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Genetics Study of Biological Information Essay

… Genetics: Study of Biological Information

Genetics is the branch of biology dealing with heredity and variations of organisms and the genetic makeup and phenomena of an organism, type, group, or condition (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2010). In this course, it has been defined as "the study of how biological information is stored, utilized, and passed on from one generation to the next."

The biological information is stored within the cells as Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which is responsible for the coding and reproducing of the cellular information. Proteins, amino acids, and ribonucleic acid are the other main components involved in biological information process.

The life of an organism relies on the cells ability to store, transcribe, and translate the genetic information in the cell.

The genetic material…. [read more]

Genetics and Development Essay

… Notably, these genes can either be dominant or recessive resulting in dominant (visible) or recessive (unseen) traits in an individual (Bartoshesky, 2009). While dominant genes show their effect even in cases where only a single copy of the gene exists in the pair, recessive characteristics are evident when an individual has the gene on both chromosomes of the pair.

Chromosomal and Genetic Disorders:

One of the major factors that contribute to genetic disorders is gene mutation, which normally occurs when a person's cells have been exposed to radiation or certain chemicals or when the cells are aging. Generally, gene mutation occurs when cells contain changes or variations in the genetic information. When there are small mutations is a certain gene, the changes do not affect…. [read more]

How Genetics Affect Child Development Research Paper

… ¶ … Genetics affects child development

Genetic research shows that genetic content of a child account for their characteristics and behavior. The environment also plays a vital role in child development. It is increasingly evident that no single fact can explain the intricacies of change and growth from childhood to old age. Environmental and biological factors are almost similar and related, and it is sometimes difficult to separate behaviors environmentally influenced and biologically influenced. Different genetic contents elicit different reactions from their parents, and different environments result to differences among individuals. Different researches carried out to determine the extent to which genes affect behavior in children; conclusions made show behavior in children has some genetic input.

Effect of genes on development

Biological factors are chromosomes,…. [read more]

Genetics and Human Disease Research Proposal

… Genetics and Human Disease

Millions of Americans a year have to deal with the affects of heart disease and cancer, both directly and indirectly. They prove to be the biggest threats to the average American in terms of medical dangers. What is largely un-thought of within the context of previous research on such threats is the concept of their relationship to the most basic fundamental blocks of our bodies -- genomes within DNA. Recent studies have found that there may be a potential genetic relationship between the human genome and medical conditions such as heart disease and cancer; these diseases not having any similarities between typical genetic diseases caused by abnormal genes.

Each and every one of us owes our biological make up to the…. [read more]

Cheap Genomic Sequencing Research Paper

… Thus, at the same time that personalized genetic information will help to redefine certain categories of "disabled," it will ultimately force society to deal not only with standards regarding who controls personal genetic information, but what those individuals actually do with said information. This is a crucial subject for discussion, because it has bearing not on those who may suffer from a genetic predisposition towards a certain illness, but also those willing and able to augment their genetic code through therapy and treatment.

Again, while the idea of someone augmenting his or her self by altering his or her genetic code may seem more in the realm of science fiction than reality, in truth the potential for genetic manipulation is well within reach, because although…. [read more]

Nature vs. Nurture Chapter

… Behaviors breed true in successive generations of organisms.

Behaviors change in response to alterations in biological structures.

Some behaviors run in human families

Behavior has an evolutionary history that persists across species." (McInerney, 2008).

One means of testing this hypothesis would be by conducting a research study. McInerney describes the traditional research strategies used in behavioral genetics, studies of twins and adoptees, techniques that are designed to sort biological from environmental influences (2008). Investigators have also added the search for pieces of DNA associated with particular behaviors.

One twin study reported by Harden, Turkheimer, and Loehlin (2006) found that shared environmental influences were stronger for adolescents from poorer homes, while genetic influences were stronger for more affluent homes. Harden et al. concluded that environmental differences…. [read more]

Breast Cancer How Genes Influence Research Paper

… Because of that, the -656 G. allele has the potential to harbor a "higher production" of APE1 (Kang, 100). That would create the biological plausibility that APE1- 656TG/GG genotypes are then expected to be associated with a lower breast cancer risk (Kang, 100). Kang found that -656 T>G polymorphism was associated with a risk of breast cancer on a significantly high level (pg. 100). When compared with people who had the -656 TT genotype, those people who had the -656 TG/GG genotype saw their oncogenic breast cancer risk decrease from 1 to 0.71 (Kang, 99-100).

