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Gender Identity the Factors Essay

… Since prenatal hormone manipulation is unethical, researchers have learned about the effects of hormones such as testosterone in humans through the study of individuals with genetic disorders that cause hormonal abnormalities, individuals who had mothers that received hormones during pregnancy, as well as people who have information regarding their prenatal hormone levels (Hines, 2006). Most of the research that has investigated the influence of prenatal hormones on human development involves the study of girls and women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. This is a genetic disorder that results in high levels of testosterone that starts in the fetus (Hines, 2006). Research has indicated that girls with this disorder generally exhibit more male-typical play behavior (Hines, 2006).

The influence of testosterone on sexual differentiation of the brain…. [read more]

Identity Self-Identity or Self-Concept Essay

… Because of this, an individual is treated as being of a certain gender (e.g., males are treated as if they believe they are males and vice versa). This gender binary limits the cultural expectations of males and females and interacts with cultural notions of gender roles to influence the child as to their own gender role and gender identity (Gagne and Tewksbury 1998). The gender identity begins is formed around the third year of life before the child believes that their gender is permanent (Money 1985). Gender identity is formed as children search for approval and social cues as to how to act although gender identity can be fluid when children are young cultural pressures discourage such fluidity and encourage binary gender identities and children.…. [read more]

Identity Themes in Praisesong Research Paper

… In this regard, Rhine reports that, "Yukio Mishima's Confessions of a Mask not only catapulted him into prominence as one of the top writers of postwar Japan when it was published in 1949, but also remains one of the most popular and most often taught and discussed of his novels today, more than twenty-five years after his spectacular death by ritual suicide in 1970" (222). This same search for true identity can be discerned in Shuttle Island wherein Leonardo DiCaprio discovers his true identity after a challenging and struggle-filled search involving a checkered past (Clarke 203). This self-discovery can also be discerned in Confessions of a Mask wherein Mishima suggests that process involved in developing and sustaining an alternative identity is difficult but it can…. [read more]

Gender and the Fashion Industry: Blaming Gay Term Paper

… Gender and the Fashion Industry: Blaming Gay Men for the Emaciation of Women

One of the most recent controversies particular to the fashion industry that has spilled over into the larger media conversation about female beauty is the shrinking BMI (Body Mass Index) of fashion models. Some major fashion shows, most notably the 2006 show in Spain, have attempted to instate a cut-off BMI of 18.5 for the fashion models exhibiting designer's clothing. However, the way that this issue has been phrased in the media has proved troubling. Many media sources, such as one blog called 'Feminine Beauty' have targeted, not commercial or cultural pressures that encourage women to tailor their bodies to fit the image of the moment -- whether that be fat or…. [read more]

Gender Dysphoria in Children Thesis

… Gender and Sexuality: Gender Dysphoria in Children

Gender Dysphoria in Children

Gender is not an absolute or guaranteed condition in the human experience, and even young children can experience some confusion concerning their perceptions of what gender they should be based on powerful family, cultural and social influences. This confused sense of whether "I am a boy" or "I am a girl" can result in subjective distress that is known as gender dysphoria regarding their gender identity. While most adolescents tend to "grow out of" their gender dysphoric state, some continue to experience this dichotomy between their anatomical and mental sense of their gender. This study provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed, scholarly and reliable online literature to provide an overview of transgendered children…. [read more]

Gender Identity Disorder Term Paper

… Gender Identity Disorder

The objective of this work is to research and report the diagnostic criteria and typical course of gender identity disorder including the theories of this disorder and the etiology and prevalence of this disorder. Evidence-based treatments found to be most effective will be reported as well as a consensus and controversies of the disorder in this field of study.

