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Drug Usage Term Paper

… Drug Usage

The use drugs to affect conscious states dates back almost to the origins of humanity. In fact, the pollen of eight medicinal plants was found in a 60,000-year-old tomb in Iraq, and in the Assurbanipal library, researchers found lists of medicinal plants inscribed on tablets (Changeux 1998). Shamans and other mystical and spiritual teachers have long used substances such as opiates, to induce trance-like states in order to communicate with spirits and deities in the 'other' worlds (Changeux 1998). Moreover, both the Old and New Testaments repeatedly refer to the use of wine, from Noah's and Lot's alcoholic stupors to the wedding at Cana and the Last Supper (Changeux 1998). It seems that drugs, whether alcohol or hallucinogenic drugs such as peyote and…. [read more]

Drug Use and Addiction Term Paper

… Drug Use and Addiction

Extensive work and research has been done in an effort to understand the impetus for drug use and addiction amongst adults, children and adolescents. Thus far, the extensive body of research has proven that, at best, drug addiction is an individual affliction at the heart of which a multitude of social, familial, and physical reasons as to why people use drugs, abuse them, and become addicted to drugs. Many researchers have concluded that the choice or compulsion driving an individual's drug use, abuse and subsequent addiction are rooted in history of the individual's family dynamics, especially his or her early formative years (Nurco, D.N., Blatchley, R.J., Hanlon, T.E., O'Grady, K.E., and McCarren, M., 1998, p. 37). While some researchers stop at…. [read more]

Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription Term Paper

… g., social class, ethnic and religious influences, neighborhood values); family and peer (e.g., personalities and interaction patterns of parents and peers, child-rearing patterns, peer socialization, and parental/peer modeling of alcohol use); and intra-individual (e.g., genetic predispositions, cognitive and personality variables) (Morrison, et al. 2007). Drinking is seen as influenced directly only by intra-individual factors. These in turn are influenced by the social variables (directly through intimate groups and both indirectly and directly by the sociocultural and community environment). Conversely, drinking behavior is expected to influence intra-individual attributes, which will in turn influence other domains.

When considering a model for adolescent substance abuse, it is important to incorporate differential effects of factors in relation to the developmental stage of the adolescent. The relative contribution of factors…. [read more]

Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse Essay

… For example, genes are a known cause of chemical dependency in certain individuals. "For both alcohol dependence and drug dependence, considerable evidence suggests that genetic factors influence the risk of these disorders, with heritability estimates of 50% and higher. Moreover, twin studies and studies of electrophysiological characteristics indicate that the risk of developing AOD [alcohol and other drugs] dependence… is determined at least in part by shared genetic factors" (Dick & Agrawai, 2008, p.116). Thus the researchers were able to conclude that in part, the likelihood of a person becoming addicted to drugs will partly be due to external factors and partly due to genetic factors (up to 50%) (Dick & Agrawi, 2008).


Given the wide-reaching and invasively negative impacts on the individual and…. [read more]

Elderly Drug and Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

… Elderly Substance Abuse

Stereotypes of elderly people include the crotchety grandfather, the kindly grandmother or a gentle older person who tells stories of years gone by. The elderly are associated with concepts such as infirmity, illness and wisdom. Furthermore, as baby boomers retire, the "post-60" years are being seen as times of continued activity and productivity. More advances are therefore being made to address the diseases that previously plagued those in the post-retirement years.

Not enough attention, however, has been given to a serious problem that is plaguing a growing segment of the elderly population today - substance abuse.

This paper examines the extent of substance abuse in the elderly. The first part of this paper looks at the extent and symptoms of alcohol abuse…. [read more]

Common Substances of Abuse Research Paper

… Substance Abuse and Dependency

Discuss the social effects of psychoactive substance use and abuse. What are some risk factors for first experimenting with alcohol and drugs? What are some intervention strategies?

