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Globalization of Labor China Sweatshops Term Paper

… ¶ … labor in China as it pertains to sweatshops and unions. The writer explores what sweatshops are, why they still exist in that nation and what the American labor movement is doing to try and stop them. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

GLOBALIZATION OF LABOR CHINA SWEATSHOPS

As the world continues to globalize what was previously kept hidden away as secrets now becomes visible. This has been an eye opener in the area of labor as workers worldwide begin to compare notes and decide if their treatment matches the treatment of those in other nations. China has always been known for its "sweatshop" labor mentality and recent years have only served to uncover the true extent of that mentality. Workers…. [read more]


Sweatshops in Third World Term Paper

… A few of the abuses include obligatory overtime, physical violence, union busting and pregnancy tests as a condition for employment (Perrin Pp). It is said that the Taiwanese firms are following in the footsteps of many U.S. owned maquiladoras, which also take advantage of low wages, tax breaks and lax government enforcement of labor and environmental laws, however, U.S. factories tend to be less abusive because they are under constant scrutiny by non-governmental organizations and liberal politicians at home (Perrin Pp). Interestingly, in Taiwan there is little public awareness of the problem (Perrin Pp).

Within recent years, the U.S. anti-sweatshop movement has brought global attention to Nien Hsing Textile Company, the world's largest manufacturer of blue jeans (Perrin Pp). "The Taipei company has enjoyed spiraling…. [read more]


Globalization Refers to How Local Processes Essay

… Globalization refers to how local processes are increasingly becoming part of the greater world, and is usually used to describe economic aspects of these processes. Globalization has largely been a post World-War II phenomenon, enabled by the creation of the United Nations and its role as international policeman as much as by the technological advances that have made global business a real possibility. Because globalization has the potential to expose people to things from around the world, it has the potential to impact many aspects of local life, including financial markets, local economies, industry, politics, language, access to information, education, environment, culture, technology, social aspect, legal systems, and the development of ethics. As such, globalization has the power to be a tremendously positive practice, but…. [read more]


Globalization of the Fashion Industry Essay

… Fragmentation of the Fashion Industry Due to Globalization:

Amighinia and Rabelotti (2004) describe international fragmentation of production process as "the splitting of the production cycle over production sites located in different countries, as a cost-reducing strategy" (485). This is one of the most pervasive effects of globalization, as well as one of the most disruptive effects. Fragmentation, in general, allows fashion manufacturers to take advantage of lower prices in other countries. They then obtain reduced costs by this international production network. Increasing competition is serving as a further catalyst for massive fragmentation of these processes, as they outsource low value-added functions.

Amighinia and Rabellotti's (2004) study of Italian footwear suggested that as these organizations enter global fashion production networks, they lose control over critical business…. [read more]


Globalization and the Impacts in the Politics of Authority Essay

… Globalization and the Impacts in the Politics of Authority

Does globalization impact in triggering recent economic recession?

The current financial crisis will be remembered as one of the most serious in the history of world capitalism. The increasing difficulty experienced by the financial authorities of the major economies and by international financial bodies in limiting the most devastating effects of events on the world economy makes it difficult, in turn, to handle banking and financial crises. The current institutional composition of the markets, the deregulated nature of those markets and the vast liquid assets in private hands have even placed limits on concerned action by national governments. This does not allow anticipating stabilization, but, on the contrary, it might be alleged that episodes of large…. [read more]


Labor Issues Around the World Child Term Paper

… Labor Issues Around the World

Child labor is one of the worst social problems that exist in modern society (Yan, 2002). The term child labor brings images of exploited and uncared children. In the many areas that child labor exists, Indonesia is one that has an especially large percentage of children working at a young age. Government statistics reveal that 2.08 million children between the ages of 10-14 works in Indonesia are employed at dangerous places. Among these children, half work full time. The amount of work and hours these children have are the same as adults. Many children work under hazardous conditions as scavengers, garbage pickers and fishing platforms. For obvious reasons, this is one of the greatest labor issues faced by the country.…. [read more]


Nike in Today's Increased Globalization Term Paper

… Nike

In today's increased globalization, one must understand the fact that it has become increasingly difficult for a global manager to manage his operations perfectly. The manager would need to perform many more activities, including facing the operational and strategic challenges that his business throws at him, much more than he would have done in previous years. He would also have to be knowledgeable in the several different aspects of risk management, so that his company would perform at its optimum best, with no constraints. (Frenkel; Hommel; Rudolf; Dufey, 2005) in today's working environment, there are several different types of global specialists: business managers, country managers and functional managers. Today, a company does have to be much more effective and ready to face the multiple…. [read more]


Global Commerce and Human Rights Term Paper

… Globalization

Corporate Responsibility in a Global Marketplace

When it comes to basic human rights, what role should corporations play in the new global marketplace? Certainly companies have an economic and marketing role to fulfill in terms of satisfying stakeholders' investments - but moreover, do they have an ethical obligation to the people whom they employ to produce products and the communities in which they operate? The answer to the first question will be fully addressed in the content of this paper. The answer to the second question is an emphatic "yes."

