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Genetic Engineering Term Paper

… The Enogen would produce ethanol at a rapid and efficient rate, the product being an important industrial commodity (Pollack, 2011).

Of course, with such a fledgling science -- that is, genetic engineering -- the wariness and the concerns are rather high. Some argue about the side effects after a genetic alteration: the mice's aberrant increase in violence might also be similar should geneticists alter the same gene in the human DNA (Bhanoo, 2011). Others are concerned about the spreading of the genetically modified plants into normally or organically grown organisms; there is concern that as much as one altered corn kernel can destroy the consistency of starch from thousands of regular corn kernels (Pollack, 2011).

The authors are of the same mind when it comes…. [read more]

Benefits of Genetic Engineering Research Paper

… Genetic engineering is defined as a group of applied techniques of genetic and biotechnology that is used to cut up and join together genetic material, particularly DNA from one or more species of organism to promoted change in one or more of its characteristics. Unlike traditional breeding where genes are manipulated indirectly, genetic engineering employs molecular cloning and transformation to bring about the direct alteration of genetic characteristics and structure. Genetic engineering has been successfully employed various industries particularly the medical and agricultural ones (Fridell 37).

Genetic engineering can also be used to isolate genes, modify them in order to enable them function better, prepare genes to be inserted into a new species and also develop transgenes. Transgenic organisms are the ones which contain genes…. [read more]

Genetic Engineering and Agriculture Term Paper

… Genetic Engineering and Agriculture

What, exactly, is Genetic Engineering? What are the various processes that are involved in the carrying out of Genetic Engineering? Genetic Engineering is basically the selection and the willful or deliberate alteration or change of the genes or the genetic material that is present in any living being, by man. The process helps man to produce endogenous proteins with properties that are different from the original material, or produce entirely and completely different proteins from the original material. Genes can be, in essence, modified, and altered and changed within the DNA molecule so that the basic information that it contains would be altered. (Definition of Genetic Engineering)

One of the most important events that happened in the 20th century may be…. [read more]

Societal Effects of Genetic Engineering Ethics Essay

… Using such intelligence given by God is good but not at the expense of using it on humans (Wulf, 2004). It is not right for Christian to create embryos from scratch because it may seem like you’re mocking God and want to be his co-creator. According to bioethics, holding an individual from their potentials by altering their genetics can make them become less capable. Genetic engineering used in turning humans into slaves by altering their genetic code is considered unethical.

Guiding Future Engineering Decisions

My position of viewing genetic engineering (cloning) as unnatural and causing problems and creating birth defects would be useful in guiding future engineering decisions. This can be done by being an activist of negative genetic engineering (VORST, 1998). My position can…. [read more]

Mamdani Rule-Based System Defuzzification Genetic Methodology Chapter

… Mamdani Rule-Based System


Genetic Algorithms

Genetic Encoding and Chromosomes

Fitness Calculation




Stopping Criteria

Artificial Neural Network

Perceptron Neurons

Sigmoid Neurons

Multi-Layers Network

Back Propagation Learning

This chapter discusses in detail the various approaches used to collect analyze and interpret data. It elaborates various important variables in relation to research methodology and approach. The various variables discussed under this section of the research include, fuzzy inference system, fuzzy set, fuzzy logic, fuzzification, Mamdani rule-based system, defuzzification, genetic algorithm, genetic encoding and chromosomes, fitness calculation, selection, mutation, crossover, stopping criteria, artificial neural network, perceptron neurons, sigmoid neurons, multi-layers network and back-propagation learning.

Fuzzy Inference System

Fuzzy inference or reasoning system is a process through which an individual maps out an output from a…. [read more]

Genetic Engineering the Alteration Term Paper

… 2001).

Besides, there would be no reason in cloning a person, since it offers little science or in other words no advantages. There are a number of people who say that if they could clone Albert Einstein then there is much more that can be learned about science as well as the theory of relativity, which is not true (George.2001). If anyone is cloned that does not mean that it will be the same person in each and every manner since genetic engineering meaning here is that their genetic makeup will be exactly same. Thus, the environment where they grow up basically plays a major role in the development of the person's personality (George.2001).

