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French and Raven Essay

… Other studies have looked at issues of interpersonal trust (Frost & Moussavi, 2011), which is important for referent and legitimate power in particular.

French and Raven's work, and works built on it, have certainly come under criticism. Blois and Hopkinson (2013) took French and Raven to the proverbial woodshed, albeit with some logical flaws. They rejected the work on the basis that it wasn't as good as they thought it would be, given its influence. Granted -- but let's be honest quantitative rigor was not a big thing in 1959, and we still look at a lot papers from that era and older to learn things. They argue that French and Raven is overused -- which admittedly is a fair criticism as it does seem…. [read more]


Thomas Paine Was an Earlier A-Level Coursework

… Not able to solve the problem independently, Paine promoted correspondence to create a situation of war profiteering against Deane. Paine's facts, however, embarrassed French authorities, who had desired to bare this early help away from the headlines so as to prevent invoking Britain. Consequently from the Deane affair, Paine was dismissed in the month of January 1779 (Fruchtman, 1994).

Throughout his time as secretary, Paine consistently searched for growing a sincere Franco-American association. This manifested itself within the Treaty of Alliance between France and American which was signed in February back in 1778. This agreement not just made certain ongoing military assistance easier; additionally, it recognized independence and therefore welcomed the American States in to the society of sovereign states.

Probably as one of the…. [read more]


Persuasion Defined the Term 'Social Essay

… The shortened version of the question was 'why would you find it prudent to do what your spouse asks even when you don't think it is necessary'; and participants responded by indicating their level of agreement with a set of statements ranging from 'very likely' to 'very unlikely'. The face validity of the results appeared to be impressive, but the authors provided no information on the validity and reliability of their instrument. The main weakness of this instrument draws from the fact that it is largely affected by coercive responses especially in cases where the respondent is indecisive.

Even-Numbered Likert Scale: this scale assumes a linear intensity or strength of experience, and asks participants to rate their responses on an even-numbered scale, with no middle…. [read more]


Edgar Allan Poe Term Paper

… The scenario of the poem given by Poe gives an impression of innocence, youth, naivete' and freshness. The poem relates that Annabel Lee is not only beautiful and inculpable but she also possesses the quality of a human who is unselfish, faithful and capable of a higher order of love, qualities associated with the angels in heaven (An Analysis Of Edgar Allan Poe's Annabel Lee, (http://vlc.atu.edu/engl1023/2002-fall/Mortal%20Love%20or%20Divine%20Communica).In the poem, Poe has shown that Annabel Lee is greatly loved and admired by her lover.

She was a child and I was A child,

In this kingdom by the sea;

But we loved with a love that was more than love- and my Annabel Lee

With a love that the winged seraphs of heaven

Coveted her and me.…. [read more]


Behavior? Prejudice and Social Psychology Essay

… Thus, we all tend to fulfill our psychological need of belongingness and distinction that is reflected in the amount of influence that we absorb from societal factors such as peers, parents, figures of authority, and other factors that shape behavior.

Conclusion

As quoted by renowned researcher Milgram, "Psychiatrists predicted that only a pathological fringe of about one in a thousand would administer the highest shock on the board" (Milgram, 1973; Pg. 62). With such popularly held notions and general perceptions regarding individual's behavior, Milgram refuted that we only act morally in given situations and held true that obedience to authority plays an important role in shaping behavior of individuals. The self-argued plausible explanation individuals such as Adolph Eichmann after committing crimes, provide is that they…. [read more]


Pharmaceutical Industries Have to Operate Term Paper

… The data that was evaluated was a combination from book, journal articles, review papers and the Internet. The information reviewed pertained to a wide variety of situations and industries. There were some common trends observed in all the material. The commitment of the management and the involvement of the worker are critical no matter what the condition of the external and internal environment the company faces. Integrating the core function -- marketing and sale of products along with the goals and the objectives of the organization is the new route the organization has to now follow.

