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Is Gender Discrimination the Main Reason Women Are Paid Less Than Men? Case Study

… Gender Discrimination

Recently, scholars have focused on the study of gender roles in numerous aspects of contemporary society. Some of this research has concentrated on the way gender roles in leadership and management have changed, some to confirm the social evolution of women in society, and others to try to define the amount of alienation some experience within male dominated hierarchically structures. The "glass ceiling" clearly remains a powerful force within the workplace. Qualified women are blocked from upper-level managerial positions, but their absence at the very top skews the curve when they are clustered in the middle. It seems that it takes about 30% penetration of women managers to begin to more rapidly move the distribution effect, suggesting that now; women remain concentrated in…. [read more]

Crash Race, Ethnicity, and Gender Essay

… Ryan uses his position of authority to intimidate the Thayers and take advantage of the relationship between the Thayers to further establish his dominance as both a white male and a police officer. While Ryan follows police protocol, he takes liberties with procedures. He creates tension by treating the Thayers as though they were criminals and not a couple that was pulled over for a routine stop. Additionally, Ryan was looking for a reason to pull them over and even tells Hansen, "They must have been doing something," as to insinuate that regardless of the fact that the Thayers' Navigator is not the one they should be looking for, they are still probably guilty of something due to their race.

The most despicable thing that…. [read more]

Education for Economy Theory Term Paper

… An anticipatory focus on adult education in fact saves governments capital by decreasing societal healthcare, public assistance, and incarceration expenses. Adult education also advances and enlarges the countries' accessible pool of human capital by aiding motivated but under educated people attains profitable employment in today's more and more high-tech and international job market, and at a far lower price per student when contrasted to either K-12 or higher education. As a consequence, adult education and career training is potentially one of the most cost-effective tools the country has to recover its economic health in the aftermath of the current economic downturn (McLendon, Jones & Rosin, n.d.)

Adult education and training programs conventionally receive less than ten percent of the amount of federal, state, and local…. [read more]

Black Gender Gap Research Proposal

… ¶ … Black Gender Gap

Understanding Society, Sex, and Gender

In his article, "The Black Gender Gap," Ellis Cose (2003) writes about the recent success of black women, not in light of but certainly despite of black men. Although he quotes Alice Gordon's statement that black women are "in the proving stage," he writes that their opportunities and ambition are magnificent (1). Cose emphasizes that in the modern economy, as a result of women's liberation and other factors, black women today have the opportunities to be "anything from an astronaut to a talk-show host, run anything from a corporation to an Ivy League university" (1). Indeed, having just witnessed the retirement of the first black, female secretary of state certainly emphasizes this point. But Cose…. [read more]

Chinese Economy Since Deng Xiaoping Began Essay

… Chinese Economy

Since Deng Xiaoping began to open the Chinese economy is the late 1970s, there have been substantial changes in China's demographics. These changes have both helped to support China's economic growth but have also presented Chinese authorities with significant challenges as well. The One Child Policy was introduced in 1979, virtually concurrent with China's economic modernization. In terms of direct influence, this policy has left China with a relatively old population. In terms of indirect influence, this policy led to an uptick in female infanticide, leaving China with a generational demographic heavily skewed towards males. Combine this with rapid economic shifts and corresponding internal migration from rural areas to urban areas and it is clear that China has been subject to a considerable…. [read more]

Country in the Recognition Essay

… LGBTs are contributors to the American society. Is only natural that they gain all the benefits all the rest of its contributors get.

A strongly politically divided country would have a reason to fight less on its agenda if same sex marriages would be generally legalized. If gay marriages were legal all over the country, politicians and voters alike would be able to focus on the issues that should concern this nation today. Reviving the economy, immigration, the state of public education and health care should be of interest to politicians instead of pulling the issue of gay marriage out of their drawers whenever they find it necessary to gain some more votes. If gay marriages were legal all over the U.S. today, politicians could…. [read more]

Psychology of Multiculturalism: Identity, Gender Term Paper

… Indeed, Hispanics and Latin Americans now hold 21 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, and 39 seats are held by African-Americans (Saeman and Thomas, 2004).