A meta-analysis done by Zhou also examined the -656 T>G polymorphism, and reported that it potentially had a protective effect on cancer risk, particularly among Asian populations (Zhou). There were…. [read more]

Expression Profiling of a Novel Term Paper

… Nucleic Acids Research, 39, D225-D229. Published online November 24, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from

Mortensen, R.M. And Kingston, R.E. (2009). Selection of transfected mammalian cells. In F.M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R.E. Kingston, D.D. Moore, J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith and K. Struhl (Eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Unit 9.5). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 6, 2011 from

Rosenfeld, J., Capdevielle, J., Guillemot, J.C., and Ferrara, P. (1992). In-gel digestion of proteins for internal sequence analysis after one- or two- dimensional gel electrophoresis. Analytical Biochemistry, 203, 173-179.

Smith, S.L. (2008). Basic confocal microscopy. In F.M. Ausubel, R. Brent, R.E. Kingston, D.D. Moore, J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith and K. Struhl (Eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Unit 14.11). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 6,…. [read more]

Ionomics Genome: Essentially, the Genetic/Hereditary Information Essay

… Ionomics


Essentially, the genetic/hereditary information of a given organism, typically expressed in most complex organisms as a repeated sequence of DNA nucleotides and most often appearing as DNA bundles called chromosomes. The genetic map that allows for the growth and development of an organism.


A combination of "protein" and "genome," the term "proteome" refers to the proteins that are expressed by a given genome, or by a cell, tissue or organism. It is often used more specifically to identify the specific proteins expressed in specific given circumstances.


During cell division and other processes involving protein synthesis based on genetic information, certain specific RNA molecules are utilized by cells/tissues with a given genome. The RNAs expressed in any given circumstance are referred to…. [read more]

Information Technology and Its Uses in the Nano Thesis

… Information Technology and Its Uses in Nano Technology


Information Technology and Nanotechnology

The future of modem society is often referred to in terms of technology and particularly new and innovative technological discoveries. While from one perspective science and technology has been blamed for many of the ills of modern society, such as the threat of climate change, on the other hand discoveries associated with new technologies have also increased optimism with regard to a better future for humanity. (Murphy & Pardeck, xv) One need only think of the controversy about the discoveries in genetics and cloning, which is seen as positive from a medical point-of-view and condemned from various ideological and mortal perspectives.

Thinkers and scientists have also explored the ways in which technology…. [read more]

Human Embryonic Stem Cells Thesis

… Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Stem cell studies are on the very cutting edge of biological advancement and research. These undifferentiated cells have the potential to become any cell in the body, from a simple part of a hair follicle to a complex neuron. Because research into this area is so new, there are still many scientific and ethical dilemmas surrounding stem cell research, especially research that involves human embryonic stem cells. These are the cells that have caused so much media and political attention over the past decade; the moral and ethical debates surrounding their uses are often heated and always too complex and controversial to allow for the emergence of a clear conclusion.

The issue comes from the fact that embryos are often destroyed…. [read more]

Future of DNA Testing Research Proposal

… Future of DNA Testing

The Beginnings of Genetic Identity Testing

DNA fingerprinting

Genetic identity testing establishes the patterns of genetic material, which is specific and unique for almost every human being.1 The sequence differences between individuals are used as basis for identity testing. The techniques applied are DNA fingerprinting, DNA profiling, and DNA typing. Identity testing in crime investigation began with the analysis of the ABO blood group. Later, it proved useful in identity and paternity identification. But two decades ago, Professor and geneticist Alec Jeffreys of the University of Leicester in the UK found and introduced DNA-based identity testing.1

DNA is deoxynucleaic acid, the hereditary material in the nucleus of the human cell, according to the Department of Health and Human Services.