The article by Grinsteinner (2006) highlights the permeation of alcohol in teen culture. For many teens, consuming alcohol is something of a rite of passage. This denotes that social dimensions play a great role in the decision to begin drinking. Indeed, while tobacco and marijuana use are observable among teens, the social effects of alcohol in particular are considerable. Grinsteinner relays that "according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, roughly 10.8 million underage persons ages 12 to 20 (28.7%) reported current alcohol use. Of these underage drinkers, 4.4 million were ages…. [read more]

Genetics Addiction Term Paper

… Furthermore, genetic markers for addiction do not necessitate that an individual will develop a substance abuse problem. Coping skills account for the remainder of the factors, other than genes, that create impetus to use drugs. Research on the genetic components of addiction can also lead to the development of pharmaceuticals that address the underlying genetic factors that predispose someone to addiction. For instance, research in mice has revealed that serotonin receptor gene Htr1b is lacking in subjects that are more attracted to cocaine and alcohol ("Genes and Addiction," n.d.). Research has revealed other DNA sequences that point to specific tendencies toward, or aversion to, specific drugs.

Care must be taken when assuming that addiction predicts behavior in future generations. Exposure to drugs, societal pressure, stressors,…. [read more]

Genetics and Drug Abuse Essay

… " (Volkow, nd, p. 1) Because of the chronic nature of the disease, relapse to abuse of the individual's drug of choice is considered to be "not only possible but likely, with relapse rates similar to those for other well-characterized chronic medical illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma." (Volkow, nd, p.1) Treatment involves the change of behaviors that are deeply embedded therefore relapse "should not be considered failure but rather indicate that treatment needs to be reinstated or adjusted, or that alternate treatment is needed." (Volkow, nd, p. 1) However, the individual who is addicted must also do their part and "take responsibility to get treatment and actively participate in it." (Volkow, nd, p. 1) Ethnicity is also reported to play a great role…. [read more]

Inhalants and Deviant Behaviors Research Paper

… Because of the wide ranging and heavy consequences of inhalant use and related stigmas, researchers from the interactionist tradition formulated a range of policy alternatives that would result to the reduction of social death that accompanies the formal penalization and labeling of substance users. Reintegrating shaming programs and restoration of justice. These programs seek to reduce the long lasting implications caused by stigma. Labeling theorists believe the harshness of the formal reaction to deviance would lead to the reduction of the lasting impacts of stigma on deviant offenders. Consistent implementation of this idea would lead to the elimination of compulsory minimums for felony disenfranchisement, drug offenses, and three-strike felony laws (Dick & Bierut, 2006).

In conclusion, we see that inhalants are the ordinary household products…. [read more]

Should Drug Addiction Be Considered a Disease Term Paper


The objective of this work is to state an argument as to whether drug-addiction should be considered a disease. For the purpose of this work, it will be argued that drug addiction should be considered a disease.

The work of Alan I. Leshner, Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse - National Institute of Health states that it is all too common that the individual who first experiments with addictive drugs such as cocaine with the intention of trying it only once "enjoys the drug's euphoric effect so much that in ensuing weeks and months he uses it again - and again. But in due time, he decides he really should quit. He knows that despite…. [read more]

Effects of Drugs and Alcohol on the Individual and Damages They Cause Research Paper

… Substance Abuse and Society

Substance abuse represents one of the most pervasive problems in the United States. It is a problem that affects all levels and segments of the society. In terms of their effects on individuals and on society, all forms of substance abuse, whether it is alcohol or drugs has a similar affect on society and on the lives of individuals. It is difficult to separate the affects of various forms of substance abuse. This research will explore the harmful effects of substance abuse on the individual, their families, their relationships outside of the family and on society as a whole.

