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Free Will and Determinism Essay

… If an action is "free," in the weak sense, any drug addict, zombie, or idiot could then be "free"; moreover, determinism for Taylor is a metaphysical concept and can't be understood as "cause" or "effect" and is "an emergent phenomenon, so mysterious in its inner workings" that humans cannot "grasp it" (Beach, p. 4).

Plato's view of free will: true freedom is not necessarily being free "…to do whatever is wanted" because that "would only lead to slavery" (Campos, 2010). The first step that leads toward freedom is "having control over the senses and by electing the mind as the ruler of one's life… [and it is not possible] to talk about freedom until body and mind are under control," Campos explains (based on The…. [read more]

Descarte's Method of Doubt Descartes Essay

… Descarte's Method Of Doubt

Descartes' Method of Doubt

Descartes adopts the method of doubt by understanding knowledge in terms of certainty. A system which allows us to be certain that what we really think we know is not just a fabrication of his imagination but a reliable truth. The impetus for his method of doubts begins as a question of the possibility that all his thoughts could be false on the basis that he has had many false beliefs before and could possibly have formed more false beliefs with a fabricated base, and that in order to have stable sciences we must be free from doubt. Descartes perceptive of knowledge, certainty and the need for doubt have been taken too high (Broughton, 8). It seems…. [read more]

Mill King Essay

… John Stuart Mill and Utilitarianism

Procurement of greatest happiness to the greatest number of people appears like a definitive basis of utilitarianism propounded by John Stuart Mill. But the idea had been around for some time. In fact it was Socrates who first coined the phrase in slightly different context when he argued that the formation of states was meant not for "the disproportionate happiness of any one class, but the greatest happiness of the whole." Similarly in 1725, Francis Hutcheson wrote something precisely to this effect in his "Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue" saying: "That action is best which procures the greatest happiness for the greatest numb." This idea was later adopted by Mill and has since been…. [read more]

John Locke/Biographical Research During the Enlightenment Thesis

… John Locke/Biographical Research

During the Enlightenment, a period when John Locke, one of the greatest contributors was challenging the world order. In the wake of political turmoil in England, Locke asserted the right of a people to change a government that did not protect natural rights of life, liberty and property. People were beginning to doubt the existence of a God who could predestine human beings to eternal damnation and empower a tyrant for a king. Europe would be forever changed by these ideas.

The English philosopher was born in Warrington, England, on the 29th of August, 1632, a time when spirits were high and everybody felt that change had been near. His father had bared the same name and had been a country lawyer…. [read more]

Hypostases in Plotinus Essay

… ¶ … Hypostases in Plotinus

Plotinus was attempting to find harmony between the writings of Plato and Aristotle when he wrote the three hypostases, according to the available literature on Plotinus' work. It is known that Aristotle focused on the causes and the facts of the natural world, the physical world, and that Plato dealt with "…the divine world" (Gerson, 1999). What Plotinus did in the process of his writing was to basically place "Plato's metaphysical system" higher on his ladder of importance that Aristotle's natural world narratives. This paper reviews the three hypostases that Plotinus wrote about, and some of what both Plato and Aristotle described had a positive effect on the thinking and writing of Plotinus. The three are: The One; the Intellect;…. [read more]

James Du Bois Brings Up Article Review

… The greater question too, is: what about those who knowingly harm their health, or willingly remain unemployed despite their capacities to find labor? Do we have to support these people too? The only answer for this is recourse to Charity. Sine it would be complex to found secular Justice on persuasive reasons of Charity and since it would be even more ethically complex to enforce these ideas of charity, the only way that health care reformers can attempt to persuade the American public to salvage some of their hard-won money for the health concern of people who earn less than they is to find extremely compelling reasons to persuade them to do so.