Safety Aspect of Using Genetic Engineering:

Furthermore, safety of genetic engineering…. [read more]

Do the Dangers of Genetic Engineering as Applied to Humans Outweigh Its Benefits? Term Paper

… Genetic engineering (GE) has been presented to the public as a way to improve the quality of our lives, enhance agriculture and advance our ability to fight genetic illnesses. The possibilities seem endless, but raise worries as well as optimism (Fricker, 2002). The Human Genome Project, conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services, undertook the task of mapping all human genes their chromosomes (Morse, 1998). This project contributed greatly to the potential for GE in humans, but in fact GE has already been used in agriculture. However, some biologists point out that we call "genetic engineering" has been accomplished for centuries via cross-breeding, and that GE is just a new way of accomplishing something already done in…. [read more]

Positive and Negative Engineering Summary Term Paper

… The author calls this a mixed system.

The author proposes a mixed system, which would limit the power of decision-makers to a power of veto. This system would essentially be a combination of parental initiative and central veto, and the author states that this type of system would be the best possible option for the decision-making involved in positive engineering. The mixed system eliminates worries about genetic changes being controlled by a few powerful people with limited scope. However, a general anxiety remains as to the values that would be utilized in making these decisions. Furthermore, the deepest resistance is based in values, and the question of whether parents have the right to create one type of person over another.

The author asks how we…. [read more]

Human Genome Project Essay

… d., p. 33), almost all diseases have at least some genetic component. Even environmentally caused diseases such as AIDS have genetic components that predispose some human beings to greater morbidity and mortality relating to the condition.

The HGP has been particularly useful in terms of rare genetic diseases. For example, individual single genes have been identified that might contribute to rare genetic conditions without single-handedly causing them. Green has implied that work over the next 15 years will identify the major contributing genes for many common diseases. Genetic contributions to complex diseases will also be identified by whole genome association studies.

According to Carroll and Ciaffa, there are two general categories that may be used to organize the ethical implications of the Human Genome Project:…. [read more]

Biology - Genetic Engineering: Applications Term Paper

… Biology - Genetic Engineering


Genetic engineering is the process of deliberately changing the genetic material of an organism by manipulating its deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecular structure for the purpose of transmitting those specifically designed changes to successive generations via genetic inheritance. The first documented (albeit unintentional) experimental demonstration of genetic engineering actually preceded the identification of the DNA molecule by almost thirty years (Aldridge 1998).

British microbiologist Fred Griffith identified two forms of the pneumococcus bacterium distinguishable by the presence or absence of a smooth exterior cellular coating responsible for its resistance to the human immune system response. Griffith accidentally transmitted that characteristics of the deadly pneumococci responsible for human pneumonia to subsequent generations of the harmless pneumococci that lacked…. [read more]

Ethics of Genetic Engineering Term Paper

… They were all later accredited with the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962 (Hawley 1998).

The new science of genetic engineering aims to take a dramatic short cut in the slow process of evolution" (Stableford 1996). In essence, scientists aim to remove one gene from an organism's DNA, and place it into the DNA of another organism. This would create a new DNA strand, full of new encoded instructions; a strand that would have taken Mother Nature millions of years of natural selection to develop. Isolating and removing a desired gene from a DNA strand involves many different tools. Exposing it to ultra-high frequency sound waves can break up DNA, but this is an extremely inaccurate way of isolating a desirable DNA section…. [read more]

Nanomachines the Science of Molecular Term Paper

… The replication instructions within these hybrid biological/mechanical machines to be designed by engineers will be composed of computer code instead of DNA is one such difference worth mentioning.