How has psychology reacted to the cultural changes, and is the field of psychology ready for the revolutionary changes that some are calling for to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse populations (Saeman and Thomas, 2004)? Psychology is moving on a couple of fronts to meet the new challenges that multiculturalism poses for both the profession and the nation: the subject of development and embracing the multicultural challenge received increased attention beginning in 1998 and 1999 when a group of five psychologists of color envisioned a three-year "window of opportunity" to make a meaningful difference in the ethnic…. [read more]

Economy and Workplace Dynamic of Japan Case Study

… ¶ … economy and workplace dynamic of Japan in general; while the second provides the case study of the Digimom company. This section addresses issues such as the historical economic and workplace paradigm, the current situation relating to and emerging from the historical economic situation. The article notes that history has dictated a business environment where large businesses are supported by society and the economy. In other words, traditional social values dictate that men enter the workplace and women marry and care for their children. In terms of business support, banks and lending companies tend to support large businesses rather than small start-ups. The environment in the country is therefore not ideal for entrepreneurs or for women who wish to make a professional career.

The…. [read more]

Gender Economy Essay

… ¶ … articles by Julie Nelson, Gabrielle Meagher, and Marilyn Warning. These will need to be finished in the reference section as well as in the in text citations.


Gender Economy

According to Mead, "gender is a social construct specifying the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow." In other words, how men and women are supposed to act in determined in how gender roles are defined by society. These gender roles determine the roles that people are supposed to follow. Women have always had lower status than men within society, but the extent of the gap between the sexes often varies across cultures and time. "In 1980, the United Nations summed up the burden of this inequality: Women,…. [read more]

Gender Discrimination in the Workforce Term Paper

… Sex Discrimination in the Workplace

When my grandmother was a young woman she worked in offices as a secretary. At that time (in the 1950s) women routinely earned about half what men did for the same work. Other little signs of discrimination were telling, too. Women were not allowed to smoke in the office, for example, but men were. Men were always addressed as "Mr. So-and-so," but women were called by their first names. Today, the little signs have changed, but the pay gap still exists. Gibelman (2003) reports findings from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Full-time working women currently get 75% of what men get. Women in state and local government jobs do better -- they earn about 80 to 90% of what men…. [read more]

International Planning Development Term Paper

… The country has focused its attention on infrastructure that will fuel its continued growth. China is currently constructing many transportation projects such as road and rail. The country is also undergoing major developments to provide the energy that will fuel the economy of the future. These include coal plants, hydroelectric plants, nuclear, as well as investing heavily in green energy. In fact, China leads the world in renewable energy investment which reached a record level in 2011 of over two hundred fifty billion dollars (Perkowski).

Education is another critical success factor for the country's sustainability and since 1998 China has tripled its share of GDP that it devotes to education (Zakaria). Furthermore, since that time the number of students has nearly quintupled going from one…. [read more]

Half the Sky Research Paper

… Kristoff and Wudunn are no doubt feminists in their own terms. But by ignoring the theoretical and conceptual nuances of feminist scholarship, they have weakened their otherwise worthy argument. They justify their moral outrage by providing facts and statistics, but they do not provide strong analysis in addressing the "why" question and offering solutions.

Works Cited:

Einstein, Zillah. Global Obscenities: Patriarchy, Capitalism, and the Lure of Cyberfantasy. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.

Healing, Raven. "White Stockings and Black Widows: Women in Chechnya -- Myths and Realities." Off Our Backs 35.3/4 (2005): 44-47. Web. 22 Oct. 2011. JSTOR.