Gender identity disorder (GID) is defined as "strong, persistent feelings of identification with the opposite gender and discomfort with one's own assigned sex." (Psychology Today, 2007) the individual who has GID has a strong desire to be the opposite sex and holds a belief that they will change into the opposite sex as they grow up. These individuals are isolated from their peers…. [read more]

Gender Identity Disorder Gender Role Conflict Research Paper

… Gender Identity Disorder and Gender Role Conflict in Transgender Clients

Considering the powerful socialization of gender-appropriate thoughts and behaviors in society, gender identity disorder and gender role conflict are a common problem in transgender clients. Gender role conflict in its most basic sense refers to the occurrence of negative consequences as a result of conflicts between expected gender roles and the individual psychological state (Good, Dell, & Mintz, 1989). Most transgender clients display behaviors indicating these "disorders" at a very early age. Psychologists seeking to treat these clients have, for the most part, evolved beyond the "fix what's broken" approach and have instead come to work towards helping these clients find self-acceptance and resolve feelings of shame and guilt.

According to Sharpe & Heppner (1991)…. [read more]

Eating Substance Abuse Sex Gender Sexual Impulse Control and Personality Disorders Thesis

… Eating, Substance Abuse, Personality Disorders

Personality disorders have elicited different meanings over the years. The concept was used to describe a person who exhibited 'antisocial or socially damaging behavior' (as cited in Blackburn, 2007, 8). As such, persons with personality disorders were also labeled as 'dangerous offenders' but this idea was debunked as even the most seemingly normal, law-abiding citizens were diagnosed with a personality disorder (Blackburn, 2007). However, as heterogeneous as this group of disorders may be they may all be identified as 'long-standing, pervasive, and inflexible patterns of behavior and inner experience that deviate from the expectations of a person's culture' (Kring, 2007, 387). As classified in the matrix, personality disorders are grouped into three clusters (Kring, 2007). Cluster a or…. [read more]

Race, Gender and Social Equality Research Paper

… Urban poverty problems are aggravated by the isolation impact of residential inequalities. Employment and education disadvantages, loss of commercial and business facilities, housing dilapidation, social and crime disorder, unwed parenthood and welfare depend are some of the social problems persist in the segregated ghettos.

Poverty in the ghetto has imposed costs on all urban residents. The social ills of drug abuse, gang life, school dropout, and teenage pregnancy have left minorities with a feeling of powerlessness. This is because they are stranded with no possibility for change. Looking at housing facilities, black families with low incomes are facing non-existent or poor security measures, rat infestation, leaking ceilings, no hot water, or heat, crumbling stairwells, and high incidences of poisoning.

The urban city is isolated thus;…. [read more]

Gender Identity Disorder Term Paper


Gender Identity disorder has received a great deal of attention in recent years. The purpose of this discussion is to emphasize current treatment strategies for clients affected by Gender Identity Disorder. The discussion will include a review of the literature and recommendations for practitioners. Let us begin our discussion by defining Gender Identity Disorder.

Definition of Gender Identity Disorder

According to the National Institutes of Health Gender Identity disorder is a condition in which there is a cionflict between an individuals physical or obvious gender and the individual's self-identification. For examply an individual that is a female may feel and display the characteristics of a male. The NIH points out that Gender Identity disorder is wholly different from homosexuality because homosexuals almost always identfy…. [read more]

Disordered Eating in College Students: The Roles Term Paper

… Disordered Eating in College Students: The Roles of Attachment to Fathers, Depression and Self-Esteem

The objective of this work is to write a research proposal investigating the attachment process in eating disorders, particularly among college women. This work intends to examine the number of college women with subclinical eating disorders in contrast to those with full-blown eating disorders. This work will include background information on attachment theory and processes in general and in eating disorders. This work will focus on the father-daughter attachment processes and the roles of depression and self-esteem.

Eating disorders among college students have been noted to be more prevalent than ever in today's colleges. Eating disorders include those of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other various eating disorders. The research of…. [read more]

Gender Identity Disorder and George A. Rekers Term Paper

… Gender Identity Disorder

The site at is sponsored by a George a. Rekers, Ph.D., whose academic credentials lend some credibility to the information on the site. Dr. Rekers provides his credentials beyond academic certification, and his credentials are indeed impressive: Professor of Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Science, Research Director for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Chairman of Faculty in Psychology at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine in Columbia, SC. In addition to these outstanding credentials, curriculum vitae, Dr. Rekers has authors nine books, and more than 120 peer reviewed journal articles, and numerous book chapters. He is editor of the Handbook of Child and Adolescent Sexual Problems (Lexington-Jossy-Bass / Simon and Schuster, 1995).

