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De-Stressing the Stress From Math Research Paper

… Strategies for Reducing Mathematical Anxiety

As part of her Master's thesis, Laura Iassi conducted intensive research on the subject surveying strategies used and strategies that may be particularly effective using scientific research as her locus.

Her list of strategies for reducing math anxiety categorized the whole into three parts:

(a) curricular strategies, such as retesting, self-paced learning, distance education, single-sex classes, and math anxiety courses,

Curricular strategies are those offered by colleges in an attempt to allay the stress. These include retesting where the student is allowed to retake the test and self-paced students who paced their own learning. Distance courses, too, may alleviate the stress for the same reason (students are in control) whilst single sex courses reduce the stress of competitiveness. Math anxiety…. [read more]

Standards-Based Assessment Across the Nation Term Paper

… Include parents and students in training as appropriate to ensure a full partnership with all the key stakeholders. Building a community of practice around a comprehensive progress monitoring improvement process -- within the school and across the community -- will ensure that a commitment builds for effective use of the process.

3. Find and use available resources. Technical assistance and research centers can provide resource maps and literature reviews for use by states and districts. Existing state and district initiatives in the content areas can also be essential resources to schools. Examples of these include Reading First programs and state and local chapters of professional organizations such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the National Staff Development Council, National Council of Teachers of…. [read more]

Standards Maps Term Paper

… Standards / Maps

In the world of education, there a variety of standards that must be followed as part of the curriculum. For the educator, the challenge is being able to create a lesson plan that will cover the required amount of content, while having enough time for everyone to understand the basic concepts. In the case of ninth grade Algebra, this situation could be even more challenging, as the concepts become more difficult. As a result, a lesson plan will be developed that will show how to cover the states core curriculum requirements, while increasing the overall amounts of learning comprehension. This is important, because it will highlight how the various standards can be met, while maximizing learning comprehension.

First Quarter (September to December)…. [read more]

Math Groups Term Paper

… Math Groups

Educators have often seen their students lose track of the material when it comes to math-based courses. Some find it harder to grasp the abstract concepts in the curriculum as compared to others. Math groups, segregated by their level of skill are the answer to this problem. Megan Power explains how a related approach followed in reading and writing groups does not match up with math as well as expected. Power teaches her students by breaking her instruction time into 4 parts (Power, 2010).

The first quarter is organized as a meeting where previously taught concepts are reviewed to assess their status of learning. This helps decide on how to proceed with the rest of the time. The second quarter is where the…. [read more]

Grade Inflation Term Paper

… Grade Inflation: An Elusive Phenomenon to Measure

Turn on the news today, and you'll here a great deal of talk about price inflation, whether at the pump, or as exhibited on the shelves the grocery store. What can be so bad, you might ask, about a few extra cents here and there, when you fill up your tank with a gas, or when you buy a loaf of bread at the local bodega? The problem is that as prices go up, salaries tend to remain the same. This means that what you have earned with your blood, sweat, toil, and tears at your job buys less, whenever you make a purchase, even though you are working just as hard. But unfortunately, while grade inflation as…. [read more]

Grade 1 Math Standards Essay

… Through performance standards design, the two systems have developed a system of conceptual nesting rather than simply relying on the more conventional system of learning tiers. Too often, in previously employed standards for mathematics performance, students advanced through their demonstrations of mathematical reasoning by moving from one tier to the next presumably more advanced tier. For instance, first graders needed to demonstrate that they could count to 100 before they began addition, or the like. The point is that the performance standard categories were treated as discrete teaching and learning units. The approach taken by the North Carolina Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards and the North Carolina Common Core state standards is integrative -- the standards do not assume that children will achieve an understanding…. [read more]

Math Curriculum Development Term Paper

… Math Curriculum

Science and its modes of studies are very much reliant on the mathematical techniques which have been heavily evaluated over the past few years. Numerous studies like the ones conducted by Mike Cass et al. (2003) and Lynn T. Goldsmith and June Mark (1999) have analyzed both the teaching techniques used for mathematics as well as the overall sections that are included in its course. In these studies the common conclusions that were made regarding fundamental knowledge of mathematic formulas and techniques is that these allow the students to develop essentially their primary aptitudes in the subject. Other studies also highlight that by solving the simpler questions through the use of fundamental formulas allows the students to find vague and difficult answer to…. [read more]

State Standards in K-5 Elementary Education Research Paper

… Students are aware of each grade's expectations as they attempt to enhance their knowledge and skills. The presences of first grade, second grade, and kindergarten standards are illustrations showing that the principles are determinant in the group of grades.

Have they done this for individual subjects such as science, geography, language arts, and mathematics?