The reasons why a person engages in substance are as varied as the individuals themselves. Many do it in response to peer…. [read more]

Genetic Influence of MDMA Neurotoxicity Essay

… Yet, the ingestion of MDMA in poor metabolizers results in sustained high levels in blood, tissues, and serotonergic neurons. Given the slow recovery of CYP2D6 activity in the liver after MDMA ingestion, which can take up to 10 days to return to basal levels (Yang et al., 2006, p. 846), poor metabolizers would be particularly susceptible to experiencing sustained catecholamine release and reduced SERT activity. In individuals who also carry the met/met genotype for COMT, the potential for neurotoxic effects seems very plausible given the added effects of increased levels of catechol reactive oxygen species.

Given the finding from these studies, it seems unlikely that MDMA will ever be prescribed for use in the general population without a better understanding of the mechanisms that contribute…. [read more]

Substance Abuse and Depression Case Study

… This is particularly true of persons without adequate access to mental health care, as appears to be the case with Cassandra's family. "People with depression and anxiety disorders often self-medicate by drinking, which can make things worse" (Depression and anxiety facts, treatment and prevention, 2013, UHC). Although it may seem odd to think of violent people as 'depressed,' this is, in fact, a very common way for depression to manifest itself in males, particularly males from cultures such as Cassandra's which seem to place a high degree of value on machismo. Women, in contrast, are more likely to act violently against themselves when depressed.

Cassandra does not show signs of substance abuse although she does appear to be suffering from what might be called 'battered…. [read more]

Alcohol Consumption and Symptoms Literature Review

… ¶ … Alcohol Consumption and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression

Depression and anxiety are related to cognitive as well as psychological impairments. Both these disorders not only affect the life of the ones suffering from it, but also that of the people in the surrounding. Similarly, alcoholism is also another multifaceted social and health concern. It has been well-documented that alcohol abuse has inflicted every part of the world with problems ranging from relationship, health and social problems (Newlin, 2010). The roots of alcohol consumption can be dated back to the times human history originated. There exist numerous ancient literatures and scriptures that indicate the use of alcohol as medicinal compound (Liu, 2011). However, alcoholism has passed down from generation to generation as a social…. [read more]

Personality Disorders Schizotypal and Antisocial Term Paper

… ¶ … Personality Disorders Schizotypal and Antisocial

According to the National Institutes of health Schizotypal is a psychiatric condition. This condition is typified by a pattern of deficits as it relates to interpersonal relationships ("Schizotypal personality disorder"). The personality disorder is also characterized by instability in behavior thought patterns, and appearance. The cause of this particular disorder is unknown but researchers believe that the development of the disorder is linked to genetics. This link has been made because some studies have found that relatives of schizophrenics are more likely to develop the disorder ("Schizotypal personality disorder"). The NIH also points out that Schizotypal is not the same disorder as schizophrenia ("Schizotypal personality disorder"). Although it is true that people with Schizotypal have unusual behaviors and…. [read more]

Substance Abuse Article

… Substance Abuse Support Group

Substance abuse is a problem that has plagued humankind since man discovered that some substances can alter body chemistry. Various different types of groups have been utilized to try to treat substance abuse, with varying levels of success. The most commonly used groups to treat addiction are support groups, behavioral/cognitive groups, and 12-step programs. Cognitive and behavior therapy can include things like learning to talk about experiences, learning non-drug management skills, identifying problematic behavior, recognizing cravings, establishing methods to deal with cravings (Genetic Science Learning Center, 2011). However, behavioral-cognitive therapy is not generally successful all on its own. Addiction is a notoriously treatment-resistant condition. While almost all treatment programs have some rate of success, treatment success rates for all substance abuse…. [read more]

Theories and Models of Addiction Substance Abuse Essay

… Psychology

Theories and Models of Addiction/Substance Abuse

A lot of people do not know why or how people become addicted to drugs. It is sometimes implicit that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop utilizing drugs merely by choosing to alter their behavior. Some people believe that drug addiction is a multifaceted illness, and quitting takes more than good objectives. These people believe that drugs alter the brain in manners that promote compulsive drug abuse, and quitting is difficult, even for those who are ready to do so. Because of scientific advances, more is known about how drugs work in the brain than ever before. It is also known that drug addiction can be effectively treated to help people to…. [read more]