Corporations with a global reach should be accountable for all their actions, including the health and welfare of their employees and of those living in the communities in which companies operate. Today, numerous corporations…. [read more]


In Defense of Globalization Term Paper

… ¶ … Defense of Globalization

This present age has been described as the Era of Globalization. It has replaced the Roaring 20s, the Cold War and the Space Age (Porter 2005) and vastly differs from previous ages in many ways. Today, people the world over are more connected than at any other period in history. Communication and money move more rapidly. Products and services are turned out by one part of the world and become increasingly more available to other parts. International travel has also become more frequent and made the world appear small. Globalization has its own political, economic and cultural characteristics and forces, which allow businesses to operate as if there were no national boundaries, also allow social activists, labor organizations, journalists, teachers…. [read more]


International Sweatshops Term Paper

… ¶ … Business ethics [...] issue of international sweatshops, particularly in China. It will also look at how to control or eliminate these sweatshops. International sweatshops exist all over the world, and some of the largest and most well-known American manufacturers, such as Nike and Reebok, exploit workers in these foreign sweatshops. Are sweatshops appropriate, and what are the appropriate wages for international workers? These are difficult questions, but corporations much answer them, and set boundaries for their workers, both in America and overseas, to protect their image and reputation, while protecting their workers, as well. Corporations must use market wage standards for their international employees, and they must create good working environments.

It is difficult to believe that sweatshops still exist in the 21st…. [read more]


Unions and Outsourcing Term Paper

… The companies that outsource to these countries will often state that they are not breaking any laws. That is technically true, because there is no law against outsourcing, and specifically no law against outsourcing to a country like India that does not have unions or follow the same types of labor practices as the United States (Davies, 2004). The way the employees of these companies are treated in the countries to which the companies outsource would be illegal by U.S. standards, but those employees are not in the U.S., so the law cannot be applied that way (Davies, 2004).

Outsourcing is a way to get around the legalities of mistreatment for employees, who can be made to work overly long days for pennies, instead of…. [read more]


Economic Globalization Term Paper

… Economic globalization is regarded as an economic reform activity in reaction to the deterioration of the Fordist method of bulk production as well as consumption that was initiated during the latter part of the 1960s or during the early part of the 1970s. (Byster; Smith, 1999) at present manufacturing process is extensively spread all over the country as well as across the world, though once it was greatly centralized in the U.S. (Sassen-Koob, 1983) the garment industry, a significant manufacturing industry is usually considered to be a universal as also a footloose industry. The industry is more than hundred years old and its manufacture process has gone through numerous variations in the products it makes, technology being made use of, the presence of its clients…. [read more]


Globalization Term Paper

… It can invest in education and management in order to raise quality or it can provide cheap labor. As many of the states in question pick the last alternative, "the resulting costs of precarious employment fall particularly on women workers and their families" (Ibid.).

Another argument against the authors' ethical claims that is used by multinationals is also judged in terms of costs. According to these, almost anything that provides positive effects has some negative consequences that are generated more or less at the same time. In this case, outsourcing the sources of production is equivalent with creating several employment facilities, millions of jobs, in third world and developing countries. Surely, these may be underpaid and the working conditions may be bad, but they nevertheless…. [read more]


Starbucks Corporation Competing in a Global Market Term Paper

… Starbuck's Case Study

Briefly describe the history and evolution of Starbucks.

Seattle entrepreneurs Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegl, Gordon Bowker founded Starbucks in 1971, locating their coffee importing business in Seattle's Pike Place market. The founders were content to grow the coffee importer to five stores in the metro Seattle area, and were gradually becoming known in the coffee industry, and as a result of these associations met Howard Schultz, who would eventually buy the chain and transform its business model. Mr. Schultz was passionate about introducing retailing concepts he had originally discovered during a trip to Milan, Italy and immediately after coming back from Italy, launched what would become the prototypical Starbucks stores, combining meetings places with good ambience for friends catching up with each…. [read more]


International Perspectives and Issues Research Proposal

… International Perspectives and Issues

The article, "China's Computer Wasteland" by Benjamin Joffe-Walt, published in 2005 is an illustration of how developing countries assume an unfair share of the costs of globalization.

China produces computers for export mostly to more developed Western countries. After they are ready to be recycled, China gets billions of them back. Joffe-Walts describes a situation where e-waste sweatshops have "made poor mainland farming regions an ecological disaster area."