The state standards for New Mexico and Pennsylvania clearly outline the requirements for specific or individual subjects. Geography, language arts, mathematic, health education, and science have specific expectations, which students must possess and demonstrate as they climb the academic ladder. Parents, teachers, and students adapt relatively to the formulated standards defining each subject. In order to prepare the students fully for college and future work expectations, it is crucial to adhere…. [read more]

Math Resource Critiques Essay

… Mathematics: A Critique of Two Products

Jump Math


Jump Math refers to an educational resource primarily to be harnessed by teachers which covers the curriculum needed for students from grades one to eight. It uses a pedagogical method referred to as "guided discovery" or "micro-investigation" which supports the student making small discoveries or steps, learning basic concepts one at a time which they can then build on. "Students learn and understand mathematical concepts by answering questions and working independently to challenges, while being strictly controlled by the teacher and receiving support at all times" ( Essentially the method believes in the balance of the student engaging in exploration, with assessment and evaluation: discovery is safe because the teacher is always there to help aid…. [read more]

What's Math Got to Do With it by Jo Boaler Research Paper

… ¶ … Math Got to Do With it? By Jo Boaler

Boaler, Jo. What's Math Got to Do With It? Helping Children Learn to Love Their Least

Favorite Subject -- and Why It's Important for America. New York: Viking, 2008.

Very often, students will whine in math class: 'when will we ever use this in real life?' This explains the title of Jo Boaler's book: What's Math Got to Do With It? Her answer: everything. Math is used everywhere in real life. However, the students' question underlines the abstract nature of what is taught in most math classes, despite the fact that math is a very practical discipline. Teachers must make students understand that math did not arise as a subject to torment children: it…. [read more]

Math Achievement in African-American Boys Versus Their White Counterparts Term Paper

… math achievement African-American vs. white American



The objective of this work is to focus on mathematical achievement in African-American boys vs. their white counterparts. Addressed will be risk factors such as family income, mother's education, single-parent households, primary language non-English, etc. The theoretical framework will focus on the work of Vygotsky and one other theorist as to how they would tie into the main topic.

The disparities in the educational attainment of African-American and White American males is clearly noted in previous research study however, the precise factors or elements that cause African-American males to underachieve in mathematics is not known. The work of Moody states that three theoretical proposals exist that attempt to provide an…. [read more]

Browse the PA State Standards and Select Term Paper

… Browse the PA state standards and select the standards on which you would like to base your unit. In a separate document, write two to three paragraphs explaining how your unit of instruction supports local guidelines and student academic content standards. Remember to submit this with your task.


Construct figures incorporating perpendicular and parallel lines, the perpendicular bisector of a line segment and an angle bisector using computer software.

Draw, label, measure and list the properties of complementary, supplementary and vertical angles.

Classify familiar polygons as regular or irregular up to a decagon.

Identify, name, draw and list all properties of squares, cubes, pyramids, parallelograms, quadrilaterals, trapezoids, polygons, rectangles, rhombi, circles, spheres, triangles, prisms and cylinders.

Construct parallel lines, draw a transversal and measure…. [read more]

Technology in a 2nd Grade Term Paper

… Students from grade three up to grade eleven would be eligible to take these tests, and those who have not passed the English language / Arts, and Mathematics tests in grade ten would be tested again in grade eleven and twelve. (MCAS, it counts)

The question that arises at this point is no matter what the technology may be, are the teachers in the schools of the United States sufficiently well trained to accept and acknowledge this technology, so that it may be put to its bet use when teaching students? In the opinion of Glenn M. Kleiman, from the Center for Professional Online Education at the Education Development Center, only a 'clear eyed commitment' to using the available technology in the efforts being made…. [read more]

Teaching and Standards Thesis

… Teaching and Standards

NCLB requires states to test students annually and offers a menu of penalties for schools that fail to show progress on those exams. States must measure up against a baseline that rises every year up to 2014, at which point all students are expected to score "proficient" on tests.

States, however, establish the content standards and passing thresholds of the tests -- meaning there's an incentive for states to lower testing standards to avoid federal sanctions.

The simple conclusion: Some states are "dumbing down" their exams to let more students pass and more schools show "adequate yearly progress" under NCLB.

NCLB seeks to make local schools accountable to federal bureaucrats. Accountability should be geared towards providing transparency about school performance. And those…. [read more]

NCTM Process Standards Essay

… ¶ … NCTM Process Standards


In my class, problem-solving activities were integrated into every learning unit. Some of the methods deployed included learning how to use fractions in a hands-on fashion. As well as doing standard fraction-related problems on paper, students were asked to make visual representations of fractions and use them to solve word problems.

