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Future of DNA Testing Research Proposal

… Future of DNA Testing

The Beginnings of Genetic Identity Testing

DNA fingerprinting

Genetic identity testing establishes the patterns of genetic material, which is specific and unique for almost every human being.1 The sequence differences between individuals are used as basis for identity testing. The techniques applied are DNA fingerprinting, DNA profiling, and DNA typing. Identity testing in crime investigation began with the analysis of the ABO blood group. Later, it proved useful in identity and paternity identification. But two decades ago, Professor and geneticist Alec Jeffreys of the University of Leicester in the UK found and introduced DNA-based identity testing.1

DNA is deoxynucleaic acid, the hereditary material in the nucleus of the human cell, according to the Department of Health and Human Services.

DNA analysis…. [read more]


DNA Technology in Law Term Paper

… Ongoing research is unlocking the biological mechanisms by which a comparatively small number of genes regulated by complex protein synthesis and enzymatic actions accounts for the profound differences between human beings and fruit flies, whose genome sequence is approximately two thirds as large as ours (13)

Within a few decades, scientists will have revolutionized medicine with a comprehensive understanding of all genetic diseases and the ability to prevent them at the genetic level, rather than treat them at the macroscopic level. Before the middle of this century, it will quite literally, be possible (if not common) to posses our personal genetic code engraved onto a CD. Many experts believe that we will conquer all forms of cancer during this time as well as all genetic…. [read more]


DNA During the 1990's, DNA Testing Term Paper

… DNA

During the 1990's, DNA testing became popular in the area of Law Enforcement and the criminal justice system. Today hundreds of cases, both cold and live, have been solved using DNA evidence as a primary tool during both investigation and trials. While the power of DNA analysis, particularly combined with the Combined DNA Index System, or CODIS, has great advantages to law enforcement, there are also disadvantages to such technology.

When collected, documented, and stored appropriately, DNA evidence, or biological evidence, can be a useful tool for crime scene investigation, even after several years (National Institute of Justice (NIJ), 2002). Since hair, blood, semen, and other bodily fluids and tissues contain DNA specific to each individual person, much like fingerprints, crime scene investigators can…. [read more]


History of DNA and of Its Use by the Criminal Justice System Thesis

… DNA

History of DNA Testing

The growth of DNA Testing and Interpretation over the years

DNA Testing Today 5

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Testing, Has grown in popularity in recent years. The testing of DNA came about in 1985 and was first used in the criminal justice system in 1987. The first case occurred in Louisiana using a DNA dragnet. During a DNA dragnet, DNA is collected from a large number of people that fit the description of a suspect. In this case the exclusion samples were taken consensually. As an investigative tool the DNA testing involves the examination of biological materials including hair, skin, blood, saliva and semen. Such testing can be crucial in determining the identity of a person because it "contains the complex…. [read more]


DNA in Criminal Cases Term Paper

… They began, 'We wish to suggest a structure for... DNA. This structure has novel features, which are of considerable biological interest.' They ended as modestly: 'It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for genetic material.'" (Lee) In 1991, nearly 40 years after the Nature article was published Watson wrote, "There is no substance so important as DNA... The key to our optimism that all secrets of life are within the grasp of future generations of perceptive biologists is the ever accelerating speed at which we have been able to probe the secrets of DNA." (Lee)

How can a narration of the structure and workings of DNA emerge into a claim that DNA is…. [read more]


Capital Punishment and DNA Evidence Term Paper

… Other features of those twenty-eight wrongful convictions included reliance on apparently erroneous or misleading forensic evidence, and alleged government malfeasance or misconduct, including perjured testimony at trial, intentional withholding from the defense of exculpatory evidence, and intentionally erroneous laboratory tests and expert testimony." (Findley, "Learning from Our Mistakes…," Page 339 -- 340)

Perhaps then, the issue should be taken all the more seriously when those within the system, who are not the alleged criminals themselves, advocate for systemic changes in criminal justice practices:

"The sheer number of exonerations due to innocence in capital cases has raised growing concern and recent calls for further reform.1-33 Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens stated in a speech before the American Bar Association in August 2005 that he believes…. [read more]


Technology and Social Responsibility Research Paper

… " (Fukuyama, 2002) Fukuyama states that this type of technology should be regulated by governmental bodies and although "biotechnology is clearly unlike nuclear technology, whose destructive potential was immediately clear and war from the outset tightly rigged with political controls." (Fukuyama, 2002)

Eugenics, or the testing of babies for genetic predispositions is becoming increasingly popular and this is stated to be particularly true for individuals in the Jewish communities. This is stated to be due to the fact that so many people wish to avoid carrying on genetically caused diseases and disorders into their offspring which makes sense and will serve to better the health of future generations. However, with every good thing also is the potential for misuse. Fringe medicine has proposed the use…. [read more]


Human DNA Sequence Composed Term Paper

… These two databases are available for search. To search a sequence against eBLOCKs, please enter your protein sequence in FASTA format and choose either eMOTIF or eMATRIX as your Search Method." (Stanford.edu, 2005)

DNA Sequence

The results of the internet search for this specific DNA sequence came back with a great deal of information which then required additional research. The results identified a serine protease better known as enterokinase or PRSS7. Enterokinase is an intestinal enzyme that helps the body initiate activation of pancreatic proteolytic proenzymes. "Enterokinase is a serine protease of the duodenal brush border membrane that cleaves trypsinogen and produces active trypsin, thereby leading to the activation of many pancreatic digestive enzymes. Overlapping cDNA clones that encode the complete human enterokinase amino acid…. [read more]


Fingerprints vs. DNA Is One Better Term Paper

… Fingerprints vs. DNA: Is one better than the other?

Fingerprints vs. DNA

Finger print identification is more accurate than DNA analysis. Fingerprints are time tested and in vogue for the last two centuries and easily accepted and understood. Finger prints are unique for each individual and are permanent and unalterable. The important fact about the fingerprint is the near infallibility. While DNA testing does have an important role in detection of crime, in the current situation its infallibility is not absolute and therefore does not score much over the absolute certainty of finger print evidence. Probe sensitivity for DNA testing is lesser and the problems of interpreting the results have not given it the same credibility of other evidence. There is no safeguard or guarantee…. [read more]


DNA Technology Term Paper

… The stories of innocent people being held or victimized needlessly due to the wait for DNA evidence to clear their good names are disturbing. Raymond Holder was accused of raping a 12-year-old girl and arrested on August 25th, 1993. He asked for a DNA test to prove his innocence. It took nine months for the DNA results to exonerate Mr. Holder (Ferrara).

In another example of how delayed test results affect innocent people, on August 31st, 1998 a woman was raped and stabbed. The Virginia Division of Forensic Science received a victim's rape kit, physical evidence, and on November 13th, they received a suspect's blood sample. The suspect, Christopher Banks, was being held on the rape chargem but was due to be released. As such,…. [read more]


Genetic Testing Term Paper

… Genetic testing is concept that is used to diagnose 'genetic diseases', which are transferred to any person by their ancestry. (Wikipedia, 2007). Every person carries numbers of genes from their parents. The usage of 'genetic testing' involves studying and changing in human chromosomes, genes and the proteins. (Genetic Testing, 2007).

Genetic testing is a wider concept, which is used to for 'biochemical procedures' to screen out any 'heredity diseases' that any person might suffer. There are many people who are suffering from different diseases due to 'inter-family marriages' and 'genetically transfers' that is usually transferred from parents to children. So use of genetic testing to reduce risk associated with one's life. Many government treat 'cloning' as against the human laws so they have banned cloning…. [read more]


Impact of DNA Analysis on Criminal Cases That Involved Misidentification Term Paper

… ¶ … DNA Analysis on Criminal Cases' Misidentification

DNA, "the evidence that does not forget..." As Kirk (cited by Butler, 2005, p. 33) purports, aptly introduces the summary for the following paper. As DNA, present in every nucleated cell, constitutes present and biological materials left at crime scenes, Butler (2005. p. 33), it may, this researcher contends, lead into the jail yard, or in some instances, as this paper notes, free someone who has been sent there by mistake. (Columbia, 1996) When DNA samples are mishandled, however, during an investigation's initial stages, no amount of hard work in the final analytical or data interpretation steps will compensate.