Du Bois' article is not only interesting but he also presents a…. [read more]

Falstaff Thinks Leave People Decide Essay

… As a consequence, he takes on a lifestyle that is criticized by most. Prince Hal is probably one of the only persons who is able to see beyond Falstaff's depravity and who even influences others in changing their opinion concerning this character. Falstaff openly puts across his opinion regarding honor: "Can honour set to a leg? No: or an arm? No: or take away the grief of a wound? No: honour hath no skill in surgery, then? No. What is honour? A word" (Shakespeare 76). Prince Hal and other aristocrats at the court are reluctant to punish Falstaff for his crimes and for his lies because they know that he never manages to perform an act that is malicious in nature. Falstaff is basically a…. [read more]

Managing Conflict Through Communication Discussion Chapter

… ¶ … interpersonal conflict from chapter one of our textbook to the case study. Once we review the definition, we will then apply it and draw the necessary conclusions in order to solve the case study.

According to Ruth Ann Abigail and Dudley D. Cahn, conflict in a relationship wells up when there are deep differences that occur between the two sides that can occur in disagreement. They can concern a number of differences (religious, economic, etc.). that arise between friends or groups that if not handled competently could bring about the end of the relationship ( Abigail & Cahn, 2010, 2). Essentially, different sides have different needs and the conflict arises from the immediate inability to reconcile and sort these out. In the relationship,…. [read more]

Theoretical Approach Critic on a Chosen Media Object Term Paper

… Media Critical Analysis


Hamlet: The struggle of being and the power of passion

Hamlet: The struggle of being and the power of passion

Media critical analysis

The Struggle of Being and Power of the Passions attempts to show the role played by the tragedy in areas such as aesthetics and politics. To this end, the idea is to see, in broad terms, the relationship between tragedy and modern political thought. At the same time explore the influence of the tragedy itself in the work of performance art and psychoanalytic theory.

This study will also guide the thinking of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), subsequently to establish the relationship between the work of Sophocles (497-405 BC), Oedipus Rex, and Oedipus Complex Hamlet. Moreover, the aesthetic theory of…. [read more]

Theory vs. Ideology Term Paper

… Ideologies, in contrast, are structured to resist investigation and critical reassessment.

Consider whether theory is ideological?

The relativist position states that theories are strongly influenced by societal norms, personally held beliefs, and prejudices. In other words, scientific theories are constantly subjected to the personal ideologies of scientists and social influences. As a result, a theory can adopt some of the traits normally associated with ideologies. The degree to which the line between theory and ideology becomes blurred depends on how extensively social and personal influences impact the integrity of the scientific theory being formulated. For example, Robert Martinson reviewed the literature on prison recidivism rates in 1974 and declared that rehabilitation programs uniformly fail to accomplish their goals (Cusac, 2009, p. 173). Five years later…. [read more]

Critical Thinking Application "Every Job Essay

… However, one client posed a different challenge, one where critical thinking played a visibly significant role. The dealer had to make a decision about whether to shut down his dealership.

Like so many dealers in urban areas in recent years, my client had watched his business decline, as sales had fallen by about two-thirds from their pre-recession levels. After three years of losses in a saturated market with stiff competition, my client was seriously considering shutting down the family business that he had hoped to pass on to his son. Though the math was straightforward -- his dealership lost money for the last three years - my client wrestled with the intangible, non-quantifiable considerations of closing his dealership. He knew that the city in which…. [read more]

Modest Proposal Term Paper

… Setting in Jonathon Swift's "A Modest Proposal"

One of the most powerful features of Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal," is how Swift uses his social setting as a successful tool to convey his message. Swift includes areas of serious concern to create a powerful satire that proves his point. The cruel behavior of the Irish and the hypocrisy of the English aristocracy are real elements that provide the perfect setting for this essay. Swift attempts to resolve the poverty and overpopulation concerns with compassion wrapped in satire. Without the current societal concerns, Swift would have no argument and his essay would not make an impact. As it is, the social climate sets the perfect tone for Swift's clever argument.