DNA analysis…. [read more]

Living Things Are Characterized Term Paper

… 37) Biotechnology has provided scientists with new means to understand the complexity of protein functions. Molecular cloning, an important tool in biotechnology, has vastly improved the prospects of understanding individual proteins and their functions. Microarray technology is another tool, which allows the study of a group of genes in combination. Similarly, Antisense and RNA interference (gene blocking) and gene knockouts (induced mutations) are important biotech methods that aid our understanding of the complex genetic machinery.

38) Biotechnology is a diverse field and hence the application areas are ever extending. The most prominent application is in the field of medicine. Synthesis of human insulin for example is considered a remarkable breakthrough and a blessing in disguise for diabetic patients. Similarly Genetically modified food products are saving…. [read more]

Cell Biology for Knockout Mice Experiments With Diabetes Term Paper

… Cell Biology for Knockout Mice Experiments With Diabetes

Genetic engineering holds some real promise for curing the diseases that afflict mankind and for extending human lives. To further these genetic investigations, scientists use knockout mice in an effort to determine what a gene normally does by observing the effects of its functional elimination. These knockout mice experiments have already provided scientists with some new insights into the etiologies of many diseases and these genetic engineering techniques hold true promise for the future. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to determine the mechanisms and techniques of the knockout mice experiments, including how they are performed and how they affect the mice at the cellular level in terms of cell structure…. [read more]

Personality: Permanent? Term Paper

… Both causes play the same role controlling people's loathsome behavior.

The therapy includes giving space to the subject to openness of experience, reducing tension of threatening environment and fearsome force, or even introducing gradual learning process in a comfort zone where the subject feels safe to express him/herself.

There is an extra note; Azar also gives an interesting part in the article that both influences on certain traits "change as people age." Basically, two persons are not going to react on an experience the same way since they have different chemistry in each individual. Experiences may be influenced by individual presumption, so that people may "choose certain experiences because they fit best with our innate preferences."

She explains, genetic factor may give the fundamental of…. [read more]

Cloning Benefits Term Paper

… ¶ … Cloning

History and Background of Cloning.

Possible Negative Consequences and their Consequences.

Alternative Solutions.

Rebuttals of Opponents.


An Analysis of the Potential Benefits of Cloning

The ongoing heated debates concerning the ethical aspects of using human stem-cells, a therapeutic form of cloning, to advance medicine highlight the need for better oversight of science when real people are involved. In reality, though, stem-cells appear positively benign when compared with the potential benefits - and risks some critics say -- to be realized through the cloning of animals and possibly humans. The vivid scenes portrayed in the "Jurassic Park" movies, though, are intended to entertain and shock rather than educate, and many observers may come away from these motion pictures with a skewed perception…. [read more]

Jungsik Yoo at Times Admission Essay

… I have concluded that the hands-on clinical experience only provided by a medical school education is necessary for me to fulfill the essential experiential element that is crucial to my future desired knowledge base and scope of research. Only medical school will provide me with critical experience that will give my research the desired added practical and human value.

At the end of my education, I hope to become a research doctor who combines clinical research in his study of genetic diseases. I seek to provide the science of genetics with a human face for it is, ultimately, the study of the human body, mind, and 'wiring' in the form of the human genetic code. I been the recipient of a 'Sensory Neuroscience Training Grant…. [read more]

Women Living in Western Society Research Proposal

… Protein Structure

Rb was identified as a tumor suppressor gene because of its frequent mutation in the rare pediatric eye tumor, retinoblastoma (16). Rb encodes a protein of 928 amino acids and three domains (Figure 2)

(16). Domains A and B. are highly conserved and form the central pocket which is critical to the tumor suppressor function of Rbp (17). A common motif, LXCXE, occurs in many proteins that bind to the AB

pocket. (17). The carboxyl terminal region of Rbp has the ability to bind DNA non-specifically and is also involved in an apoptotic pathway (4). The amino-terminal region contains consensus cdk phosphorylation sites, which are important in cell cycle control (16)(Figure 3).