A distillation of the interviews will be provided in Chapter 2.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY -- ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY AND THE INTERVIEWS

Understanding the main…. [read more]


Gaining Leverage in Negotiations Discussion Chapter

… Leverage in Negotiations

Power and Leverage in Negotiations

In negotiations, it is critical that a trading or bargaining process be determined and initiated in the soonest time agreeable for both parties. However, at this stage, negotiators must be able to establish a leverage from each other that would make one party amenable to the other's demands, and conversely, the latter must also satisfy the demands of the former. But what makes bargaining possible during a negotiation process is the presence of leverage in both parties; without this, negotiations would be more difficult and perhaps, could ultimately result to one party immediately yielding to the other party's demands.

Having leverage means the negotiator has power over the process, if not on the other party. Power is…. [read more]


Leadership in the 1992 Adaptation Essay

… In the film, in addition to Chingachgook and Uncas -- whom Hawkeye trusts with his life, Cora Munro demonstrates traits such as trust and loyalty -- after defending them to her father -- that bring her into Hawkeye's in-crowd. On the other hand, Major Heyward's constant passive-aggressive attitude towards Hawkeye's leadership place him in the out-crowd where his experience in combat, and his continued mission to lead the Munro sisters to safety, are some of the only things that ally him to Hawkeye's cause.

Finally, Hawkeye is able to employ two of French and Raven's Five Bases for Social Power in the attainment of his goal, specifically through the use of referent and expert powers. Referent power maintains that people are rewarded psychologically and/or emotionally…. [read more]


Leadership, Team Building and Communication Term Paper

… As one project engineer said, time to an engineer is in analog and for a manufacturing engineer, it is digital.

These stark differences in the perception of time make communication challenges even more challenging. The role of a transformational leader in a team is to alleviate the differences in how one team vs. another processes information and perceives their role (Streiner, Deibler, Besterfield-Sacre, Shuman, 2010). These are the catalysts that cause the barriers in communication across Cisco.

The two recommendations for managing these communication barriers include first having a team rotation schedule created where each member of the manufacturing team spends time in engineering, up to a week, understanding how their processes work. The same holds true for the design engineers in manufacturing. Next, both…. [read more]


William Wordsworth and a Vindication Term Paper

… ¶ … William Wordsworth and "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" by Mary Wollstonecraft. Specifically, it will compare and contrast the works and discuss how they related to modern culture and society. Wollstonecraft and Wordsworth are both fairly contemporary writers who lived within fifty years of each other and wrote in the Romantic style. While their works seemed topical of the time they were written, it is startling to see how closely they mirror our modern world, especially considering they were written over 200 years ago. This indicates that society and culture will always decry "progress" and change, no matter when or how it occurs.

According to the text, Mary Wollstonecraft was the product of an abusive home, and her sister married an abusive…. [read more]


Bureaucracy and Power in Human Service Organizations Term Paper

… bureaucracy AND POWER

HUMAN SERVICES ORGANISATIONS

Even though Bureaucracy gives an impression of governmental departments like taxation, and welfare, it is actually found in almost every public spheres. Corporations, churches, the military, labor and trade unions, community centers, schools, hospitals all are essentially facilitated by certain bureaucratic components. Most people take them as important part of their lives, though not readily. However the best part of bureaucracy is that it provides a set of rules and procedures to set everything running in a proper order, transparently, and also ensures consistency and fairness acceptable to all. This paper will focus on evaluating the organizational and power structures while emphasizing the need for refurbishing Human Service Organization in Australia on the lines of Bureaucratic organizations.

Introduction

The…. [read more]


Japanese Influence on European Art Research Paper

… ¶ … Objectified East on Western Art:

France and Japan

The postmodern perspective suggests that all art is subjective and even when we attempt to look objectively at the world we see ourselves, not the thing as it actually is. This is particularly evident when examining how the art and life of another culture is filtered through the vision of another. In Europe, particularly in France, during the 19th century there was great frustration with the static, current conception of the French Academy's art, with its emphasis on realism, self-consciously important historical and literary subjects, and the static replication of old, tired images. This revolt, which coalesced in the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist movement, also coincided with the brief opening up of trade with Japan. There…. [read more]


Bases of Power French Assessment

… 43). Often, the person demonstrating this power is described as "charming." In the case of Employee 3, when he pitched his ideas to increase sales many of the other team members were initially skeptical. But they changed their tunes after a short time because they all liked and admired him so, even going so far as to name him the team leader. All of this was conferred upon him even though he lacks the experience of most of the other employees in the sales department.