However, these machines still look like and perform as existing cell types and this is what Drexler and other engineers and nanobiologists foresee. Viruses are composed of proteins and coding material and its replication is possible only within a host organism and this nature of viruses will be built into some assemblers. A virus-like assembler, after entering a cell, utilizing the freshly introduced coding information, can instruct the cell's own internal machinery to replicate. Other assemblers similar to bacteria will carry within their own firm boundaries, all the materials which are required for biosynthesis, and hence would…. [read more]

Synthetic Biology Most Eminent Mr. Darwin Term Paper

… Synthetic Biology

Most Eminent Mr. Darwin-

You would be most surprised, I would hazard to guess, at the many advances the science of biology has been able to take thanks to your contribution of the theory of evolution, especially when combined with technologies and discoveries in other fields. Computer technologies make tasks that would otherwise be prohibitively complicated or time consuming relatively simple and amazingly quick, and other technologies allow scientists to see ever-smaller mechanisms at work in the creation and perpetuation of life. The combination of all of these various scientific pursuits and advances is far greater than the sum of its constituent parts, and is perhaps greater than ever thought possible -- or even advisable.

You see, Charles, one of the many things…. [read more]

Positive and Negative Impacts Essay

… (Surhan, 2002)

It is quite evident that genetic engineering has various pros and cons. We should be careful that the moral issues related to the genetic engineering shall be given more priority rather than the constructive and economic issues. The developed countries should also try to have a control on the activities of this field so that they might not get hazardous for the society and the environment. (Surhan, 2002)


The world was surprised to see the cloning of a sheep from a single cell of an adult sheep. In this process of cloning an adult mammal's nucleus (of a cell) is inserted into an enucleated ovum. As a result an embryo develops which completes the genetic code from which the nucleus that was…. [read more]

Application of Genetic Engineering in Animals Research Paper

… Conclusion

This study investigates the scientific principles associated with the GM animals. The study explores several applications of the new technology that include the production of new drugs, and development of animals that are resistance to diseases and able to produce milk abundantly. While there are benefits associated with the application of genetic engineering, there are still some ethical issues with the new technology. However, this study still believes that genetic engineering stands to stay. With the advanced in the technology, scientists will be able to develop GM healthy animals for the benefit of humanity.


Adams, J. M.; Piovesan, G; Strauss, S; et al. (2008) The Case for Genetic Engineering of Native and Landscape Trees against Introduced Pests and Diseases. Conservation Biology. 16 (4):…. [read more]

Genetically Engineered Food Research Proposal

… Firstly, the time difference is important when considering genetically modified crops, because while human agriculture modified certain species of plants, this modification occurred over thousands of years, thus giving other species ample time to adapt and change alongside these specifically bred crops. The introduction of a genetically modified crop into an ecosystem, however, means that the other plants in that ecosystem are faced with a shock, such that they may not have time to adapt, thus creating a ripple effect throughout the entire ecosystem, much like when an invasive species is introduced somewhere it has previously never been.

This effect is compounded by the fact that genetic modification, unlike breeding, is not self-limiting, meaning that these plants will continue to spread and overtake other genetic…. [read more]

Ultrasound Is a Supersonic Transmitter That Radiates Term Paper

… Ultrasound is a supersonic transmitter that radiates high-frequency 3.5 MHz waves not accepted by ear. Waves are come to an object, reflected from it and come to a receiver. These are then interpreted into picture on dislay.

SONAR or Sound Navigation and Ranging. This is where the History of Ultrasound scanners should start. Jean-Daniel Colladon, a Swiss physicist, has successfully used underwater bell in the early 1826. He used this to determine the speed of sound in Lake Geneva. Later in 1877, another physicist, Lord Rayleigh of England published "The Theory of Sound" which first illustrated sound wave as a mathematical equation that formed the basis of future investigations on acoustics, but Lazzaro Spallanzani, an Italian biologist takes credit for the discovery of high frequency…. [read more]

Christian Biotechnology: Not a Contradiction Term Paper

… So in this area, it is relatively simple to analyze the use and importance of this field of research. Transgenic crops have proven to be vital food source for both economic and humanitarian purposes, while transgenic animals are quickly proving to be just what the meat, milk, and egg industry need to increase profits and production. Christians everywhere should be in support of biotechnology and genetic modification in food production, as this has the potential to erase world hunger and improve corporate profits all at once.