Mishandling of DNA may consequently, lead to misidentification of an individual.

After it is collected, the proper handling…. [read more]


DNA and Genetic Testing Lab Report

… ¶ … Lab Report Template (Save as: YourName_Module#_Report.doc)

An experiment was conducted to determine if DNA could be extracted from the leaf of a common weed. It was hypothesized that following proper procedures with this leaf sample would prove successful, and this hypothesis was confirmed.

DNA testing is used for a variety of applications today. DNA tests on humans are used to establish paternity during lawsuits and in other disputes (the Maury show accounting for a substantial percentage of these paternity tests), and can also be used to establish lineage to a much greater degree, even tracing individuals back to specific regions of ancestry (Fuller 2010). This use of DNA has brought a greater sense of identity to many individuals, including those whose answers were…. [read more]


9-11 DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Term Paper

… 9/11 DNA Identification in Mass Fatality

The aftermath of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers

How important is DNA evidence in this case?

Will everyone get identified?

Restrictions on how DNA evidence can be used

Fragment sizes

Decomposing DNA

How does the analysis get proper resource and funding?

DNA management

Source of DNA samples

Using Identification Number on the site

Storing into the database

How DNA analysis (methods) can be utilized in making identification

DNA Extraction

DNA amplification and analysis (PCR)

Mitochondrial DNA

Single nucleotide polymorphism

Short Tandem Repeat analysis

Identifying victims

Probability ratio in linking to the victims

Linking victims using relatives and family member's DNA

Limitation of modern technology

Conclusion

References

An Analysis of DNA Identification of Mass Fatalities resulted from Terrorist…. [read more]


Combined DNA Index System (Codis) Term Paper

… Combined DNA Index System (codis)

Overview of CODIS

Uses of CODIS

CODIS Applications

CODIS Limitations

Future of CODIS

COMBINED DNA INDEX SYSTEM (CODIS)

The objective of this work is to explain CODIS, which is the 'Combined DNA Index System'. This work will report on the historical information relating to CODIS and explain its use, applications, limitations, and the predicted and probable future of CODIS and will do so in a manner that the layperson enables the comprehension of the layperson related to CODIS.

CODIS is the abbreviation for the 'Combined DNA Index System'. This database was established by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for storing the profiles of individuals who are convicted offenders that are used in investigations in all U.S. states to assist in…. [read more]


How to Extract DNA From Anything Living Essay

… ¶ … Lab Report Template (Save as: YourName_Module#_Report.doc)

An to extract DNA from a piece of common paper formed the basis of this experiment. Though wood pulp is, of course, ultimately an organic material, it was hypothesized that the treatment of turning the pulp into paper would destroy any DNA. This hypothesis was proven incorrect.

There are a great many uses for DNA testing in this country, with the most well-known application due to high-profile lawsuits and certain television shows being paternity tests (Fuller 2010). Establishing a variety of different familial relationships is actually possible using DNA testing, and certain types of DNA can trace lineages back thousands of years (Fuller 2010). There is also the potential for DNA testing to provide information as to…. [read more]


Ethics and Legal Considerations Term Paper

… 49);

q. "All laboratories conducting clinical genetic tests should be accredited by a body designated by the relevant authority, based on standards it considers appropriate" (Bioethics Advisory Committee, 2005, p. 51);

r. "Interpretation of clinical genetic test results should only be performed by healthcare professionals who are appropriately qualified or have sufficient experience. As far as is practicable, genetic counseling should immediately follow the disclosure of the test result, particularly if the test result is not favorable" (Bioethics Advisory Committee, 2005, p. 52);

s. "Genetic counseling should be offered to all individuals before and after they undergo clinical genetic testing" (Bioethics Advisory Committee, 2005, p. 55);

t. "Genetic counseling should generally be conducted in a nondirective manner and should provide sufficient information and appropriate support…. [read more]