Legitimate Power

Legitimate power is the inherent authority that a manager possesses. It can be seen as a form of social approval that facilitates the acquisition of power (Bouquet & Birkinshaw, 2008, p.480). The marketing manager for Corporation A encourages…. [read more]


Parenting Styles in Correlation to Alcoholism and Social Change Research Paper

… Parenting Styles & Alcoholism in College Students

Parenting Styles in Relation to Alcoholism & Social Change

Parenting Styles & Alcoholism

Research regularly Conducted on Parenting Styles & Adolescents' Alcohol Intake

Alcoholism & Its Relation to Parenting Styles

Frequency & Beginning of Alcoholism

Theoretical Implications

Measures for Controlling Alcoholism in Adolescence

Sponsors of Community Awareness Programs

Limitations of the Community Awareness Programs

Lack of Interest from Sponsors

Differences in Other Ethnic Groups & Jewish Community

Ethical Implications

New York Liquor Authority

The given research is intended to develop a relationship between the parenting styles experienced by a child during his childhood and his/her propensity to develop alcoholism during the adolescence especially in freshman college year. Empirical evidences derived from prior researches have helped in developing a…. [read more]


Organizational Theory the Theoretical and Practical Issues Term Paper

… Organizational Theory

The theoretical and practical issues that continue to lead the discourse of organizational theories are presented in this analysis, concentrating on how the forces of compliance, offshoring and outsourcing, the pervasive influence of the Internet on transparency and speed of communications, and the lack of trust between managers, subordinates and throughout organizations all are influencing the development and use of organizational theories. Underscoring all these factors is the need for organizations to abandon their hierarchical and by definition, inflexible structures for more agile organizational structures based on solid theory. The intent of this paper is to evaluate and analyze these factors from the perspective of why organizations need to be transformed from their hierarchical, inflexible structures into more agile organizations capable of responding…. [read more]


Jpk Management Leadership Understanding Roles Essay

… Thirdly, management is decentralized for less control over employee duties. Managers empower employees by giving more responsibility over daily tasks. The empowerment to make decisions at every level ensure input from any level employee. Fourthly, benefits are designed to support the employee over maximizing production through unfavorable work conditions.

Lower level needs refer to satisfying the most basic human needs, such as food, clothing, and shelter. Higher level needs are based on self-actualization or intrinsic needs to make a difference such as job satisfaction, making a contribution, leaving a mark, rewards for excellent performance, promotion, and peer appreciation. When a company such as JPKenny are concerned with the well-being of employees, they are satisfying lower level needs (French & Raven 1960). As groups are given…. [read more]


rene magritte and a historical context Research Paper

… The formation of trans-national partnerships, the European Community, and the United Nations all offered a sense of hope like the Phoenix flying overhead in Magritte's painting. Magritte's painting is a warning against complacency. The Phoenix might be rising, but it emerges from the flames of fanaticism against the dark and stormy sky. When considered in relation to Nazism, the black bird also assumes a new shape and symbol: that of the Teutonic black eagle. The black eagle had long been a part of Germanic heraldry but was also adopted for use during the Nazi party's Third Reich. Magritte's incorporation of a black bird flying over a red flame does seem to suggest underlying symbols warning the world of the immanent threat posed by fanaticism. Fanaticism…. [read more]


Organizing Function of Management Microsoft Corporation Human Term Paper

… Organizing Function of Management

Microsoft Corporation Human Resources and Technology

The intent of this paper is to evaluate the organizing function of management as it relates to Microsoft Corporations' Human Resources and Information Technologies (it) strategies internally. Organizing the many resources in each of these two areas within Microsoft to attain an optimal level of efficiency and effectiveness requires the company to stay focused on existing, proven processes while striving to improve those areas showing the need for improvement. As the markets Microsoft competes in rapidly change, so too must the processes the company uses to attain efficiency and effectiveness in the organizing of Human Resources and it internally. The challenge is to first stay vigilant to the changing market conditions the company faces, and…. [read more]


