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Great War for Civilization the Conquest of the Middle East Book Report

… Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East

Nicole Gomez

International Relations of the Middle East

The Great War for Civilisation

Robert Fisk's book, the Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East is a comprehensive description of the Middle East region and its ongoing struggles. Fisk who is an established correspondent for the Independent newspaper in the United Kingdom has covered the vast region and its conflicts since 1976. Fisk has witnessed firsthand numerous wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Algeria, Israel, Palestine and Lebanon, and as a child, whose father fought the Great War, seems excessively knowledgeable in his historical accounts.

Robert Fisk commences his book March 1997 outside the Spinghar Hotel in Jalalabad, a town in eastern Afghanistan. Outside…. [read more]

Great War for Civilisation Fisk Book Report

… The Next chapter, 23, entitled Atomic Dog, Annihilator, Arsonist, Anthrax, Anguish and Agamemnon were a description of the events of the 2003 American invasion of Iraq. The American attack was a massive undertaking with a massive amount of ordinance dropped on Iraq. While the Americans claimed they were targeting only military targets, the author's visits to hospitals prove that the majority of the wounded were civilians. Fisk described the wound of children he encountered stating "Heartbreaking is the only word to describe ten-year-old Maryam Nasr and her five-year-old sister Hoda." (962) He also discussed the ground invasion and the massive destruction inflicted on the Iraqis by the Americans. The destruction caused by the Americans was a major theme of Fisk, and he ended this chapter…. [read more]

Greater Middle East Gulf Region Essay

… ¶ … Middle East/Gulf region

The Middle East region and in a large view the Greater Middle East is one of the most significant geographical, strategic, spiritual and historical areas of the world. It is found between two other great civilizations, the European and the Asian one and it is the origin of the most important religions besides the Asian ones like Christianity, Islam or Judaism. The Greater Middle East is also the birthplace of some of the most meaningful civilizations of mankind like the Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, Persian or Median ones.

One of the most important socio-political events that took place in this tumultuous region was the seventh century Arabic conquest of the most part of the region, removing the Byzantine and Sassanid…. [read more]

Middle Eastern Civilization Essay

… Middle Eastern Civilization

The era before the rise of Islam, the first six centuries of the Common Era, were set forth due to the development of major events. One of the biggest and important of these events is the establishment and rise of Christianity. The spread of Christianity marked the end for many pre-Christian religions with the exception of Judaism and the Persian religion. The conversion of Emperor Constantine began a religious transformation of the Roman Empire. The Roman state was used to promote and protect the new religion. By Emperor Justinian's time, the Roman Empire was not only used to promote Christianity's supremacy among other religions but universal adherence to one religious doctrine. The second major development is the shift of power from the…. [read more]

Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern Society Research Paper

… Ancient Civilizations Contributions to Modern Society

The ancient period is the historical era determined by the convention. It includes the studying of the past life activities and events. The modern is the contrary of the ancient. However, it is imperative to realize that for there to be the present, it was a process of development. History shapes the lives, practices and beliefs of people through long periods of influential civilizations

Civilization is characterized by advancements in the system of writing, cities as well as social classes. The inventions of the early civilizations, for example, ancient Greece, china, Mesopotamia and classical Rome have remarkably shaped the current world that we inhabit. Among the labels that define the transitions is "Late Antiquity." This is the period that…. [read more]

Civilization We Live in Is the Result Term Paper

… ¶ … civilization we live in is the result of the constant evolution of the human kind. It represents a process of evolution and change of the human being, of its environment, and of the society he built and helped transform along the centuries. However, the most important aspect of the history of the world relies in the constant evolution of the individual, from its natural status of the Neolithic to the full establishment of his being as a dweller of the ancient city. Therefore, it is essential to compare and contrast the way in which the human being has evolved under the various influences of history in order to have a proper assessment of the degree of development of the world as a historical…. [read more]

World Civilization From 1500 CE to the Early Twentieth Century Assessment

… ¶ … History 1500-Present

World Civilization from 1500 AD to Present

Worldwide trade from 1500 to 1800 AD: the Rise and Implications

Europe was expanding its boundaries at the end of the medieval world: Spain and Portugal had navigated the globe. The Crusades had opened roads to the East, and the sea lanes had given way to a new world in which nations sought God, gold, and glory. The world has always become smaller with the advent of new technology -- and the new technology in 1500 was navigational and nautical; by 1800 that technology had become increasingly more "scientific" and even militaristic. America had been colonized and the trade routes from East to West to East and back again were flourishing.