Ethical Pros and Cons Term Paper

… The future of DNA banking remains uncertain. Like fingerprinting, DNA banking may provide an invaluable tool for investigative authorities. However no tool is useful without controls and limitations. A criminal does indeed lose his/her rights in some respects and thus is subject to extensive screening and perhaps "banking." However the severity of the crime committed should be taken into consideration. There is no reason to permanently "mark" a person and subject them to discrimination for a petty crime. Authorities should work on devising more stringent criteria for collecting DNA information and disseminating it.

A more formal approach to authorizing release of information need be established to assure that any person's constitutional right to privacy is not violated. Also, care must be taken to assure that…. [read more]


Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing Essay

… Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing

Throughout the years, genetic testing has been extensively used in: treating medical disorders and identifying the risks brought on by a particular disease. Also known as DNA-based tests, it consists of techniques that are utilized in: determining genetic disorders and examining the DNA of a patient (Sequeiros & Guimaraes, 2008).

As a result, this kind of testing mostly involved carrier screenings. This is when it determines individuals who have certain genetic traits for: a disorder or disease that could be transmitted when paired with another gene. Moreover, it is used in: newborn screenings, prenatal diagnostic tests, forensic tests, and presymptomatic tests. The test involves the use: laboratory techniques that examine one's genes. This identifies the increased risks of health-related problems…. [read more]


Innocence Project on October 21, 2011 Reaction Paper

… ¶ … Innocence Project

On October 21, 2011, Henry James was released from Angola prison after serving nearly 30 years for a rape that DNA evidence was finally able to prove that he had not committed. His release was the result of the work of the Innocence Project, and the Innocence Project New Orleans, who worked with James' attorneys at Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP. James had consistently proclaimed his innocence since the time of his conviction, and was able to secure the assistance of the Innocence Project. However, his first attempts to get released were unsuccessful because they could not find evidence from his case.

What is remarkable is that Innocence Project attorneys do not seem critical of the criminal justice system or state…. [read more]


Inadequacy of Forensic Hair Analysis One June Term Paper

… Inadequacy of Forensic Hair Analysis

One June night 13 years ago, a killer fired several shots, killing 30-year-old Perry Harder. The killer and an accomplice loaded the body into the back of a van and drove to an isolated spot outside Winnipeg, Manitoba, where they dug a shallow grave and buried the body. Three and a half months later, someone on a passing train spotted Harder's body, and in no time, police had a suspect (1). Their suspect, Jim Driskell, ran a machine shop out of a garage and agreed to let Harder store some things there. Most of the items Harder stored there turned out to be stolen during a raid of the garage by police. After police raided the garage they arrested both…. [read more]


Death Penalty (Anti) Historically Term Paper

… Death Penalty (Anti)

Historically, much of the debate over capital punishment has focused on the core moral issue of whether it is right to take a life as a punishment for murder. This moral debate is important and necessary, but because a variety of cultural factors influence a society's sense of morality, it is unlikely that any society can ever reach a complete consensus on this key question. To borrow from Judeo-Christian ideology, there are some who believe in the philosophy of "an eye for an eye" and others who believe in "turn the other cheek," and defend the sanctity of life, under all conditions.

The goal of this paper is to move the debate on the death penalty beyond the core moral issue of…. [read more]


Human Genome Project Thesis

… Human Genome Project may be the most controversial research project in modern medical or scientific history.

The project began in 1990 at the National Institutes of Health and was headed by James Watson. However, the project was not only a U.S. project, nor was it only a government project. The National Institutes of Health worked with other governmental and private interests, mainly in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain. The most notable of those private companies was Celera Genomics.