Swift could not make his satire…. [read more]

Importance of Evaluation in Critical Thinking Essay

… Critical thinking offers people a way to interpret their thinking and reactions to others thinking. It provides a mechanism of action that gives a means with which to understand the world at large. So many things, concepts are abstract. They are not easy to define. Laws, facts, these are simple because one just memorizes them. They do not offer more than a first glance. Critical thinking is for thoughts and concepts that require more than a first glance. Concepts like love and family; they all generate complex and comprehensive meaning. Widely debated topics like abortion and video game violence require more than, a simple "this is bad for you" or "It is wrong." Writers like Bedau and Barnet, Facione, and Halpern provide the context with…. [read more]

Faith and Reason Irreconcilable Term Paper

… Though this new system demonstrated again the ideation of an assumed reconciliation between faith and reason it also gave insight into the future, i.e. one where the natural sciences and empirical though dominated western philosophy.[footnoteRef:9] [9: Grant. p 36.]

John Scotus Eriugena (c 810-877) the Irish philosopher and theologian who went to France to serve the court of King Charles the Bald, is one of the most significant early European thinkers emphasizing reason. In his great work, On the Division of Nature, Eriugena declares: "For authority proceeds from true reason, but reason certainly does not proceed from authority. For every authority which is not upheld by true reason is seen to be weak, whereas true reason is kept firm and immutable by her own powers…. [read more]

Starting the Personal Journal Essay

… Rather than try to change the curriculum to meet the students' expectations, a teacher has to consider that the curriculum is offered a particular way for a reason. The students need the knowledge, even if they do not see the value in it. In order to be effective as a teacher, I will need to show the students the significance of the knowledge they must learn, by providing them with a link between themselves and the information. That makes them more interested in finding out about the world around them, and it can also provide them with a desire to continue to learn on their own. It is possible for the students to find something in which they are very interested if they open their…. [read more]

Global Warming Is, Like Bacon Essay

… This argument is untenable given clear information revealing the direct, immediate, and rather drastic impact of human industry including the prevalence of automobiles. There are clear causes of climate change that are directly attributable to human industry, which means that humans are contributing to climate change or at the very least could be exacerbating a natural warming cycle. Even if climate change were to happen independently from human industry, would it not be in the best interest of human survival and quality of life to do something about it?

What to do about climate change remains the core part of the controversy that plagues lawmakers and policymakers. The best way to rebrand the phenomena associated with climate change is to create challenges for the business…. [read more]

Freudian Reading Term Paper

… ). Freud would say, that like many people, Hemingway fears what he desires. A Freudian read of Francis Macomber would also reveal that Francis was a masochist and that he and his wife maintained a sadomasochistic dynamic in their relationship. Neither of them needed to stay in the marriage, yet they remained married for over a decade. She painfully emasculated him; he endured it and probably enjoyed it on an unconscious level.

Perhaps the part that reveals the most about Hemingway the person is the ending, when Mrs. Macomber accidently shoots Francis in the head. Ernest Hemingway died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head in his later years. He was a long time alcoholic, who was treated for severe depression. Freud argued in…. [read more]

Black Studies - Philosophy/Morality Term Paper

… Black Studies - Philosophy/Morality

PHILOSOPHY: THE BASIS of HUMAN MORALITY Introduction - Morality in Human Life:

The concept of moral right and wrong is ubiquitous among all human societies in existence today as well as among the surviving records of virtually every human society no longer in existence in modern times. According to some of the most recent biological and evolutionary psychological data (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005), morality may exist in its rawest form even among non-human primates and other higher forms of biological life forms.