Italy saw the…. [read more]

Western Civilization From Prehistory Term Paper

… The British, French, and other empires spread across the globe. And although neither country was in the strict sense "ruled by a monarch," the idea behind the concept remained the same. Territorial expansion was a means toward achieving glory and immortality.

Of course, things have changed in the more than two thousand years since Alexander's time. In recent centuries, the way of the warrior has lost something of its old luster, and would-be conquerors have found it increasingly essential to justify their ambitions by other means. So, in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries we have the concept of the White Man's burden, and the idea of the Western Powers bringing enlightenment and civilization to the benighted races of the Earth. Still more recently, however, even…. [read more]

Historical Relationship of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Literature Review

… Western Civilization


Historical and Geographic Background -- The word Mesopotamia is Greek and means "the land between two rivers," in this case, the Tigris and Euphrates river systems. This area is considered to be the cradle of civilization, in that it is one of the first verifiable areas of organized urbanization and domestication of plants and animals. Modern scholarship has extended the actual area of influence for Mesopotamia as far north as parts of Southeastern Turkey and parts of Khuzestan, forming a much larger area of influence for organized civilization (Dlott, 2007). The Sumerian period (from the indigenous peoples: Sumerians and Akkadians) dominated the Middle Eastern region from approximately 3100 BC to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. During this period, of course,…. [read more]

Muhammad Ali in Egypt Thesis

… But they took away, for five centuries, the possibility of an independent Arab-dom, and Arab nationalists bore them considerable ill-will for it[footnoteRef:13]. The only 'Arab' state conquered by the Turks which was not in irremediable decay, was the Mamluk state of Egypt and Syria[footnoteRef:14]. The Mamluks themselves were a dynasty of Turkish slaves; and in any case they afterwards succeeded, as did all the North African provinces, in enjoying internal autonomy under Ottoman suzerainty. The claim that the caliphate had been transmitted to the Ottoman sultans was made only late in the history of the Empire. It was as Turkish rulers that they held their power, and only secondarily (if at all) as vice-regents of the Prophet. They preserved and even sharpened the distinction between…. [read more]

Rise of East Asia Term Paper

… ¶ … rise of East Asia was one of the most significant events of the 14th century. With a culture that spans some three thousand years, the East Asian civilizations were at one time much more sophisticated than its western counterparts. The empire of China loomed large within the East Asian continent, dominating the largest empire on Earth during that time, while Japan's code of honor and warrior class created a society entrenched in a strong civic and moral code of conduct.

During the 14th century to the 17th century, East Asia was dominated by the presence of its two largest empires. China during this period was under the grips of the Ming Dynasty, the longest tenured dynasty in Chinese history. This was the epoch…. [read more]

Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire Essay

… Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire

Founded by the Turkish House of Ottoman, the Ottoman Empire endured from roughly 1299 to the First World War. For 620 years, the Ottoman Empire was the dominant political, cultural, and military force in the Middle East. At its peak its territory stretched from the edge of Vienna to the Red Sea, from North Africa to the Balkans (Chau, 2007).

Originally the Turks were a nomadic horseman from Central Asia who embraced Islam in the ninth century. Under the Seljuk leader Tugrul they captured Baghdad. The first major victory of the Seljuk Turks over Christians followed in 1071 when a Byzantine army was defeated near Lake Van. Subsequently the Seljuk's established a Sultanate with the capital at Konya…. [read more]

Syria I Am Osmane Arslanian Term Paper

… Consequently in May 2004, President Bush decided that Syria failed to meet these conditions and, as sanctions, prohibited exports to Syria of items in the U.S. Munitions list and Commerce Control list, of U.S. products except food and medicines and the landing or take-off of Syrian government-owned aircraft in the U.S. The U.S. Department of Treasury also intended to order American financial institutions to cut off correspondent accounts with the Commercial Bank of Syria on money-laundering reasons and pursuant to section 311 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act (Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs 2004). And using his international emergency economic powers under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act or IEEPA, President Bush also authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to freeze the assets of certain Syrian…. [read more]