Kristoff, D. Nicholas, and Sheryl Wudunn. Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into…. [read more]

Lending Institutions, Health Care Research Paper

… These two institutions derive their sheer existence from developed nations contributing capital to facilitate lending to financially troubled economies. The volume of capital contributed and the political power a country wields in the global arena determine the voting power within these institutions (Finlay, 2007). The strong and wealthy economies in the globe exact their influence by having their own directors in the board with the other 150 member countries electing 19 directors. This shows the likely influence that few developed nations have in the formulation of development policies with developing countries like India.

IMF is the institution countries go to when in financial trouble exerts it policy by dictation requirements for structural adjustments as a condition for funding. The structural adjustments are meant to open…. [read more]

Kasp and Saudi Economy Research Paper

… This improvement in female participation in higher education should in theory be a boon to the Saudi economy.

The reality is that educational opportunities for Saudi women are good, but economic opportunities are poor. While unemployment among Saudi women with a secondary education is around 20%, unemployment among Saudi women with a tertiary education is closer to 80%. This contrasts with the experience of women in developed nations, and even in other Muslim nations such as Kazakhstan, Indonesia and Turkey, where education unlocks opportunity for women.

The issue of women's economic opportunity is important in the context of high unemployment in the nation. That so many women with good educations are excluded from the workplace means that the country has a wasted asset. While it…. [read more]

Race and Gender Discrimination Multicultural Research Paper

… The figures top out at 84, 442 in the fiscal year 2002 and were at their lowest numerical figure during the fiscal year of 2005, with a reported 75,428 cases (Bohlander 125). These are still a significant amount of cases considering that employment laws and regulations have been in place for many years. The EEOC should not bear all the responsibility in preventing employee and applicant discrimination cases. Leaders in all types of industries should work, train and ensure that regulations are followed. Laws that protect the Civil Rights of workers have been implemented for decades; The Equal Employment Opportunity Act was specifically created in order to prevent discrimination on the basis of race, and sex amongst other determining factors. It was created to reverse…. [read more]

Teen Pregnancy Term Paper

… Teen Pregnancy -- Boston, MA

Teenage pregnancy is medically defined as a pregnancy in a woman who has not yet reached her 20th birthday. Legally, it has numerous definitions, depending upon the country and culture of origin. . This definition does not assume marriage, nor if the woman is legally an adult (depending on the country). Certainly over the years, the idea of pregnancy at an early age has undergone significant changes -- there were times when it was necessary for women to begin their childbearing years earlier due to demographics, lifespan, and other psychographical issues. In the modern, developed world, however, teenage pregnancy is associated with not only social issues, but of dramatic political, economic, and medical issues surrounding the mother, child, and family…. [read more]

Analyzing Gender Wage Gap Research Paper

… ¶ … Gender Wage Gap and the dynamics around it at the work place. It is an attempt to cross-examine the issue from both work and societal standpoints.

The gender wage gap is interwoven with several factors within the U.S. There are factors that are specific to gender such as qualification, overall wage structure, discrimination, rewards for services and skills and employment in the various sectors. The closing gap between gender wage differentials in the United States compared to other places can be attributed to factors associated with gender (Blau and Kahn, 2000). That notwithstanding, the relatively large gender wage gap in the U.S. compared to the situation in other countries is attributed to high inequality in wages. This paper seeks to demonstrate how gender…. [read more]

Organization Can Use to Help Essay

… This issue has become a complex problem because women currently earn 81% of their male counterparts. Therefore, there is an increased need for governments, organizations, and individuals to deal with this problem. There are various ways of dealing with this problem such as negotiation and flexible work schedules.


First, organizations should consider adopting appropriate ways for dealing with the gender wage gap based on their workplace. Secondly, they should consider adopting flexible work schedules because they result in higher productivity and increased job satisfaction.