The purpose of the project was to map an entire human genome. In addition to human genomes, the project studied E. coli, fruit flies, and lab mice, and sought to map their genomes, as well. Genetic mapping refers to the determination of the sequence of…. [read more]


Wrongful Conviction Review: Henry James Case Study

… "The causes of such disparity are varied and can include differing levels of criminal activity, law enforcement emphasis on particular communities, legislative policies, and/or decision making by criminal justice practitioners who exercise broad discretion in the justice process at one or more stages in the system" (Schrantz et al., 2008). Therefore, people of color are more likely to be involved in the criminal justice system, and, once involved, may be subjected to intentional and unintentional bias that increases their chances of conviction. Furthermore, those who are poor are unable to afford the type of quality legal counsel that people with more substantial means can afford. Many public defenders last the time, training, and resources to mount a successful defense for their clients.

In fact, it…. [read more]


James Dewey Watson the Discovery Essay

… Unfortunately for the distinguished scientist, Watson made racial comments, meant to be purely scientific in nature, but displayed an insensitivity which could not be forgiven socially. In the modern politically correct world, filled with those who will not tolerate anything they feel is racist, Watson's comments resulted in the only ending that could have happened, with his professional ruin.

Overall, James Watson was one of the greatest scientists in American History, making one of the greatest discoveries in the history of mankind. His discovery of the structure of DNA has made possible the understanding of the mechanism of genetics. By discovering the structure of the DNA molecule, other scientists have been able to discover how DNA works, how it replicates, how it transcribes it's information,…. [read more]


Breast Cancer Pathophysiology Term Paper

… Mesenchymal stem cells have been described as localized to breast carcinomas, however their involvement in tumor pathophysiology has not fully been examined (Karnoub et al., 2007). One study demonstrated that human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cells cause cancer cells to increase their metastatic potential (Karnoub et al., 2007).

Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Findings

Initially, breast cancer may not cause any clinically apparent symptoms (Eberl et al., 2008). For many women, the first sign of breast cancer is a breast mass of lump that is either discovered upon self-examination, or after a physician's examination (Eberl et al., 2008). Symptoms are generally localized to the breast and can include breast swelling or breast pain. Breast cancer may also become first clinically apparent during preventative mammogram screenings, in which abnormal…. [read more]


Runs Family Essay

… If she does have Huntington's, there is a 50% chance that she is homozygous dominant (will definitely pass on the trait to her offspring) and 50% heterozygous (50% chance of passing it on), for a 75% total chance that Melissa's offspring will have Huntington's if Melissa has it and a 63.75% (85% x 75%) total chance that her offspring will have it.

What are the advantages and disadvantages, including any relevant scientific and social implications, that need to considered regarding genetic predictive testing? On the one hand, discovering the exact chances of genetic disease development would be enormously beneficial to many in terms of family planning and even making decisions whether or not to have biological children (Torrey 2010). It can also help people to…. [read more]


Ethical Situations Essay

… The experts all agreed that the patient's family should be warned if they are at risk for a serious disease. I would concur that this is the right course of action. Even if the patient desires to: keep the disease to herself and not tell other family members that they may be at risk. In the "Paternity Case," the opinions were more diverse. Caplan would not divulge the information that woman's husband is not the child's biological father. Goldberg would tell the mother, but not the husband. While Pergament, would do this as well, but try to convince her to tell her husband (Flackelman 69). In this case, I would agree with these experts that the husband should not be told. I would probably have…. [read more]


Ability to Study of Human Term Paper

… The audience is now awake and definitely waiting for more information. Their interest in the topic is further increased by adding mystery element to it: "people are afraid of the information we will find, they will keep us from finding it." The author's style is simple yet highly effective. He doesn't let the audience get lost in the ambiguity of scientific terminologies. He uses simple language to make his audience feel comfortable in his presence. He wants to them to be able to relate to him and therefore in paragraph 13, he cashes in on their emotions when he says: "I am a concerned parent for whom things have not gone completely right."

Through the essay he focuses more on why Human Genome project must…. [read more]

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