Western Civilization Mesopotamian Religion Term Paper

… Western Civilization

Mesopotamian religion is the first to be recorded. Because they had very little knowledge on the universe, Mesopotamians believed that they were surrounded by water, and that the world was born out of that immense body of water. Also, their religious faith was polytheistic, and they sought to explain everything around them by interpreting what they believed to be messages from the gods. Unlike Mesopotamian faith, Judaism is a monotheistic religion, and has no principles of faith that are recognized by all Jews. Also, it has no central religious authority and is considered to be centered on the individual to a larger extent than the other formal religions. However, central authority resides in the sacred writings and traditions that are still closely respected…. [read more]

Occidentalism the Title of Ian Buruma Essay

… ¶ … Occidentalism

The title of Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit's essay "Occidentalism" reflects the commonly-expressed notion that the world is polarized between two civilizations, that of 'the East' and 'the West.' Recently, the negative connotations of Orientalism, or the exotiziation of the East in a demeaning fashion, have been subjected to greater scrutiny by scholars. Buruma and Margalit attempt to examine how the ideals of the West have been viewed in a pejorative fashion by people who define themselves against Western values. By defining Western values as liberal democracy and pluralism the authors classify Japan, and even Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union as representative of anti-Occidental ideas during World War II. Thus, for Buruma and Margalit, the West is more of an intellectual…. [read more]

America at War 1865-Present Essay

… The following year, the economy would collapse, and Hoover would show his impotency at dealing with domestic problems, and the man who had ran against the Wet-ticket candidate, would finally repeal the 18th Amendment in 1932, as the number of jobless reached into the tens of millions.

The economy would continue to dwell in the sewers despite FDR's Alphabet programs, designed to put Americans back to work with social and environmental jobs. However, the real jobs would be in manufacturing for the war machine -- and that would come with America's entry into World War II following the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. Under Roosevelt, America became known as "the great arsenal of democracy" -- an insightful use of terminology (Jarecki, 2008, p. 37).

The…. [read more]

Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes Dissertation

Traditional Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes: Studies on Origins and History

The study investigates the bamboo flutes found in Southeast Asia, as well as their history and origin. The earliest known extant bamboo flute, a chi, or ancient Chinese flute, from the Zhou Dynasty, discovered in the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, dates from 433 BC. Southeast Asian bamboo flutes, diverse in shape and size, vary in the way musicians play them. During the ethnography, a qualitative study, the researcher utilizes an extensive literature review to explore the development of bamboo flutes in SEA and examines the link between these instruments and music, as well as traditions from and beyond Asia.

As the study focuses on the flutes from three main areas: Mainland…. [read more]

Why Did the Spaniards With Hernan Cortez Conquered the Aztecs? Research Paper

… Spanish Conquest of Mexico

The Age of Expansion and the New World- From the High Middle Ages on (roughly 1200 AD +) Europe was exploding on all fronts in the historical period known alternatively as the Age of Exploration and Age of Expansion (Europe and the Age of Exploration 2007). Several factors acted in synergy to cause this upsurge: increase in technology (ship building, navigation), increased desire for trade with the Middle and Far East (spice, slaves, gems, etc.), spikes in European population after the Black Death, a desire for the major powers to establish colonies and secure trade routes to the East, and the general competitive nature of the ruling classes of the time. In general, the characteristic of Europe from the Renaissance to…. [read more]

Historical Background Relationship and Contribution of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… ¶ … society as if it were essentially autonomous: There were the Egyptians, and the Greeks, and then the Romans, and so forth. But while, of course, there are core practices, habits, and beliefs -- and historical moments -- that set off these and other societies from each other, there are many key connections as well. Societies borrow from each other all the time; indeed, one might argue that the level of "borrowing" from one culture to the next arises to the level of grand larceny.