Sweatshops exact their toll mostly on poor immigrants who have to work in them. The average salary for sweatshop work is only $3 to $4 per day for men and about half that for women. This is a low amount for a job that requires breathing in toxins from burning rubbish which causes…. [read more]


Change This Study Analyzes Outsourcing Dissertation

… There are a number of forms of outsourcing. The important forms of outsourcing are information technology outsourcing (ITO), business process outsourcing (BPO) and human resources outsourcing (HRO). The concept of outsourcing reveals a number of research steams. The idea of outsourcing is still unchanged due to scientific diversity. Basically outsourcing and mainly offshore outsourcing are known as noticeable strategies (Harland et al., 2005; Jahns et al., 2006; see also Paju, 2007). Idea of outsourcing makes cause of discrepancy between the researcher and practitioner. Primarily, the scholars (Domberger, 1998; Kern et al., 2002; Ring and Van De Ven, 1992) observe that outsourcing is a development and natural continuation to Williamson's (1975, 1979, and 1981) researches and others who work on contract and the transaction cost economics.…. [read more]


Rapid Innovations in Technology Thesis

… For example, Hurrell and Woods emphasize that, "Within weak states globalization and widening inequality are eroding the capacity of governments to deal with an increasing set of social, economic, and political conflicts" (1999: 2). At the regional level, the inequalities being generated by globalization are creating instability and the further marginalization of the already impoverished (Blank 2007). At the global level, the implications of the inequalities being caused by globalization are even more severe. In this regard, Hurrell and Woods add that, "As globalization creates sharper and more urgent problems for states and international institutions, increasing inequality reduces their capacity to manage these problems effectively. In this context, it is unsurprising that the sense of unease about globalization has increased and that political and media…. [read more]


Mexico Regional Leader Research Paper

… Miguel Sahagun

Mexico: Regional Leader

It was over twenty years ago that Mexico began opening up its trade with the implementation of a number of unilateral policies and its accession to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1986. Since then it has been increasing its presence on international markets, and activities related to external trade have grown to the extent that they currently account for nearly two thirds of its GDP.

Bilateral, regional and multilateral negotiations have yielded preferential conditions for access to markets in goods and services over third countries. There is currently a network of twelve FTAs providing secure, preferential access to the markets of 44 countries, over one billion potential consumers and three-quarters of world GDP. There are also…. [read more]


Fashion and Identity Fashion, Culture, and Personal Essay

… Fashion and Identity

Fashion, Culture, and Personal Identity

Culture is a complex phenomenon. Any gathering of human beings develops its own culture given enough time; this can be observed on both macro and micro levels. In the study of history and art, scholars speak of Roman culture or Western culture as a way of referring to the broad and generalized values -- both moralistic and aesthetic -- that typify a given society in a certain period of history. On a smaller level, different localities have their own cultures that can be markedly different reflections of the dominant super-culture present in society at large -- the cultures of both San Diego, California and Bangor, Maine will in some ways reflect the larger United States and Western…. [read more]


Outsourcing Has Made Great Controversy Essay

… As such, "it's causing real pain to real people" (Reingold, 2004). Many companies are even going as far as to relocate foreign nationals in the United States, as another competitive move to help save costs and keep operation budgets as low as possible. With so many newly educated immigrants coming from countries like India, it is easy for many companies to replace older, and more expensive American workers even on their home soil (Reingold, 2004). Overall, it is clear that outsourcing is wrecking havoc on one of America's newest and most innovative industries, the tech industry. Here, the research posits that "The IT industry in the United States has gone from being a very high-level, well-paying industry to being very low-paying sweatshop labor, and that's…. [read more]


Fashion Trade Between US and Italy Term Paper

… International Trade

Economics: Trade between U.S. And Italy

The purpose of this paper is to examine the fashion trade between the United States and Italy. Further to discuss the economy, economic relations, labor, agriculture and foreign relations of Italy. Finally this work will explore the strengths, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages of exporting and importing textiles to and from each one the other.

Italy, located on a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea in Southern Europe is only slightly larger than Arizona. Italy does not have much in the way of natural resources and imports a great deal of its' food. The most important natural resources in Italy are its offshore natural gas reserve in the Po Valley and offshore Adriatic. Italy imports most of…. [read more]


Outsourcing Is an Inevitable Market Term Paper

… Would it have been right for us to have avoided computers because automation would have eliminated clerical and other routine office jobs? In fact computerization created a whole new pool of well-paid jobs. In the same vein, outsourcing has become an economic necessity and cannot be totally avoided because some people loose their jobs initially. Ultimately, the cost savings and improved operating efficiency pass on to the consumer. Outsourcing will bring more profitability, more investment and create better jobs in the local market. Employment figures in November 2004 stood at 138.6 million compared to 136.5 million in 2003, which sets aside employment related fears. [Alan Reynolds] Outsourcing is an inevitable market reality, however, adequate measures must be taken to support the displaced employees, and to…. [read more]


U.S. Has Not Signed Term Paper

… This is not the case, as the U.S. will always have the right to remove its support of the treaty.