Genetically modified (GM) crops are safe and proven in the field. Scientists are not just tinkering with DNA for fun -- GM crops are being created that are far superior to traditional hybrid strains in hardiness and resistance to…. [read more]

Scientific and Political Term Paper

… The companies that produce them, such as the United States, want to make a profit on them because they have put a lot of resources into making them. It is these poorer countries, who might benefit most from the technology, which most likely would not be able to afford to buy the seeds. In 2003, countries that grew 99% of the global GM crops were the United States (63%), Argentina (21%), Canada (6%), Brazil (4%), and China (4%), and South Africa (1%). Although growth is expected to plateau in industrialized countries, it is increasing in developing countries. Unfortunately, the new advances in genetically modified foods are most likely skewed to the interests of rich countries, instead of the poorer ones advocates of genetically modified foods…. [read more]

People Fear DNA? Because Criminals Always Leave Essay

… ¶ … people fear DNA? Because criminals always leave it at the scene of a crime: Joke told by Stephen Rogers, Monsanto scientist (cited in Lambrecht, 2001)

Technology has provided people worldwide with a variety of positive additions to their lives, such as advanced medical care, electricity, heating and cooling, and now instant communication through the Internet. However, there is always a tradeoff for everything, and it is necessary to weigh the pros and cons as in the case of genetically modified (GM) or genetically engineered (GE) foods. These are defined as crop plants created for human or animal consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques; they have been approved for commercial planting by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1995. Despite this approval,…. [read more]

Sweet Grass Cheese's Development and Growth Term Paper

… ¶ … Sweet Grass cheese's development and growth over the years, focusing on planned and unplanned occurrences that grew their business. In addition, it discusses challenges and opportunities that they, and other small businesses, have to face. Lastly, the future challenges of Sweet Grass is discussed.

Handcrafted Cheese from Georgia?

Sweet Grass Cheese's Development From the Early Days to Today:

Desiree Whener didn't start out to become one of America's finest cheese makers; she simply evolved into the position. Wehner and her husband had started off with an interest in veterinary sciences that led them to the management of several large dairy operations. They tired of this type of dairy business where the cattle rarely spent time in their more natural pastures, and instead decided…. [read more]

Biotechnology the Origins Essay

… " (Torrey, 1922, p.72) For instance, Mendel cross-bred two pea plants, each with two sets of traits: yellow or green color and a smooth or wrinkled surface.

From these humble beginnings, a distinct discipline of biotechnology has developed which specifically deals with the mechanisms of heredity: genetics. This development has come about primarily through the use of fermentation as an industrial mechanism. The need for a better and more efficient fermentation process led to experimentation and the introduction of industrialized biotechnology. And the use of biological agents in industry then "let to formulations of an ideal for biotechnology that has lasted to the present day, having been co-opted as the new possibilities for recombinant DNA technology came to be voiced in the late 1970's." (Hessenbruch,…. [read more]

Designer Babies Essay

… If this mentality is applied to living beings, then what place does the unengineered child hold?

Shannon Browlee (2002) wrote, "Today, Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn would have been diagnosed with attention-deficit disorder and medicated. Tomorrow, they might not be allowed out of the petri dish" (Brownlee 2002). It begins with the eradication of genetic disease and then becomes the choosing of eye color, gender, and athletic ability. When dangerous markers are removed, the next step is the genetic improvement of embryos, making the children better looking or better at sports. Once this has been perfected, the next step is the removal of minor imperfections. Take this with the idea of little Molly and Adam Nash and the question about children who are made-to-order.

Like…. [read more]

Medical Advancements in Medicine Term Paper

… All diseases have a genetic component, whether inherited or resulting from the body's response to environmental stresses. The successes of the Human Genome Project (HGP) have even enabled researchers to pinpoint errors in genes -- the smallest units of heredity -- that cause or contribute to disease.2

The real news is that in the right hands, genetic engineering can be used to develop new ways to treat, cure, or even prevent the thousands of diseases. Today, biotech companies are designing diagnostic tests to detect "bad" genes that may cause particular diseases.

