and society, therefore justice being a fundamental principle as far as society is concerned, one will also be able to find a deep connection between justice and man as well. According to the philosopher a just society is one which functions well. Naturally society is made of and by the people. Therefore it seems to be quite obvious that in order to be just, a society needs to be composed out of just people. The main functions which must be performed in order to regulate society refer to the decision -- governing process,…. [read more]

Aristotle's Rhetoric Term Paper

… Thus, the individual may be an occasional or frequent persuasive speaker, yet it is the rhetoric's that allows him to have a grasp on all sources of persuasion on any given subject.

On going through the history of rhetoric's, it is observed that the orators or speakers paid a lot of attention on the use of methods and techniques outside the real subject or topic under discussion. For example methods such as arousing the emotions within the public, distracting them from the attention of the subject, or even slandering the public. These techniques thus did not allow the hearer, public or juries, to constitute rational judgments, instead were led to the believe in whatever was uttered. Aristotle in following his teacher Plato's footsteps contradicted these…. [read more]

Diderot and Newton Inductive and Deductive Logic Essay

… Combining his knowledge of astronomy based on the Copernican model of the universe (the sun being at the center), Newton theorized that the same force that pulled the planets to the sun was the same as that which caused the apple to be pulled to the earth. This theory of gravity built on the laws of motion. To prove the theory, Newton tested it and collected empirical data. In the same manner, Diderot approaches the subject of assimilation with his friend in order to prove that there is unity among substances.

In conclusion, Diderot's Conversations with D'Alembert provide insights into the philosopher's confidence and approach to epistemology, which is consistent with that utilized by Newton in his mathematical treatises on the laws of motion and…. [read more]

Personal Philosophy / Supervision Portfolio and Supervision Forms Term Paper

… Supervision Portfolio/Supervision Form

Supervision Portfolio / Personal Philosophy and Supervision Forms

Counseling uses systematic intervention to facilitate emotion development of patients. On the other hand, supervision is the management of overseeing the performances of an individual. The paper discusses the relationships and differences of counseling and supervision. The discrimination model of supervision is one of supervisory models that focus on the relationships between supervision and counseling because the model reveals that a supervisor can take the role of a counselor. (Bernard, & Goodyear, 2009). The paper also discusses my supervisory development process, which starts from my secondary education to my university education. Various theoretical models that I have learnt in my modules have in the university have enhanced my supervisory development level. The paper also…. [read more]

Raise Research Proposal

… ¶ … raise to the authors regarding the sample of individuals used for this study?

Given the relatively small size of the survey, the disproportionate emphasis on certain demographic characteristics raises questions about its validity. First of all, the study was extremely slanted in terms of gender: of the 169 employee surveys that were returned, 24.4% were derived from male responses while 75.6% were from women. Women and men may feel different levels of stress, and respond with different behaviors, based upon different types of negative stimuli. Also, the sample was drawn from a narrow range of professions, mostly from the administrative professions -- from academic and financial sectors. The personalized and hierarchical nature of the workplace in these two fields may mean there may…. [read more]

Francis Bacon Essay

… Flatland: A Romance in Many Dimensions

Though written largely as a satirical response to the institutions and beliefs of the Victorian England society to which its author belonged, Edwin Abbot's Flatland: A Romance in Many Dimensions also serves, and has for over a century, as an enjoyable introduction to many different fields of human knowledge. Practically since its first publication, scholar have noted the skill with which Abbot describes complex topics to his readers in such diverse fields as philosophy, mathematics, and even cultural anthropology, though rarely mentioning these fields explicitly (Beidleman, 1973).

Instead, through the main character of the Square and his interactions with other very-humanized characters in the two-dimensional world of Flatland, these concepts are illuminated as logical necessities of the world we…. [read more]

Scientific Method in Psychology Term Paper

… ¶ … psychologists conduct research on a variety of topics that follow the basics of scientific methodology. They identify a specific problem, determine the appropriate methodology to study that problem, collect the required data, analyze and interpret that data and report their findings and conclusions. This approach has long been a part of the science of psychology.