Learning how to make unit conversions was one of the most useful skills learned by the students. Students were given problems similar to those they might cope with in daily life, such as converting standard measurements to the metric system and vice versa. Students also were given the task of painting an imaginary room, and were asked to scale 'up' the amount of paint it would take to…. [read more]

Students at the End of This Grade Term Paper

… Students at the end of this grade level must be able to investigate and solve step and piecewise functions. This means that they must be able to write absolute value functions as piecewise functions. Piecewise functions that students must be able to explain include domain, range, vertex, axis of symmetry, intercepts, extrema, and points of discontinuity. Students must show the ability to solve absolute value equations and inequalities analytically and graphically.

Standard 2: Students must be able to explore exponential functions. This includes the ability to extend properties of exponents to include all integer exponents. They must also be able to solve exponential equations and inequalities of relative simplicity both analytically and graphically. Students must demonstrate an understanding and ability to use basic exponential functions…. [read more]

Relationship Between Different Types of Knowledge of Middle Grades Math Teachers Introduction Chapter

… ¶ … Middle School Math Teachers

Over the last several years, the U.S. has been consistently underperforming the rest of the world, in mathematics in comparison with other countries on the middle school level. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a study that was conducted by the U.S. Department of Education. They found that the United States was underperforming several different developed countries. To include: Great Brittan, France, Australia, New Zealand, Finland and Switzerland. While at the same time, it was performing better than many of the developing OECD nations to include: Brazil, Greece, Luxembourg, Mexico, Latvia and Portugal. This is significant, because it is showing how the U.S. is losing their competitive advantage in comparison with many…. [read more]

Test Development Precede Standards Development? Essay

… ¶ … Test Development Precede Standards Development?

This is a guideline and template. Please do not use as a final turn-in paper.

I disagree that test development should precede standards development. It is simple. If there are no standards for student achievement, how can a test be developed to assess their accomplishment? I can see that once standards are developed, they must be adapted at times and modified to match general student intelligence and to ensure they are adequate to test students to the level desired. In cases like this the testing may drive the standards to be adjusted. But, initially, to my thinking, any development of a testing tool must occur subsequent to the establishment of at least some level of required standards for…. [read more]

Gender Segregated Math Classes in Middle School Research Proposal

… Gender-Based Education

For many decades there have been disparities in education along the lines of gender. Some of these disparities were as a result of sexism and an unwillingness to teach female students. However, in the current educational environment many of these disparities can be attributed to the fact that boys and girls simply learn differently. As such, adjustments have to be made as it pertains to teaching styles. These adjustments are particularly needed at the middle school level where subjects such as math and science become more difficult and female students start to lose interest. Gender segregation within the context of middle schools is a topic that has received a great deal of attention in recent years. In addition a great deal of attention…. [read more]

Mathematics Core Curriculum for Grades Essay

… New York State Education Department Standards for Grades 1-5

Each state has its own educational standards that are meant to guide teachers and establish core curriculum goals for each grade level. The New York State Education Department is no different. The state standards of the curriculum based on grade levels one to five is not only to establish particular learning achievements to prepare students for more complex lessons in the future, but it is also meant to engage them within the curriculum in order to allow them to learn more from the material and use it in an applicable way in real life situations. The Mathematics core curriculum established by the New York State Education Department is no different. In its basest form it established…. [read more]

Curriculum the Educational Theorist Larry Cuban Separated Term Paper

… Curriculum

The educational theorist Larry Cuban separated the concept of curriculum into four distinct areas, which were official, taught, learned and tested curriculum. The taught curriculum is that which teachers choose to teach, with the choice being independent of the state recommendations, which is the official curriculum. The learned curriculum is that which goes beyond the education revealed in test scores. This includes the knowledge and experiences acquired by the child through the classroom environment. The learned curriculum is largely based upon the processes modeled by the teacher, as the child will learn how to process information in certain ways, and appropriate behaviors to the classroom. The learned curriculum is therefore more inclusive than the taught curriculum, which does not take these extra influences into…. [read more]

Mathematics Instruction in English Term Paper

… Bilingual education in classrooms is comprised solely of ELL students. In these classes, two periods of reading and all of the major content areas are taught in the students' native language. Students testing between the 30th and 40th percentiles on the Language Assessment Battery (LAB) receive, gradually, more instruction in English. ELL students are placed in these classes unless they are "opted out" by their parents or test out once they surpass the 40th percentile on the LAB. Two periods of ESL instruction (the amount mandated by law) occurs within the classroom. In some cases, a push in or pull out program is also employed for supplemental ESL instruction.

While the written policy for this program states that instruction is in the pupil's dominant language…. [read more]

Common Core State Standards and Gifted Learners Essay

… Usually a greater degree of difficulty is characterized by more skills-more refined skill that is applied at a higher plane of sophistication. Gifted students should be exposed to these in their talent areas. Therefore CCSS has included in the content, products and processes more complex, more open-ended, more abstract, more multifaceted compared to the other students lessons.