Bassett, L 2012, 'Closing the Gender Wage Gap would Create "Huge" Economic Stimulus,

Economists Say,' The Huffington Post, viewed 5 May 2013,

Bennett, J 2012, 'How to Attack the Gender Wage Gap? Speak Up,' The New York Times,…. [read more]

Dimensions of Social Inequality Race Essay

… Women with a high school diploma or less, and who are out of wedlock have higher birth rates at 40%, and which continually increasing each year. These studies indicate that children or persons raised in a family set up other than the traditional family are at a disadvantage (Kathryn & Joanna, 2005). They results of their research is used to indicate that a person raised in a home with deprived economic power, single parent, and an absence of a consistent male guide suffer uncertainty and disorderliness (Wax, 2007). These persons are more likely to end up in the same situation as their parents with life-long repercussions like school dropout, have children out-of-wedlock, lower education and job attainment, mental health and family instability.

On the other…. [read more]

Culture Diversity in Early Childhood Education Sex Roles and Gender Bias Term Paper

… Diversity in Early Childhood Education

Qualitative research reveals that gender inequity remains one of the major problems in early childhood educational practice and in early childhood educational training. Through interviews, observations, and self-reports, teachers in early childhood education programs demonstrated an acute awareness of gender inequities. However, the studies also show that aspiring teachers lack the theoretical framework with which to entertain postmodern theories. The current teacher training programs in place throughout colleges, universities, and professional development programs focus on socialization theory and theories of childhood development. While robust, socialization theory may not offer future educators the tools with which to effectively address gender inequities and other social injustices in the educational system.

Postmodern perspectives, including feminist post-structuralist theory, may better help educators and students…. [read more]

Reforms Who Were the Progressives Essay

… S., state and local governments. The problem was that this caused, trade to decline with partners imposing similar kind of duty. The combination of these factors created an environment that allowed the Depression to spread quickly around the world. (Devine) (Murphy 27 -- 63)

How did the harsh realities of the Great Depression transform American politics and economics?

The realities of the Great Depression demonstrated that there needs to better protections for the general public and the economy. This is because there was a lack of regulations, which helped contribute to the bubble and subsequent collapse. The most notable include: regulating the stock market and the banking sector. In the case of the stock market, there were no laws limiting the activities of investors and…. [read more]

Global Woman the Book Essay

… The focus on the human side of the story leaves the economic side underdeveloped. If a women sends money back and her children can afford more schooling, better housing and better health care, such things will create opportunity that otherwise might not exist. The love of a mother might be missing from their lives, but the wealth transfer from the mother enhances their lives in other ways.

Overall, the book has its moments. First, it tells stories that are not often told. Further, it highlights some of the issues faced by such migrant women. Their lives are sometimes voluntary and successful, but often they are not, because migrants are always more vulnerable. For the audience, it is important to understand the consequences to the individual…. [read more]

Prostitution With a Specific Focus Essay

… Sullivan and Jeffreys (2001) noted that myriad forms of sexual exploitation like tabletop dancing, peep shoes, bondage and discipline centers, phone sex as well as pornography have all developed in the country in ways that are more rewarding financial than ever before.

The concept of commoditizing women has therefore been noted to have intensified and has over the years become much more visible than ever before.

The forth reason as to why prostitution should never be legalized or decriminalized is because it leads to an increase in the level of clandestine, illegal and hidden street prostitution. Even though the concept of legalizing prostitution was initially aimed at removing prostitutes out of the streets, several women are noted to never register or even undergo the mandatory…. [read more]

Race Ethnicity Class and Gender Journal

… Myth of the Latin Woman

I like the way "The Myth of the Latin Woman: I just met a girl named Maria" by Judith Ortiz Cofer begins: the young man on the bus singing the lines from West Side Story to the Latina girl who is trying not to show him any encouragement. It is a very true to life beginning: one part youth filled with exuberance and love, happy to be getting on a bus out of Oxford, expressing that happiness in song when inspired by the looks of a girl; one part anxious youth filled with self-awareness, desperate to fit in and surprised to find that she still stands out. It has all the makings of a romance story -- but this is…. [read more]