Alcohol Abuse Is a Condition Essay

… As stated above the prognosis for this case is good given the information that we have. The patient should be amenable to education and should be motivated to change; however, if we find that we are faced with a frank dependence syndrome and encounter resistance we can alter the format our plan slightly and be more firm in our education and recommendations. The goal is to work with the patient's needs (better health, need to contribute and learn) and her capabilities (intelligence and desire to improve) in order to assist her to make a healthy lifestyle choice. Successful treatment in helping patients reduce behaviors that can lead to complications with health often involves a gentle combination of education and direction (Heyman, 1996). An approach that…. [read more]

Alcohol Abusing Adolescent Research Proposal

… Alcoholism Case Study

Behavioral Description of the Patient:

Glenn is a 17-year-old high school senior who is generally popular among his peers. His parents are divorced and Glenn has been in his mother's care since he was

years old. Both of Glenn's parents drink socially but his father has exhibited tendencies toward alcoholism; Glenn's mother also sometimes drinks alone to combat depression but does so secretively because of the stigma associated with alcoholism and her social reputation that has always been very important to her. Glenn began drinking socially approximately one year ago but has since increased his drinking, partly as a function of peer pressure and partly as a learned response to cope with conflict in the home arising in connection with a contentious…. [read more]

Cloning Our Group Is a Morally Committed Term Paper

… Cloning

Our group is a morally committed organization that has had many successes in preventing various actions and activities when those activities raise moral objections. Among these would be our efforts to lobby for increased recognition of family rights so parents would have to be notified before an underage girl could get certain medical procedures, worked to prevent discrimination against people on the basis of religion in government actions, and work for tighter controls on abortions, though success in this last area has been difficult to achieve. More recently, we are committed to preventing human cloning and to protecting the integrity of human life by banning this dangerous procedure, which also challenges various moral prescriptions and takes the world down a wrong path. The cloning…. [read more]

Pre-Natal Development Research Paper

… Prenatal development involves not only the physiologic processes which occur to produce life, it also requires an understanding of the various influences that shape the developing life and the consequences those influences have the potential to bear. The issue of nature vs. nurture is brought to bear in prenatal development. With a focus on the inherent 'tabula rasa' character of the nature side, as influenced by the outside environmental factors that can impact the fetus, it becomes clear that prenatal development is a stochastic process. Items that must be considered are the behaviors of the mother, the environment in which she lives, prenatal care, and other external factors like the food, air, and water that the mother intakes. Prenatal development is a process that is…. [read more]

Nature Verses Nurture One of the Arguments Term Paper

… Nature Verses Nurture

One of the arguments that have now been raised by the discovery of genes is the question whether our behavior in future life is determined by the genes that we are born with, or the way that we are brought up with. This can be summed up as "Nature vs. Nurture" which is also the title of a book by Matt Ridley - "Nature via Nurture: Genes, Experience and What Makes Us Human." (We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science)

We all start as humans and even our shape as humans have changed over the last 5000 years as evidenced by findings of old civilizations, then how can one assume that the shape or genes are…. [read more]

Alcoholism Research Paper

… Alcoholism

Alcohol has long been known as an enormous social problem and health problem, and according to statistical data, there are more than 12 million alcoholics in the United States. Alcohol is the number one drug problem in the U.S. And an estimated three quarters of all adults consume alcohol at some level, and 6% of those are alcoholics (Mogul, Google Feedback, 2011). Moreover, more than thirty percent of Americans have had problems due to their consumption of alcohol; in a survey conducted by the journal General Psychiatry, 17.8% indicate they abuse alcohol and 12.5% believe they are alcohol dependent (Reinberg, 2007). This paper delves into the issue of alcoholism, the ramifications of those caught in the addiction, what remedies there may be and other…. [read more]

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments Term Paper

… " (Zoccolillo et al., 1999) Thus, the AAOD student is at a clear disadvantage in terms of successfully completing a high-school diploma and moving on to a career-oriented post-secondary education.