Edgar Allen Poe's Works Essay

… Poe

Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most storied authors in American literature. He is known for his gruesome tales filled with sinister words and imagery that stem from his rough upbringing. This is showcased best in his short stories "The Cask of Amontillado" and "The Tell-Tale Heart," which show that although Poe led a dark life, but it certainly paid off for him down the road.

Poe was born in Boston on January 19, 1809 to David and Elizabeth Poe (Giordano, "Biography of Edgar Allan Poe"). David abandoned the family in 1810 and Elizabeth died in 1811 when Edgar was two, leaving him to be adopted by Mr. And Mrs. John Allan (Giordano). When he was six, Edgar attended school in England for…. [read more]


Decision Making and Creativity Essay

… It is a unique balance to see, yet the most skilled military leaders are capable of accomplishing this while attaining greater commitment and loyalty in the process.

Power And Influence In The Workplace

The military runs on a very unique foundation of power that is a combination of coercive, reward and legitimate power as defined by French and Raven (Drea, Bruner, Hensel, 1993). Historically, the military has relied heavily on legitimate power which often has lead to a transactional leadership mindset in many of the mid-tier management layer. With the pervasive adoption of information technologies throughout the military, the balance of power is shifting to expert and informational power. This is especially true in the recent series of trainings officers throughout my unit have completed.…. [read more]


Rhetoric and the Public Essay

… In appealing to his audience's sense of ethos, Jobs recounts the intensely painful experience of being ousted from his own wildly successful company at the tender age of 30, telling the assembled graduates quite pointedly how "what had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating" (2005). By exposing his own fears and doubts to an audience largely comprised of young adults consumed by the very same emotions, Jobs used ethos to empathize with those whose lives he hoped to influence. As John Naughton observed in his informative annotation of Jobs' speech, "the idea that getting fired might be a good thing is a bracing idea for young graduates, even Stanford ones" (2011), and by running contrary to the…. [read more]


Power Influences People the Most? Essay

… Understanding that issue requires appreciating the relationship between power and leadership and the desired outcome of relationships and processes.

Smart power -- what to use when

In his book The Powers to Lead (2010), Joseph S. Nye discusses the relationship between power and leadership. First, he distinguishes between soft power (co-opting people rather than coercing them) and hard power (influence based on pressure or threats) and he asserts that effective leadership in the real world requires a mixture of both. Hard and soft powers are related simply because they both represent different aspects of the ability to achieve a specific purpose by affecting the behavior of others. Sometimes, they are complementary and reinforce one another; other times, they are contradictory and interfere with one another.…. [read more]


Capturing the Anguish and Agony Thesis

… This is confirmed shortly after by Butler herself, who observes pointedly of the agonizing choice to install her stricken father's pacemaker: "the decision fell to my mother -- anxious to relieve my father's pain, exhausted with caregiving, deferential to doctors, and no expert on high-tech medicine. She said yes" (15). By maintaining the focus of her essay on the increasingly bureaucratized delivery of health care in America, and its endless array of time-sensitive deadline decisions, pressure intensive situations, and life-altering ramifications, Butler exposes the ultimate fallacy of our generation's stated intentions for delaying the natural occurrence of disease and death. When she provides a final, fitting eulogy to her father's proverbial purgatory, musing "and so my father's electronically managed heart -- now requiring frequent monitoring,…. [read more]