The term "science" denotes both a certain type of activity and its results (Wolman 1960, p. 497). Frequently, delineation is made between the actual "research" conducted and the resulting "system," which are both described as scientific. Scientific research is aimed at the discovery of truth and a scientific system includes propositions, statements or sentences that represent this truth (Wolman 1960, p. 497). Whitehead (1911 p. 157) noted that…. [read more]

Scientific Revolution Is a Change in Intellectual Term Paper

… Scientific Revolution is a change in intellectual thought attributed to the 16th and 17th centuries. However, scientific thought had been around for some time before this time with notable contributions by Aristotle (384-322 BC) and Ptolemy (90-168 AD). Both made significant contributions to science, with Aristotle's book, The Physics, appearing about 350 B.C., describing the principles of change, movement and the elements such as earth, wind, and fire, to name a few of the subjects covered.

Ptolemy orderly arranged the geocentric view of the universe so that they were understandable and rationalized the motions of the planets as they were known in his time. Ptolemy's book Almagest was the basis of pre-modern astronomy, posing that the whole universe revolves around the earth and developing eighty…. [read more]

Commodities Are Inherently Morally Bad Essay

… Thomas Hobbes later broadened bacons philosophy of materialism by systematizing it. To him human senses are responsible for the desire of material things. The sight, touch, smell taste inform the heart and brains causing pressure in human beings to acquire commodities (Hobbes 1996). Both Bacon and Hobbes arguments are centered in the fact that human knowledge is fueled by senses.

Arthur Schopenhauer a German philosopher also contributed to the growing debate on materialism, he considered materialism as a philosophy of one who fails to plan (Schopenhauer 1883). He claims that people know material objects through observation and consequent actions in the brain. The way material objects are experienced is dependent on how the brain understands.

Ludwig Feuerbach introduced a new twist to materialism through his…. [read more]

John Locke Was the Type of Philosopher Term Paper

… John Locke was the type of philosopher that attempted; "to explore the human condition in the light of Christian understanding." (Hollis 2006-page 205) Locke's arguments and essay(s) in the late 1600's were considered to be major in their scope, especially in the philosophical community and the resulting discussions engendered a following that was avid amongst many of the philosophers of that era, as well as the common men, both as members and non-members of the Church at that time.

Locke played a major role (some would say the primary driver behind the vehicle) in the philosophical upheaval of the time, which is why he was considered as one of the fathers of the Enlightenment Era.

This constellation of issues is nowhere more urgently brought to…. [read more]

Man as a Manifesto Term Paper

… In his characteristically methodical approach, Pope attempts to create a blueprint of reasoning:

What can we reason, but from what we know?

Of man, what see we but his station here,

From which to reason, or to which refer?

Through worlds unnumbered though the God be known,

Tis ours to trace him only in our own. (1.1.18-22)

These lines dovetail well with the central belief of Rationalism, which is that man can employ reason to unearth truth. Pope is saying that man can reason with the information he already has, deductively. From the truths man knows, new truths can be obtained. Interestingly, Pope makes an allusion to Milton's Paradise Lost early in "Epistle 1" ("Alexander Pope" 2263). Pope's desire to "vindicate the ways of God…. [read more]

History of Science Patronage Guiding Thinkers Term Paper

… History of Science-Patronage guiding Thinkers

Scientific discoveries and inventions are the elements that brought humanity on the road to evolution and development. Without these essential tools, the civilization as we know it today could not have been possible. Nonetheless, from the time of Aristotle onwards, researchers and scientists could not have been able to achieve their goals without a constant support from the kings, queens and emperors who invested time and money into their research. Still, the issue of patronage is to this date a debated subject. The main idea of the controversy is the extent to which scientists were actually influenced by their own patrons in their research and experimental work. It is a rather hard task to determine a possible answer to such…. [read more]

Philosophical Naturalism a Critique Essay

… Christian Response to Philosophical Naturalism

Generally, philosophical naturalism is a worldview that suggests that the universe is a completely closed system that is strictly governed by physical laws and by mathematical constants that are definitively identifiable, in principle, through the human process of empirical analysis. As such, there can never be any possible explanation for anything in the universe that does not fit within empirical knowledge or within the objectively provable laws of science in general and that, in particular, physical concepts cannot ever be explained or understood except through the laws of physics.