How does CCSS differ from other state/content standards?

Due to the imposed cost of the program, in addition to fears of setting a national education standards that may result to the first move of dictating curriculum, has made Common Core or CCSS to become an increasingly polarizing issue, (Greg Toppo, 2012). Some of other states have decided to go for assessment component of Common Core, however, they presumably…. [read more]

Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete Dissertation

… ¶ … Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete High School

Richard Wieringo

This case study explores the experiences of students with disabilities who have dropped out of high school, so as to identify related factors that led to their decisions. Participants will include both males and females who were designated as students with disabilities at Ridgeville High School (pseudonym for a Virginia high school) and who dropped out between their third and fourth years of high school, during the 2009 to 2012 academic school years. All participants will be between the ages of 18 and 21. The proposed research design is a phenomenological study to be conducted through the use of semi-structured interviews, journaling, and observation of the sample population, with the aim of…. [read more]

Library Lesson Plan Target Grade Essay

… Library Lesson Plan

Target Grade

Lesson Plan: Mapping the Library

Target Grade Level: 5th Grade

Time Frame: On Class Period

Lesson Plan Overview

In this activity, students will learn about maps, and how libraries are like maps. Students will fill in fun facts on a world map, and may utilized the library atlas' and other geographic resources to fill in the maps. The students will compare their school library with another library (or libraries) -- your town library, for example, or a virtual library -- and identify their most important features. Then students use their observations to create a map of the school library that can serve as a guide for others.

Students will

Fill in a world map with fun facts (Handout of World…. [read more]

Observation of English as a Second Language Classroom and Lesson Plan Essay

… Grade Level: 3rd

The student (Luis) will be able to correctly use context clues to help increase his reading comprehension.

Anticipatory Set:

The teacher will write this sentence on the board:

"Billy made a peanut butter and glockum sandwich."

The teacher will ask Luis what they do if he is reading an English text and does not understand a specific word. The teacher will ask Luis what 'glockum' means. If Luis doesn't know what a 'glockum' is, the teacher will ask him to guess at what it might actually be. The teacher will have Luis explain how he arrived at his guesses. What clues did they use?

Explain the concept of reading in "chunks" e.g. looking at the text surrounding the unknown word for clues.…. [read more]

Student Group 8Th Grade Hispanic Essay

… Student Group

8th Grade Hispanic Girls

Percent of Total Student Population

School Average

State Average

State Test Performance: Reading

State Test Performance: Math

State Test Performance Writing

Attendance Rate

Dropout Rate

I have chosen 8th grade female Hispanic students as the diverse entity of which to focus this particular research upon. The aforementioned graph represented by the blue line the focus group and the black line or "series 3" is the state averages. The four categories are the three state tests and the attendance record which will be used to guide the data collection efforts and research focus. In this analysis the chosen population has scored considerably lower on all standardized state issued competency examinations. The chosen population does have a better attendance record despite…. [read more]

Teaching Unit for an 8Th-Grade Term Paper

… Table 1: Pre- and Post-Test Scores.

Student #

Learning Goal #1

Learning Goal #2

Learning Goal #3





























































Assessment Criteria

Students' participation in the activity will be evaluated for accuracy. They will be administered a teacher-created vocabulary quiz designed to assess their ability to spell and understand the chosen words.

LG 1 -- All students will improve their vocabulary by 10%.

LG 2 -- All students…. [read more]

Middle School Mathematics Curriculum and Standards Research Paper

… Middle School Mathematics Curriculum and Standards

In a preface to a discussion about curriculum and standards for middle school, the National Council on Teachers of Mathematics (n.d.) notes

The middle grades represent a significant turning point in students' lives [and they] solidify conceptions about themselves as learners of mathematics. They arrive at conclusions about their competence in mathematics, their attitudes, their interest, and their motivation. These conceptions will influence how they approach the study of mathematics in later years, which in turn will affect their later career and personal opportunities.

The standards guide curriculum development in ten areas: numbers and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability, problem solving, reasoning and proof, communications, connections, and representation. For each area, the standards specify what students…. [read more]

New California Mathematics Framework Term Paper

… This might be difficult for schools to accomplish for a number of reasons. Schedules would have to be changed, but most of all, students would all have to be tested and then placed in the proper level according to their skills. Many schools might not have the budget available to do the testing and alter schedules, and older students with less ability might feel uncomfortable in classes with younger students. It seems it would be problematic to form these groups, but it might benefit the students in the end.

The framework changes dramatically when it reaches grade 8, and so do the standards. The framework states, "To allow local educational agencies and teachers flexibility in teaching the material, the standards for grades eight through twelve…. [read more]

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