Imagine the changes in medicine if geneticists could find and replace genes that cause illness and disease.

The potential for using genes to treat disease, commonly known as gene therapy is the most…. [read more]

Using Fuzzy Logic for Scheduling Multiple Chapters

… 315). Even when executives make the effort to plan their projects carefully, they may overlook the most important ones in their attempt to organize all of the enterprise's projects in a cohesive fashion. In this regard, Dinsmore and Cabanis-Brown point out that, "Most executives are aware of the need for drastic change in multiproject management practices, but many place the emphasis in the wrong place. Unfortunately, a great deal of such investment is misdirected into multiyear efforts to implement software tools and time sheets before dealing with the highest leverage points" (2011, p. 315).

There are three discrete roles that organizations must formally define in order to develop an effective project portfolio management system as follows:

1. Governance: This executive role is one of decision…. [read more]

Cyborgs Transgenic Designer Kids Term Paper

… Cogito Ergo Sum

As stated centuries ago by Rene Descartes, the statement "I think, therefore I am," no longer holds true for the dawn of the twenty first century. Due to emerging monumental technological advances in virtual reality since Descartes first coined the phrase in the seventeenth century "My computer thinks, therefore I am" has become the contemporary version of this statement. Descartes' words have most definitely given way to a lesser meaning by way of our popular culture and popular thought. Today it is the computer that possesses knowledge over mind and human thought has now been relegated to the artificial intelligence capabilities of a machine. In tern, that to which Descartes challenged man to strive for is seemingly a lonely term in philosophy…. [read more]

Genetically Modified Foods Thesis


The report of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations states that GM crops are "commercially available and planted on more than 40 million hectares across six continents. These plants represent the largest-scale experience in the introduction of GMOs into ecosystems, and they have become the focus of environmental concerns." (2001) However, the truth is that most consumers are very little informed about genetically modified foods.

It was reported by the Government Accounting Office on May 23, 2002, that modern agricultural biotechnology is that which refers to "various scientific techniques, most notably genetic engineering, used to modify plants, animals or microorganism by introducing their genetic make up genes for specific…. [read more]

Start Off With an Introductory Term Paper

… ¶ … start off with an introductory section defining as to what is meant by cloning, background information on cloning, and its relevance to the field of business, timeline and history of cloning and the different types of cloning and how they work. Till the recent past, there was no significant ethical, social or legal debate about human cloning, but the emergence of Dolly revolutionized the entire environment. The U.S. Government has categorically stated that it is not going to spend the funds of tax payers towards research and performance of human cloning. Cloning will therefore become a private enterprise and it is expected to have a very high competition among the various companies. The lawmakers all over the country are struggling to find out…. [read more]

Biotechnology Exploring the Pros Reaction Paper

… The alterations to the DNA of these organisms have not been studied enough in large contexts in order to truly understand what negatives could come along with them. Additionally, there is research suggesting that the process of altering these organisms's DNA does have the side effect of producing dangerous and unhealthy toxins. Essentially, it involves the "unexpected production of toxic substances ... In genetically engineered bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals with the problem remaining undetected until a major health hazard has arisen" (Cummins). The issue here is that these products are automatically being marketed as safe, without the traditional testing process that goes along with new food on the market. This ultimately places the consumer at risk, especially in regards to individuals with certain allergies…. [read more]

Dick / Garreau / Lanier Term Paper

… Dick / Garreau / Lanier / EEG REVISED

Both Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep? And Joel Garreau's Radical Evolution explore the questions of what it would mean for technology to create a "post-human" being, to use the term Garreau borrows from Francis Fukuyama (236). Yet the creation of the post-human being would do little to settle the matter of what created the human being, an issue traditionally handled by conceptions of religion and of God. I propose -- through an examination of Dick and Garreau, with additional reference to Jaron Lanier and to the neurological science of electroencephalography -- to approach Dick's and Garreau's vision of post-humanity through the central issue of religion, and more particularly empathy. I hope to demonstrate…. [read more]

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