With these kinds of experiences and credentials, the information…. [read more]

Identity Institutionalized in Mainstream Culture? Term Paper

… With the influx of information from mass media about the acquisition of such trait, beauty is an asset that no one can discard. The consideration of beauty works as empowerment, acceptance, admiration, humanization, and entertainment. Others pre-suppose that beauty is wealth and power, while with the teens it means popularity, fame and distinction of attractiveness towards the opposite sex.

The media has made an incredible impact on the realization of the beauty myth. It unveils to us the cruelty of this world wherein beauty gives high regards to the individual who embrace the quality and regretful feelings of despair for those who are deficient of this characteristic. With the portrayal of men and women alike in movies, in some instance in the film era, most…. [read more]

Homosexuality Demedicalization of the Gender Identity Disorder Essay

… Homosexuality

Demedicalization of the Gender Identity Disorder

Gender identity is a highly controversial subject. The notion that one's gender is a significant determination of personality traits, behavioral characteristics, social tendencies, romantic engagements and self-perception is a critical one. However, it is also subject to debate because of the imperatives created by the social construct of gender. This often clashes with what are, in reality, more nuanced and individualized connections to gender. The divergence between social norms on gender orientation and the actual spectrum of gender orientations that individuals experience in reality may cause some dissonance as a consequence of social or cultural pressures. The result is that, historically, the medial and psychiatric communities have conflated homosexuality and Gender Identity Disorder (GID) with medical conditions to…. [read more]

Psychology of Gender in Psychological Research Paper

… Today, the theory that is heavily touted as correct is the Interactional Model, which says that it is neither nature (biological control) nor nurture (social models and the environment) which are solely responsible for anything having to do with our inherent identity, but each of them working together to develop a person (Crooks, & Baur, 2008). It is next to impossible to say that biology is solely responsible for a person's gender because so many aspects of our development in the womb are still unknown, and those effects are virtually impossible to test, or unethical to test. We also cannot say that environment and child rearing techniques are the root cause, because, as evidenced by David Reimer and other intersexed children, those outcomes have been…. [read more]

Sexual Disorders According to Croucher Essay

… Young children categorize their world accordign to sex and show an early tendency to stereotype sex roles. This could be based upon the fact that young children are very oriented towards the physical environment that they can observe. Observing the differences between themselves and those of the opposite gender, this is one of the first identity formation elements that they encounter in their lives. Differentiating themselves from other groups is the start of a path towards individualization, during which the individual becomes aware of him- or herself as an individual distinct from others. One of the first steps in this process is the differentiation between groups, where one individual belongs to the male gender and the other to the female. These stereotypes become less prominent…. [read more]

Abnormal Psychology -- Disorders People Essay

… Abnormal Psychology -- Disorders

People are often distrustful of those that are different. People who exhibit abnormal human behavior are labeled "weird" or "eccentric." They are feared, discriminated and often misunderstood simply because it is easier to judge and to not deal with them than to take the time to understand where such behavior stems from. However, before delving into the discussion, it is important to define what constitutes or what is considered abnormal behavior. As cited in Kring, Davison, Neale, Johnson, 2007: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), defines mental disorder as "[a] clinically significant behavior or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress… or disability… or with…. [read more]

Dissociative Identity Disorder (Did) Term Paper

… Dissociative identity disorder (DID), or as it has previously been known and is still referred to in popular culture, multiple personality disorder (MPD), may be one of the most misunderstood and controversial of all psychiatric diagnoses. DID is characterized by the presence of two or more personality states or identities in a single person (Gentile et al., 2013). These personalities take alternate control of the individual, which can cause the person's behavior to appear erratic and disconnected, given that each identity perceives, related, and thinks about the environment in different ways. DID is also associated with some degree of amnesia between identities, so that a person with DID may be unable to recall engaging in particular behavior and may experience losses of chunks of time,…. [read more]