Social Political and Cultural Implications of Defining Gender Roles in Relation to Domestic Space Essay

… Female Sexual Subjugation and Domesticity in America
The end of the 19th Century brought with it a host of changes which,
as driven by technology and spreading urbanization, brought the entire
world under the sway of the Industrial Revolution. Factories, tenements
and immigrants filled the cities of Europe, the United Kingdom and the
United States, and with them came overcrowding, urban blight, aesthetic
conformity and the seedling of mass consumerism. The result was not a move
away from the inequality of the eras before it but a repackaging of this
imbalance to fit new cultural tendencies. This would be especially true
for women in such contexts as the United States, where the premise of
equality would be subverted by a reconsideration of American culture within…. [read more]

Application of Social Capital in Modern Economy Term Paper

… Captitalecon

Human capital has a definitive influence on the economic success of individuals, and entire nations. Consequently, human capital is a major concern in today's society; all developed countries try to maximize human capital in order to foster innovation and increase wealth. Dakhli & de Clercq (2004) demonstrate that while Human Capital is a trigger for innovation, Social capital might be not. The purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate that social capital does have an impact upon the wealth of a nation. The research will demonstrate the positive correlation between social networks and economic development and the need for both human and social capital. The research will also discuss the positive correlation between social capital and prosperity, and the implications for organizations and the…. [read more]

Northern and Southern California Gender Term Paper

… Although English rather than French in her tale's extraction as well, Cecelia Penifader, a resident of an English manor house, also showed how owning property, as well as social status, could transcend gender's stifling influence upon female life in the Middle Ages.

Despite this evident reality, hidden in the narrative plot if not manifest in the rhetoric of Chretien de Troyes, and over in the lived reality of Penifader of Brigstock's experience, the "Life of St. Louis" showed a saint whose goodness was evidenced in the fact that from the time of his childhood he was said to have loved chastity and forgone the company of all women, except his mother and with his sisters, and even that only rarely. Even earthly obligations that should…. [read more]

Limits to Democracy Thesis

… And women's domestic servitude can be framed easily as that of slavery, given that domestic work such as housekeeping and childrearing remained unpaid labor. Sexism was as rampant as racism in the early Republic. Judith Sargent Murray stated in1790 about the equality of sexes: "Is it indeed, a fact, that she hath yielded to one half of the human species so unquestionable a mental superiority?" (167). She also writes, "suffer me to ask, in what the minds of females are so notoriously deficient, or unequal?" (167). No one would heed the call to social justice until the 1920s.

Machinery like the cotton gin had more of an impact on the evolution of early American values than it would seem on the surface. In his analysis…. [read more]

Barbados Culture Research Paper

… From their point-of-view, slavery conditions had been greatly ameliorated and humanized in the 18th Century, and the harsher punishments were almost never applied in 1816. By that time, 92% of Barbadian slaves were creoles, and almost all the other leaders of the rebellion were native-born blacks, especially drivers and supervisors on the plantations (Beckles 2001: 6). In all, there were 77,000 slaves in Barbados in 1816, 16,000 whites and 3,000 free coloreds, although the latter mostly sided with the whites during the revolt and even fought with the militia. Whites were prepared to fight to the death as well, recalling the slave revolt in Haiti that had exterminated most of the planters there, and blamed outside abolitionist agitators like William Wilberforce for instigating the slaves…. [read more]

Cecilia Penifader Medieval Life Essay

… She came from a family that was double the average family size. Cecilia was privileged to have a father who represented a public face; as a family unit, they used to eat, work, and sleep every day together. After Cecilia and her sister were old enough, she got married leaving her behind while her brothers joined teams of responsible men.

Her father, Robert was a responsible man who beat his children and trained them to perform hard labor around the house, as well as in the fields. Robert was married to Alice and together they were seen to be exceptionally responsible parents. Community held all the power during these days. Decisions of farming and land were made as groups as they were meant for the…. [read more]

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