The treaty protects children legally from many things that the U.S. laws already address. The U.S. should sign the treaty not so much to change or affect its treatment of children but to lend its support and voice for the change of treatment in some of the other nations. The treaty has already prompted legal changes in several countries regarding the mandates that are in the treaty. "The Philippines enacted laws shielding children from sexual exploitation. Sri Lanka raised the age of sexual consent from 12 to 16. India and South Africa have invoked the convention in court decisions involving the welfare of children. A…. [read more]


Double Standards in U.S. and U.S. Owned Industry Abroad Term Paper

… ¶ … double standard that the United States corporations condone when it comes to industry. The writer explores the standards that United States workers demand and are given in the workplace as compared to the substandard working conditions that United States companies provide foreign workers overseas. The writer then discusses the impact of this practice on society, environment and the labor standards in general. There were four sources used to complete this paper.

During recent years, workers in the United States have watched helplessly as U.S. corporations move their operations to other countries. While the corporations defend their actions with financial rhetoric the news media continues to uncover unsafe working conditions, environmental dumping and dirt poor wages for those foreign employees who were initially thrilled…. [read more]


Opinion About Offshoring Term Paper

… ¶ … offshoring by American companies. Specifically it will discuss whether offshoring helps or hurts the American economy, and why. Offshoring hurts the American economy for any number of reasons. It replaces good paying jobs with low-paying offshore jobs that do not add to the American economy. It downsizes American workers, creating fewer opportunities for many different industries, and it creates sweatshop like working conditions for many manufacturing workers. It is a poor business practice and should be much more regulated to ensure that American companies do not exploit foreign workers in the name of saving money.

Offshoring, also known as outsourcing, has influenced the American economy since the 1990s, when it first became widespread. It has removed jobs from American workers, created economic woes…. [read more]


Rise of East Asia Term Paper

… ¶ … rise of East Asia was one of the most significant events of the 14th century. With a culture that spans some three thousand years, the East Asian civilizations were at one time much more sophisticated than its western counterparts. The empire of China loomed large within the East Asian continent, dominating the largest empire on Earth during that time, while Japan's code of honor and warrior class created a society entrenched in a strong civic and moral code of conduct.

During the 14th century to the 17th century, East Asia was dominated by the presence of its two largest empires. China during this period was under the grips of the Ming Dynasty, the longest tenured dynasty in Chinese history. This was the epoch…. [read more]


HR Issues Thesis

… Human Resource Issues in Taiwan

The forces of globalization and market liberalization have opened new doors to economic prosperity for the American corporations. Large numbers of economic agents have found increased abilities to benefit from the comparative advantages of various global regions. The majority of the comparative advantages sought by the U.S. corporations materialize in cost efficient labor force or an abundance of natural resources. But despite the preliminary advantages offered by some countries, it is necessary for the organization to research some vital aspects of the respective economy, such as its human resource issues. The aim of this paper is to reveal the human resource issues in Taiwan in order to support the managerial team in making a best informed decision. A short description…. [read more]


Economically Impressive History, Nike Term Paper

… Advertisements for the corporation abroad spoke of good factory conditions and ethical business practices. This has been deemed by a recent California Supreme Court decision as misleading use of ad space by a margin of 4-3.

This action, which imperils Nike's far lower production costs abroad, has the capacity to serve as a great boost to number's two and tree, in Reebok and Adidas respectively. However, it bears noting, Reebok has been guilty of very similar practices, as annual Reebok Human Rights award ceremonies, featuring activists and celebrities alike, have been employed extensively to obscure violent suppression of worker rebellions and sustenance of sweatshop conditions in Chinese factories. Adidas and New Balance as well, have relocated labor and production facilities from American and European bases…. [read more]


Human Trafficking Essay

… Under the TVPA, if these traumatized individuals are not able to meet complex eligibility requirements and cooperate with law enforcement officials, they are ineligible for most protections and may, in fact, be deported." (Sadruddin et al. 2000). Federal policies that are attempting to make it more difficult for illegal immigrants to work clandestinely in the United States can make it more difficult to police human trafficking, given a victim's fears of the legal consequences. In terms of its actual enforcement, the law has also been criticized for being overly concerned with prosecuting crimes related to prostitution and the sex industry, and giving insufficient attention to crimes related to other areas where trafficking occurs, such as migrant labor (Destefano 2007).

This paper will offer a historical…. [read more]

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