Dissociative Identity Disorder (Did) Research Paper

… However, the diagnosis is much more common in women than men and the ratio of women to men with DID is somewhere from 5:1 to 9:1 (APA, 2000). The cause of DID is unknown; although inevitability people suffering from this disorder have experience some form of traumatic event, most often childhood abuse (APA, 2000). Ross (1996) discusses four types of causal factors associated with DID: 1) a traumatic life event, 2) a vulnerability for the disorder to develop in the person (e.g., susceptibility to being hypnotized), environmental factors such as poor coping skills or role models and, 4) a lack of or absence of external support.

On examination patients with DID will not appear to be unusual except for some instances of forgetfulness. Often a…. [read more]

Differences in Gender Violence Rape Based on Race Sexuality Gender and Class Term Paper

… Gender Violence (Rape) and on race, sexuality, gender, and class

The problem of gender violence in general has attracted a wide debate and concern in equal measure for a long time among many players, both active and armchair, in the campaign against the vice. This has been mainly due to its high prevalence which needs to be addresses urgently.Historically, the definition of violence was mainly confined to assault by people who were strangers and overlooked the close acquaintances and intimate people. However, this has widely changed to encompass more of what can be considered gender-based violence.

According to the United Nations Declaration on Violence Against Women, article 1 defines violence against women as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to…. [read more]

Health Psychology Eating Disorders Among Asian American Term Paper

… Eating disorders among Asian-Americans

The following study attempts to explore and delineate the problem of eating disorders among Asian-Americans. The study presents an overview of the issue and found that there exists a serious problem with regards to eating disorders among Asian-Americans, particularly among women. This syndrome is exacerbated by the complexity of acculturation in American society. These and other aspects affecting eating disorders in this group are also discussed. One of the central findings of the study is that there has been relatively little research of quality conducted on this subject.

There is a common myth that eating disorders are usually found among white females and males and not among the Asian population.

In general "Many assume that certain "blanket factors" protect minority communities…. [read more]

Effects of Bipolar Disorder Research Paper

… Initially, these same results were obtained with the bipolar disorder and the people who are suffering from more episodes of depression or mania and the lesser advantages are found to be obtained from a drug treatment.

It is not easy for the patient or his family member to deal with the different experiences of the bipolar disorder. In many of the cases, the criticisms or protectiveness of the family members shows their efforts to cope up with the daily life problems. It should also be noted that the patterns can be altered or modified by the family therapy, which is helpful in the improvement of the outcomes of a patient with bipolar disorder (Rea et al., 2003).

Friendships and Social Support

For many people, a…. [read more]

Narcissistic Personality Disorder Grade Course Research Paper

… Such a female would show different behaviors time to time; being good and loving simply because she wants to use her partner or simply being very affectionate in the public in order to gain attention or appraisal for being good to others. Furthermore, women suffering from Narcissistic Personality disorder are self-centered and prioritize themselves before others. Regardless of their feeling of grandiosity, suffering from such a disorder creates numerous difficulties faced socially as well as occupationally. They suffer from maintaining a long-term relationship with friends, dating partners or spouse and would blame others instead of taking responsibility. A narcissistic adult female would act in every possible way to seek attention from others. To do this, she might dress up in a provocative manner, interrupt during…. [read more]

Depressive Disorder Essay

… The remaining criteria for diagnosis are relatively simple. Criterion B. states that the clinician must be certain that the symptoms presented by the patient do not instead qualify as a "Mixed Episode" -- in other words, it must not additionally include the symptoms of a Manic Episode in addition to those nine criteria outlined for Major Depressive Episode. This requires care in some specifics: irritability can be seen as an aspect of A2, but it can also be present in the elevated mood states of mania. Insomnia is a characteristic of depression, but mania instead demonstrates a decreased need for sleep, where the patient feels well-rested on very little sleep. And the cognitive impairments seen in depression are different from the racing thoughts and distractibility…. [read more]