The first major philosophical assumption made by philosophical naturalists is that there is no such thing as any a priori knowledge that lies outside of objectively provable fact. Therefore, philosophical naturalism…. [read more]

Individuals and Researchers Term Paper

… First, individuals and organizations should identify the issue or problems that needs to be addressed. Next, groups and individuals need to identify and outline all possible courses of action in response to the issue or problem. Third, individuals and organizations must outline and evaluate the various advantages and disadvantages associated with each potential option. Fourth, groups and individuals should weigh the severity and urgency of the issue or problem as well as the costs and benefits of the most desirable course of action.

Fifth, individuals and organizations need to select one to two options and decide how and when to implement such alternatives in view of their needs. Sixth, upon the selection and implementation of the chosen options, groups and individuals must decide whether to…. [read more]

Descartes Discourse on Method Term Paper

… ¶ … Descartes' Discourse on Methods

Contributions of Rene Descartes' works to the history of philosophy

An Analysis of the Discourse on Method and the "I think, therefore I am" statement.

Descartes' background

Rene Descartes is widely recognized as the father of modern philosophy. Also known as Renatus Cartesius (a latinization of his name), Descartes was a 17th century French scientist, mathematician and philosopher. His importance in the history of philosophy is so great because he was among the first to oppose scholastic Aristotleianism, which had influenced European philosophy and culture during a period of almost a thousand years. A French gentleman who signed himself "Lord of Perron" and who lived twenty years of his life (the most productive ones) in the tolerable and hospitable…. [read more]

Kant's Universal Principle of Right Term Paper

… Further, Willaschek also contradicts the view about judicial law being moral law as asserted by Kant. He asserts that the juridical law cannot find expression in categorical imperatives because juridical laws do not require obedience for their own sake (Willaschek, 68). This is true since morality always acts out of the accordance with the law and therefore categorical imperative cannot form the basis for its presence. The moral law acts on its own sake and does not require the presence of the categorical imperative. This makes the juridical law be different from the moral laws since they (juridical laws) do not have expression in accordance to the categorical imperatives.

However, I do not agree with the view presented by Nance that there can be construction…. [read more]

Secular Humanism Research Proposal

… Secular Humanism

The rise and influence of Secular Humanism in the 20th century


Brief Overview of the Antecedents of Secular Humanism

The Enlightenment and Renaissance

Political and Economic Factors

The Modern Era

Historical aspects; The Formalism of Secular Humanism

The Role of Science

Secularization in the West

Influential Thinkers

Secular Humanism in the Twentieth Century and its Crisis

The Influence of Secular Humanism

The phenomenon of secular humanism is a central facet of the constitution and character of contemporary Western culture and society. The modern development of this ideology or worldview has progressed from the humanism of the Enlightenment to the particle style of secular humanism that we find in the twentieth century. This cultural phenomenon became a dominant social and cultural force during…. [read more]

David Hume Philosopher, Historian, and Economist Term Paper

… David Hume

Philosopher, historian, and economist David Hume (April 26, 1711 - August 25, 1776) was born in Scotland (Penelhum, 1993). He was seen to be a very prominent figure in history both in the Scottish enlightenment and in Western philosophy. The interest in Hume's work in recent years has become more centered on the philosophical writing that he did, but it was for being a historian that he originally gained some notoriety. His book History of Great Britain was considered to be the standard on English history for over sixty years until T.B. Macaulay published History of England (Norton, 1993).