Additionally, high school is generally also a milieu in which the adolescent learns other non-academic life skills, including mature means of relating to peers and supervisors, responsible treatment of deadlines and priorities, and the perspective-broadening value of sports and other extracurricular interests.

Absenteeism limits the opportunities for acquiring such skills, and even while attending, the AAOD student in all likelihood will not maximize the chance to participate in meaningful relationships and activities. Playing sports while drunk or stoned, or both, obviously also risks serious injury for the student and his or her teammates.

At its…. [read more]

Addiction in Nursing Both Alcohol Essay

… Once a nurse has been identified as having an addiction problem, many states have developed rehabilitation programs geared to help nurses recover from their addiction. Many of these programs allow nurses to participate in the program, without the lose of their license to practice. These programs, with the approval of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, have guidelines that allow them to be used an alternative to discipline. These guidelines were developed a decade ago. With these programs, according to Larson (2008), the nurses can keep their licenses, after specific rehabilitation criteria have been met.

Massachusetts, as Larson (2008) notes, was one of the first states to develop a substance abuse rehabilitation program, for nurses. This program was developed more than two decades…. [read more]

African American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse and the Criminal Justice System Term Paper

… African-American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse and the Criminal Justice System

The purpose of this work is to research and examine the correlation between substance abuse among African-American males and the criminal justice system through conducting a literature review. Further two theoretical models that apply to African-American males will be reviewed.

There appears to be some correlation between substance abuse among African-American males and their representation in the criminal justice system. The following literature review will show that African-American males are greatly overrepresented in the statistical data of the criminal justice system.

In a study conducted for the purpose of gathering data for dissemination of characteristics of those enrolled in drug courts in connect with the criminal justice system the drug courts admit…. [read more]

Alcohol and Alcoholism by Definition Thesis

… Alcohol and Alcoholism

By definition, alcohol "is a legal depressant... obtained by the fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast or distillation. There are many different types of alcohol, but ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is the type that is generally used to make alcoholic beverages," such as wine, beer and whiskey ("Alcohol," Internet). In chemistry terms, alcohol, in this instance ethyl alcohol, is a compound "derived from a hydrocarbon by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with an equal number of hydroxyl radicals" and is classified as either monohydric, dihydric or trihydric (Glanze, 2003, p. 39). It should be pointed out that most alcoholic beverages like wine and beer usually contain less than 15% alcohol, while beverages like whiskey, gin and vodka generally contain more than 40% alcohol.…. [read more]

Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Effect (Fae) Term Paper

… ¶ … diagnosis of fetal alcohol effect (FAE) and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).

Fetal alcohol system is a preventable cause of birth defects and physical and mental disabilities, which results from a mother's heavy consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. But no level of alcohol consumption is safe during pregnancy, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Mothers who drink even small portions of alcohol during pregnancy can have babies afflicted with fetal alcohol effect. While children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome often exhibit "abnormal" facial feature and obvious physical and mental growth deficiencies (Fetal Alcohol), those diagnosed with fetal alcohol effect often suffer from milder, but similar, ailments. According to the Centers for Disease Control, effects of fetal alcohol system include central nervous system deficiencies,…. [read more]

Physiological Effects of Alcoholism Term Paper

… ¶ … physiological and biological effects of alcoholism on the mind and body of a drinker, in light of medical and factual details. It explains the various health perils susceptible to various organs of the body such as brain, liver and pancreas caused by hard drinking. Detailed analysis with regard to genetics and brain damage at cellular level is discussed addressing the effects of dopamine on the accumbrance. Lastly, alcohol recovery through different chemical detoxification approaches is considered in view of their effectiveness.


Alcoholism is a social vice of enormous gait imputing, $13.5 million per annum in direct treatment costs and $116.7 billion per annum of total costs, in the U.S. (Frey, 1991). 7% of American adults, numbering to a size…. [read more]

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