Gid the Changing Discourse Term Paper


The Changing Discourse on GID

The public discourse on homosexuality and gender-orientation differences is one that is in state of steady of evolution. Once treated strictly as anathema and still today even criminalized in many parts of the United States under sodomy laws, homosexuality is increasingly recognized as an alternative lifestyle. Part of this recognition has been the gradual improvement of the medical and therapeutic communities' shared understanding of this orientation. Indeed, the historical treatment of homosexuality and gender-orientation differences as psychiatric disorders has not only contributed to the negative cultural perception of homosexuality but has also prevented many in these demographics from receiving real and meaningful therapeutic support. The impetus to 'cure' homosexuality or gender orientation differences has simultaneously deprived many individuals an…. [read more]

Gender LGBT and the Evolution of Understanding Journal

… DSM-5 has at last been published; at least that is what the article by Arlene Istar Lev states. With it comes the revised diagnostic category that has sparked some commentary, Gender Dysphoria. Gender Dysphoria brings to light the idea that sexual minority person encounters issues with ongoing labeling of gender identities as disordered or pathological and that to express sexuality and gender does not have to be considered unhealthy simply because it does not fit the norm. People who exist within the LGBT community for example, want to take pride in their choices and revel in their freedom. The article mentions this as the LGBT community states their desire to reclaim the word "queer" and use that word to empower rather than alienate.


In…. [read more]

Conversion Disorders for Whom Research Paper

… Conversion disorders for whom are they most common? (i.e. gender, age): More common in females (2-10: 1 female: male ratio), less educated, lower SES, racial factors appear unimportant. 2. Malingering: Intentionally presenting with symptoms of an illness or disorder when in fact there is no normal so disorder present. This presentation is done for primary or secondary gain.

Munchausen syndrome by proxy. A form of abuse where a person induces physical symptoms or an illness of another person (usually a child) in order to receive attention.

Dysmorphobia. Also note his body dysmorphic disorder, a disorder where the person continually finds fault with their physical appearance and often has unnecessary surgeries to correct it.

Dissociative amnesia. Psychogenic amnesia, typically retrograde amnesia or global amnesia that occurs…. [read more]

Dissociative Identity Disorder Term Paper

… There are four subscales, identity confusion, loss of control, amnesia, absorption, each with a cut-off score of 2.5, which is the same cut-off for the total score (Sansone 2003). The DIS-Q appears to be a consistent and valid measure of dissociation and high scores are associated with traumatic experiences in childhood (Sansone 2003).

According to one study published in 1998, "dissociative tendencies evidently are related to various features of the aggression domain, namely, a motor component (physical aggression), an affective component (anger), and an attitudinal component (hostility)" (Irwin 1998). Nevertheless, the regression analysis identified hostility as the key feature of the trait of aggression that predicts dissociation (Irwin 1998). "This finding provides a degree of support for the utility of attitudes as intervening variables in…. [read more]

Interaction Hormones Behavior, Interactions Affect Essay

… Thus it is on the basis of the sex hormones that the sexual differentiation of the brain occurs thus ensuring the sexually dimorphic behavior and this is found to be true with all mammals. Though the influence of the hormone has been demonstrated, the relation between the hormones and the human behavior lacks empiric study. Thus the issue of nature vs. nurture is still in the debate and research stage. The current situation is that there are effects felt of both the biological and social environs and the subject and debate over the issue has not yet been resolved conclusively. (Zhu; Cai, 2006)

Can bio-psychology may help resolve the argument?

As of now distinctions between the biological gender of human beings and the gender identity…. [read more]

Gender dysphoria and gender identity Article Review

… Obviously, Sara/Sawyer considered himself a girl even though her biological sex was male. Internally, she felt as if she were female and thus lived and reacted as such. As noted earlier in this article review and summary, there is a mental illness angle to the concept and definition of mental disorder. However, it has shifted from being a malady to something that causes pain and distress. Indeed, rather than the life and identity of the person being considered "wrong" or anomalous, there is instead the concept of how their gender confusion and problems cause them problems and not that they're acting in an improper way. For example, bipolar disorder is itself a mental disease and the disease itself AND the consequences it causes are both…. [read more]

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