Historians today predominantly see the Humean philosophy as being a form of very deep skepticism, but there are others that argue that the idea…. [read more]

Current News Term Paper

… ¶ … philosopher's names like Confucius and Plato, stood out much more than they would if I was just reading a news article in the morning. When I am reading the news, I am usually just reading for information. I don't pay much attention to the style or quality of the prose, or even the philosophical 'spin' of an article, unless I'm reading something purely as an editorial. But this made me think about what Confucius or Plato might say about our modern world. Other details, like the numbers, stood out much more than they might have otherwise -- maybe even more than if I was reading a conventionally organized piece. I had to focus not just on the quantity, but what numbers mean out…. [read more]

Influence of Women on the Progress of Knowledge Dissertation

… ¶ … Henry Thomas Buckle's original 1858 discourse concerning the contributions of women to the progress of knowledge to determine how relevant these concepts remain today, and to expand on his origins premise that although women reason differently from men, the contributions to the progress of knowledge made by women over the centuries are worthy of further study today. To this end, the study examines different types of knowledge and how women have affected progress in these domains through a critical review of the relevant literature, including open source media such as Wikipedia, but peer-reviewed and scholarly sources as well. A summary of the research and a synthesis of the findings are presented in the study's conclusion concerning the contributions of women to the progress…. [read more]

Cultural Transmissions by the Italian Renaissance Term Paper

… Cultural Transmissions by the Italian Renaissance

European Renaissance of the 14th-17th century is considered to be a revival of antique culture and humanism ideas after prolonged Dark Ages of feudalism in Europe. it's generally agreed that starting from approximately 1000 AD Europe experienced crisis which lied in breaks of feudal economy. Absence of economical premises for development led to political, cultural and diplomatic stagnation all over Europe. Moreover, domination of Catholic Church, which persecuted progressive ideas that contradicted with Christianity dogmas and oppressive methods of inquisition led to self isolation of European states. Only Italy and southern Spain experienced some interaction with Arab world, later due to Crusades Europeans got acquainted with Arabic culture, Muslim world and Ancient Greek cultural legacy which was preserved in…. [read more]

Bad Ideas the Past Few Essay

… " For instance, the term logic when applied to good or bad ideas implies that good ideas are logical, bad ideas are illogical. But the subject of logic examines arguments and how logic is verified. Truth must be verifiable for it to be truth, but as we also know, truth is situational (killing is bad, but not always bad -- e.g. self-defense, war, to save others, etc.). But instead, it is the skill of vetting sources, of analyzing what bias or point-of-view a certain author or text might purport that brings humans to a logical conclusion that may be verifiable as well (Gutek, 2008).

When we examine sources, though, we need to take into account the vetting (bias, purpose, etc.) but also the robustness and…. [read more]

Ontological Position of Postmodernism Exhibits Essay

… Becvar & Becvar (2000) argue the postmodernism involves a philosophical position suggesting that reality is constructed within belief systems, and that the observer is an integral part in what is observed.

As such, in an effort to identify potential methodologies for the study of depression among adolescents, it is important to consider the type of data to be collected; whether such data be qualitative, quantitative or some variation of a mixed methods design. While a qualitative design might provide some meaningful insight from the research participants, it is liable to research bias. While quantitative research designs might provide the statistical or numerical data relating to adolescent depression, such data might not provide insight into the lived experiences of adolescents. A mixed methods design might be…. [read more]

Rhetoric in Public Communication Essay

… Plato was a teacher of Aristotle, and he condemned the art of rhetoric despite Plato's great knowledge. While Plato condemned rhetoric philosophy, his student, Aristotle believed that rhetoric is a way to create stable community. Aristotle defines rhetoric as the ability to have the means of persuasion in each particular case. From the definition of rhetoric provided by Aristotle, it is revealed that rhetoric is important in public communication revealing the importance of context and audience. Aristotle identified rhetoric as the strategy of persuading audience through various means. On the other hand, rhetoric criticism is an epistemology, which reveals the effective way in the communication process. Rhetorical criticism is a range of items using language to persuade the audience.

Objective of this paper is to…. [read more]

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