Besides it pervasiveness in myriad societies distant from one another geographically and in time, the other most striking aspects of morality in human life are (1) the degree to which certain specific moral concepts are common to so many…. [read more]

Staff and the Supervision Essay

… The reason behind this is the fact that everybody wants to be heard and since I believe in a collaborative approach I think that the employees and staff members would be happy with my assumptions for the simple reason that they are able to convey their thoughts and ideas through proper and convenient channels. These skills have been characterized by Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon into the mastery of the subsequent conditions, "listening, encouraging, clarifying, presenting, reflecting, problem solving, directing, negotiating, reinforcing and standardizing" (pg. 112). Therefore, by having a proper understanding of the above mentioned term a supervisor will be able to understand and nullify the misunderstandings.

However, it has to be kept in mind here that when you are dealing with an organization or…. [read more]

Special Education, Also Referred to as Inclusion Essay

… Special education, also referred to as inclusion field focuses its attention on children with special educational needs and disabilities. This field has been on a gradual and progressive change ever since its inception. The events orchestrating the evolution of special education serve as indispensable backdrop in comprehending the ever-changing nature of this field. In addition, knowledge of this history is not only critical in understanding the advances made so far, but also provides a blueprint for further progress of the inclusion field. This study focuses on establishing special education as an evolving and changing discipline and bases its arguments on the philosophies propagated, legislations and policies, historical perspectives, and human issues that continually influence the treatment of people with the special educational needs.

Tracing the…. [read more]

Ernest Hemingway the Short Happy Term Paper

… What's more, Wilson and Margot realize that Macomber is now a manly man: Wilson has "seen men come of age before," now sees it in Macomber, who is a "ruddy fire- eater" with "no bloody fear" and Wilson is moved by it (Hemingway 25-26); Margot also sees the change in Macomber (Hemingway 26). Now, at last a man, Macomber can be fearless, control his wife and end the cuckoldry that he endured as a coward.

In contrast to the coward is the manly man hunter, Wilson. Unlike Macomber, Wilson is a manly man throughout the story. Admired by lesser men like Macomber, adored by women like Margot, who know that he is a brave man and gush about his hunting prowess (Hemingway 26), Wilson typically…. [read more]

Counselor Education Teaching Philosophy Research Paper

… ¶ … Counselor Educator

In many ways, counselors are educators. They take tools for communication and growth and attempt to teach those goals to a diverse group of people in settings that are designed to increase dialogue and communication in an effort to enhance problem-solving. Therefore, for the counselor, dialogue is essential; the counselor has to learn from the client in order to address client needs and the client has to learn from the counselor. Likewise, in counselor-education, dialogue is important. Counselors in training will vary in ability, background, and intuitive knowledge. A teaching paradigm that fails to take into account individual differences will be destined for failure, because it will fail to model a give-and-take communication process. "Without dialogue there is no communication, and…. [read more]

Supervisory Procedures for Mental Health Professionals Research Paper

… ¶ … supervisory procedures for mental health professionals. To do this we are examining the different approaches and the impact that they will have on patients. Once this occurs, is when we can see how this is influencing our personal management philosophy.

Over the last several years, the supervision procedures of different counseling practices have been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because there are a variety of different theories about how to effectively deal with these kinds of issues. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Brown (2008) who wrote, "It has been our experience that the principals underlying effective supervision are very basic. However, as time has went by they have become more advance to…. [read more]

Hmong Culture Health Essay

… Even in the presence of modern medical processes, the Hmong prefer to practice their family rituals to treat an illness. The Hmong are also active practitioners of alternative medicine and regularly use massage therapy, acupuncture and herbal medicines to treat various illnesses. For illnesses that cannot be treated by these methods, various spiritual methods are used, of which the most popular is the shaman therapy (Tatman, 2004).

According to Hmong belief, the body contains a number of souls instead of just one. The well-being of the body is dependent on the souls living within the body in harmony. When that harmony is disturbed the body becomes unwell. In addition, various evil spirits may attack the body. The shaman is a faith healer who acts as…. [read more]

Education Philosophy - Curricula Considering Mandatory College Term Paper

… Education Philosophy - Curricula


Mandatory Academic Requirements in Math, Science and Foreign Language:

College is supposed to provide a comprehensive education that prepares students for the professional environment where they may encounter the need for knowledge in many areas in addition to their particular field of academic focus. Mathematics skills are required in many common daily applications, such as financial negotiations, personal finances, complying with U.S. tax codes, mortgages, and myriad other specific circumstances where ignorance of basic mathematics is detrimental to one's interests.