The Role of Rbp in Cell Proliferation

Rbp functions in the…. [read more]

DNA Technology in Law Term Paper

… Ongoing research is unlocking the biological mechanisms by which a comparatively small number of genes regulated by complex protein synthesis and enzymatic actions accounts for the profound differences between human beings and fruit flies, whose genome sequence is approximately two thirds as large as ours (13)

Within a few decades, scientists will have revolutionized medicine with a comprehensive understanding of all genetic diseases and the ability to prevent them at the genetic level, rather than treat them at the macroscopic level. Before the middle of this century, it will quite literally, be possible (if not common) to posses our personal genetic code engraved onto a CD. Many experts believe that we will conquer all forms of cancer during this time as well as all genetic…. [read more]

Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Term Paper

… An individual nature is the vehicle by which one expresses his/her values and emotions to others (Coon & Mitterer, 2008). The human brain processes the four major biochemicals in different manner, and this mixture determines ones nature and personality. The chemical behavioral foundations comprise of hormones and neurotransmitters, which play a major role in interaction and nervous system's cells stimulation.


Neurotransmitters are efficiently the messengers of the brain and they hold information from one brain cell to another. Neurons are sensitive to various types of neurotransmitters and have receptors. Neurons that are sensitive to certain neurotransmitters tend to cluster together forming circuits in the brain that assist the spread of information (Coon & Mitterer, 2008). Neurotransmitters; norepinephrine and epinerphrine, are crucial portion of the…. [read more]

Human Genome Project Essay

… d., p. 33), almost all diseases have at least some genetic component. Even environmentally caused diseases such as AIDS have genetic components that predispose some human beings to greater morbidity and mortality relating to the condition.

The HGP has been particularly useful in terms of rare genetic diseases. For example, individual single genes have been identified that might contribute to rare genetic conditions without single-handedly causing them. Green has implied that work over the next 15 years will identify the major contributing genes for many common diseases. Genetic contributions to complex diseases will also be identified by whole genome association studies.

According to Carroll and Ciaffa, there are two general categories that may be used to organize the ethical implications of the Human Genome Project:…. [read more]

Do the Dangers of Genetic Engineering as Applied to Humans Outweigh Its Benefits? Term Paper

… Genetic engineering (GE) has been presented to the public as a way to improve the quality of our lives, enhance agriculture and advance our ability to fight genetic illnesses. The possibilities seem endless, but raise worries as well as optimism (Fricker, 2002). The Human Genome Project, conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services, undertook the task of mapping all human genes their chromosomes (Morse, 1998). This project contributed greatly to the potential for GE in humans, but in fact GE has already been used in agriculture. However, some biologists point out that we call "genetic engineering" has been accomplished for centuries via cross-breeding, and that GE is just a new way of accomplishing something already done in…. [read more]

Start Off With an Introductory Term Paper

… ¶ … start off with an introductory section defining as to what is meant by cloning, background information on cloning, and its relevance to the field of business, timeline and history of cloning and the different types of cloning and how they work. Till the recent past, there was no significant ethical, social or legal debate about human cloning, but the emergence of Dolly revolutionized the entire environment. The U.S. Government has categorically stated that it is not going to spend the funds of tax payers towards research and performance of human cloning. Cloning will therefore become a private enterprise and it is expected to have a very high competition among the various companies. The lawmakers all over the country are struggling to find out…. [read more]

Genomes and Comparative Genomics Term Paper

… These specific genes which find expression in one species while remaining passive in another are responsible for the traits pertaining to the particular species. It would also give us an idea of the effect of the structural differences between the genes in the different species.

Homology of sequences

Homology is an important concept in studying genome sequences. Detection of homologous sequences is the essence of sequence analysis. Similarities in sequences or structures may either be the result of divergent or convergent trends. Homology is actually a measure of divergence between species, which shared a common origin. So a homology actually indicates the degree of divergent relationship. Homology study also helps us infer gene functionality. Within the homologous sequences proteins may either carry out the same…. [read more]

Mitosis vs. Meiosis Term Paper

… Because't is an X-linked trait, t will be expressed, so the phenotype is 4/4 t.


A heterozygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

The genotypes for the offspring are shown below:

t T

- t tt

- T Tt

Result is 1/4 tt, 2/4 Tt and 1/4 TT genotypes.

Result is 1/4 T. phenotype (TT) and 3/4 t phenotypes (tt, Tt).


A heterosygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

A homozygous recessive has a pair of nonidentical alleles tt.

A heterozygous has a pair of nonidentical alleles, Tt.

The genotypes for the offspring are shown below:

T t

- t Tt

- t tT

Result is 2/4 tt and 2/4 Tt genotypes.

Result is 4/4 t phenotypes.

3. Hierarchical Plan for…. [read more]

Genetic Screening Term Paper

… In forensic testing, individuals are screened in order to determine a genetic link between suspects and evidence that comes from police investigations. Results of these tests are admissible in courts, and have been used to conclusively establish guilt or innocence (McCarrick).

Susceptibility testing is used to help identify individuals that are the most at risk (or susceptible) to certain disorders. For example, workers can be screened for susceptibility to toxic substances in the workplace that can cause specific disorders. It is estimated that about 390,000 susceptible workers are disabled by occupational illnesses each year, while many of their non-susceptible co-workers are unaffected (McCarrick).

Common Misconceptions

Within the general public, genetic screening is often seen as a "magical" way to predict, and somehow prevent, disease. Notes…. [read more]

Cloning Creating Controversy Among Scientists Term Paper

… All cloning presents an ethical problem. Why, with two options in front of us -- one that we knew would definitely lead to problems, and one that we know would definitely not lead to problems -- would we choose the option that definitely lead to problems? It would be illogical.

Works Cited

Best, Megan. "Human Cloning Is Unethical." Opposing Viewpoints: Genetic Engineering. Ed.

Louise I. Gerdes. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource

Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Blackwelder, Brent. "Human Cloning Represents a Lack of Respect for Nature." At Issue: The

Ethics of Human Cloning. Ed. John Woodward. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005.

Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Fitzgerald, Kevin…. [read more]

How Does Genes Affect the Way We Look and Act? Thesis

… Genes

The last two decades have brought an amazing amount of gene research to the forefront of the scientific world. The possibilities presented by such research are complex, yet exciting to ponder. Scientists can now manipulate genes in manners previously unthinkable, yet with the discovery of DNA and how genes affect humans, animals, and the world in which they interact comes a very large degree of responsibility. While genes can be used as forecasters of future pathways, it is also true that man can manipulate the genes, bringing changes to those future events as well as to how each human looks and grows. Such manipulations can have direct and dire effects on individuals, and on the local and worldwide communities in which we live.

For…. [read more]

Nf-Kb Akirin Term Paper

… NF-kB: Akirin

NF-kB Akirin: A "Novel Nuclear Factor"

Statement of Topic Significance

Genetic engineering and experimentation hold enormous promise for eradicating many of the diseases that currently plague mankind, and researchers may even be able extend the human lifespan to unprecedented levels in the future. More importantly, perhaps, ongoing research into the human innate immune systems also suggests that such increased lifespans will be healthier and devoid of many of the physical and cognitive problems that currently go hand in hand with the aging process. In the tradition of "standing on the shoulders of giants," scientists today continue to expanding the ever-growing body of knowledge using newly discovered methods and tools that promise to yield these important research outcomes and one such tool has been…. [read more]

Biofuels to Dissect Locust Guts to Culture Dissertation

… Biofuels

To dissect locust guts

To culture anaerobic microorganisms (bacteria) from locust guts on cellulose

containing media and screen for microbes with Cellulolytic activity.

To extract DNA from Cellulolytic microorganisms

To do PCR of 16s rDNA to identify the bacteria.

To clone and sequence PCR product.

The study discusses the aims and objective to enhance greater understanding on the strategy the locust gusts could be used to produce cost effective and clean biofuels for energy use.

Locusts are the species specially found in desert, and they are short-homed grasshoppers that could form the mobile swarms, which could be spread to the 20% of the landmass. Typically, the swarm could comprise of 30 million locusts and could travel at 80 miles per day. Locust swarm has…. [read more]

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