Management Empowerment and Performance Essay

… Fourth, empowerment is iterative and situation ally-based when it is the most effective (Kuepers, 2011). This is particularly true in the situations of rapidly changing industries that rely on engineering and product expertise. The reliance on expert power in these industries is very well-known and respected as part of company cultures. The expert power in Google for example makes the empowerment of middle managers highly effective. Contrasting that approach to middle management is that found in more traditional industries that rely on hierarchical organizational models including manufacturing. In those industries, seniority often dominates empowerment, or legitimate power (Marchington, 1995). Fifth, organizations must become strong believers in 360-degree feedback of their middle managers so they receive honest evaluations of how they are doing. With the thought…. [read more]


five different types of power Essay

… For example, someone being shifted from the "drunk tank" to open booking would be an example of this and the officer that makes this movement, or is authorized to do so, is exercising this type of power. The third type of power would be expert. In the criminal justice system, perhaps the best example of this would be medical people like psychiatrists and nurses. They would use their expertise to determine the medical and psychological condition of the person involved and thus offer their opinion on where a person should be housed and why this is the case (Mindtools, 2016).

Referent power would not be common in a jail setting but can happen. For example, if a prisoner feels that a female guard is attractive…. [read more]


Leadership Styles Among Male Term Paper

… Synthesists do not generally look for compromises, consensus or agreement on the best solution to a problem or situation. They will however look for a solution that will connect and assimilate the random and contradictory views to arrive at a best-fit solution.

A b) The Idealist

The idealist style focuses on process, values and aspirations. Idealists are people who like to take a broad view of things. They also tend to be future-oriented and to think about goals and missions to be accomplished. Idealists are much attuned to the needs of others and for the betterment of society as a whole. They will evaluate the impact of any personal decision on the society. They respect and believe in the social values and morals dictated by…. [read more]


Edgar Allen Poe the Controversial American Poet Term Paper

… Edgar Allen Poe

The controversial American poet Edgar Allan Poe was born in 1809 in Boston and dies forty years later in Baltimore, under unknown circumstances. Poe's eventful and unusual life seems, in a way, as peculiar as his work, and it is considered by many of his critics and interpreters as the main source of influence for his art. His life is marked by the deaths of many of his beloved relatives and friends: his parents, both actors, die when the poet was only two years old, his foster mother dies a little later, then his brother, and finally his wife Virginia, at the age of twenty two, after having been married to Poe for nine years. The frequent drinking, his poor health, his…. [read more]


Visions New Lands? Old Ideas Term Paper

… Sickness and ill fortune are visible signs of the presence of evil spirits. The spirits must be exorcised by carefully repeated rites. One mistake in a ritual, and the entire spell is ruined. Such attention to detail speaks to a much more closely regulated society. The categorizing of spirits as either good or evil is indicative of a world with clear boundaries. There are limits to man's conduct, rules that even the gods must follow. Transgression of these rules is wrong. Morality has found a place in the natural world.

And as if to carry the ethical theme even further, the Iroquois creation myth revolves almost entirely around the setting of boundaries. The Maiden is conceived through an illicit relationship. Her father's demise teaches the…. [read more]


CEO of a Company Has Six Major Thesis

… ¶ … CEO of a company has six major sources of power. The first five are defined by French and Raven (1959) and the last in the list is provided by Montana and Charnov (2008).

Legitimate Power refers to power of an individual because of the relative position and duties of the holder of the position within an organization.

Referent Power means the power or ability of individuals to attract others and build loyalty. It's based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder.

Expert Power is an individual's power deriving from the skills or expertise of the person and the organization's needs for those skills and expertise.

Reward Power depends upon the ability of the power wielder to confer valued material rewards.…. [read more]


Cocoa the Cacao Tree (Theobroma Term Paper

… Chocolate, as a food, is ingested primarily as a cocoa beverage or as chocolate used in a variety of confections and candies, desserts, snacks, and treats, such as chocolate bars, mixed with other candies, or coatings for ice cream bars -- among other uses. Chocolate syrup and toppings, mousses and puddings, and baked goods contain chocolate and cocoa butter but also may contain butterfat or other saturated fat (tropical vegetable oils), so it is therefore important to read the labels to acquire a true list of the ingredients.

The United States leads the world in import and production of chocolate candy. The population consuming, on average, 10 lb of products per person, approximately one-third of which are chocolate. The highest percentage of consumption occurs in…. [read more]

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