Likewise, we live in an age where science permeates our lives in practically every respect. Modern motor vehicles employ sophisticated internal mechanisms; we take regular medications to maintain our health and address diseases, some of which…. [read more]

Jean Jacque Rousseau's Emile or on Education Essay

… Philosophy of Education - Rousseau


Rousseau on Learning Language and Limiting Early Vocabulary:

Let the child's vocabulary, therefore, be limited. It is very undesirable that he should have more words than ideas, that he should be able to say more than he thinks. One of the reasons why peasants are generally shrewder than townsfolk is, I think, that their vocabulary is smaller. They have few ideas, but those few are thoroughly grasped." [201]

Throughout Book I, Rousseau explains his criticism of the way that modern society (even in his time) teaches language to children. Rousseau's characterization of the way that children learn language naturally was prescient for his era, but was perfectly consistent with modern understanding of infant babbling.…. [read more]

French School of Spirituality and Francis Libermann Term Paper

… French School of Spirituality and Francis Libermann

Western Catholicism takes pride in the fact that it has a large number of special schools dedicated to the understanding of Christianity and each had something different to offer. Some of the most well-known schools have been the Augustinian, the Benedictine, the Franciscan, the Dominican, the Ignatian and the Carmelite. Then there were some other special schools that were named after the location where they originated such as the English School (Richard Rolle, Walter Hilton); the Rhineland School (John Ruusbroec, Henry Suso, John Tauler); and, the French School.

In the Roman Catholic tradition, special schools are formed on the basis on their understanding and articulation of the common teachings of the faith including repentance, prayer, meditation on scripture,…. [read more]

Intelligence Testing Essay

… However, the very fact that the author used culture as a means of reinforcing the notion that g is the ultimate determinant of a person's intelligence alludes to the importance that culture plays within the field of intelligence assessment. However, in many respects, culture (particularly when represented by socio-economic influences) can play a pivotal role in the education of a person -- which is not only a product of intelligence, but also can help to increase or buttress one's intelligence. The following quotation makes this point abundantly clear.

Access to resources and educational opportunities are likely to provide an advantageous environment for the developing child. Vygotsky (1932) established that guided interaction with a more knowledgeable partner should advance the intellectual development of the child. Middle-class…. [read more]

Core Competencies of Executive Coaching and Outcomes Essay

… ¶ … Competencies of Executive Coaching and Outcomes

Essentially, coaches should ideally possess some core competencies. Indeed, it is these competencies that bring about a situation whereby the need to attain organizational objectives is matched with concern for people. In this text, I concern myself with competencies considered critical for successful executive coaching. It can also be noted that in some cases, the executive coaching program does not appear to be successful. In that regard, this text will also highlight some of the factors often blamed for negative coaching outcomes.

Successful Executive Coaching: The Core Competencies

In the opinion of Stern (2009), the best executive coaches possess a certain set of abilities, skills competencies as well as attributes. In the author's opinion, it would be…. [read more]

Executive Coaching Essay

… Executive Coaching

In the recent past, organizational and executive coaching has continued to gain in popularity as firms seek to enhance the ability of leaders and executives to achieve both organizational and professional goals. In my view, the growing popularity of executive coaching is also in one way or the other rooted in the critical role organizational/executive coaches play in developing leaders in their current job setting. In this text, I describe my past views in regard to the purpose of organizational/executive coaches. Further, I highlight my current views on the purpose of coaching based on the ideas I have obtained over time from various sources. In the final sections of the text, I compare and contrast my past (initial) and present (enhanced) views on…. [read more]

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