When one thinks about it, though, there is every reason for societies to borrow from each other in the same way that one generation learns from its predecessor, and passes on what it has learned. Some of what different…. [read more]

Crusades 1st 3rd and Muslim Views of Crusades at the Time Term Paper


THE 1st and 3rd CRUSADES and the MUSLIM VIEW

According to Jackson J. Spielvogel, one of the most important and influential manifestations linked to "the wave of religious enthusiasm that seized Europe in the High Middle Ages was the Crusades, a long, drawn-out series of attacks and battles against the Muslims that controlled the Holy Land and the city of Jerusalem. Overall, the Crusades made it possible for the revived papacy of the High Middle Ages "to demonstrate its influence over European society" and were "a curious mix of God and warfare, two of the chief concerns of the Middle Ages" (274).

Generally speaking, the First Crusade was ignited in 1095 by predominantly French Christians whose main intention was to seize the sacred city…. [read more]

Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gangs: Threat to National Security? Thesis

… ¶ … predominantly Latino Gangs, Mara Salvatrucha (aka MS-13), and the 18th Street Gang operating on the streets of communities across America. This study is significant because it will provide a snapshot in time concerning how these violent gangs operate in this country in ways that can inform and alert both civilian society and government agencies concerning optimal responses to the problem created by these gangs. Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of documentary evidence and governmental statistics about the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang, this study developed several conclusive findings on the negative effects of these groups in the United States. The Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang are becoming transnational criminal organizations given the fact that they originated in Central America and…. [read more]

Women and Islam the Western Perception Term Paper

… Women and Islam

The Western perception of Islam is of a religion that is especially restrictive of women. Christianity has had its own more restrictive policies toward women in the past, but the West believes it has evolved to a more equitable view of the rights of women and of equality of the sexes. Islam is seen as living in the past and as failing to modernize, while Islam sees its restrictions as socially constructive and as elevating women rather than keeping them down. Such differences in perception are based on historical differences and also on the way the West has changed and now expects others to do the same without necessarily making the case in a way that appeals to Islam. There are some…. [read more]

Culture vs. Architecture Essay

… ¶ … Architecture

There are certainly several periods throughout and even before current human civilization that represent quintessential examples of the greatness that existed at least at that time but even if one is looking at the entire amalgamation of architecture over the years including from the ancient pyramids of Egypt up through the newer structures of today such as the Hoover Dam, the new World Trade Center and so on. While other periods deserve the compare and contrast of this report, the 19th century certainly represents a period that deserves to be looked at on its own and in its own right.

Analysis, Compare and Contrast

The one type of structure that perhaps comes to mind for many much sooner and often right off…. [read more]

Greek on Mediterranean World Sparta in Greece Term Paper

… ¶ … Greek on Mediterranean world

Sparta in Greece

The impact of Greek on the Mediterranean world

Knowledge of Mediterranean world is one aspect that is very interesting; it needs a proper social contact of both Greek as well as Roman influence on the culture of the people of that period as well as place. Similar to overriding threads interwoven into a great needlepoint, Mediterranean world was shaped by the Roman rule as well as Greek culture. This paper will dwell purely on the impact of Greek on the Mediterranean world touching on different aspects.

The Greek impact on the Mediterranean world started during the rain of Alexander the Great in the 4th century B.C, the spread of the Greek language, culture as well as…. [read more]

Bronze Age Comparisons Essay

… Bronze Age Comparisons

The Bronze Age is an historical period that is characterized by the predominant tool metal of the era -- copper and its alloy bronze. It is chronologically between the Stone and Iron Ages, with the Stone Age implying no ability to smelt metals, and the Iron Age the ability to manufacture artifacts using the three types of hard metal (Iron, Bronze, Copper). The distinction for societies revolves around the technological ability to perform certain tasks (Cunliffe (ed.) 2001). Newer archaeological studies have shown, however, that the Bronze Age was really only applicable for a larger, more generic cultural identifier in which copper and bronze were the most common and stable metals within that culture (Bachhuber & Roberts (eds.) 2009). As the use…. [read more]

Historical Contexts and Literature Term Paper

… ¶ … human condition transcends the esoteric and becomes real is through the human ability to conceptualize events outside of the horrific reality of the event and turn these events into something nobler, something more timeless, and even something more meaningful to future generations. One way we humans tend to look at these grand processes is to extrapolate behaviors into their smallest component. When looking at human nature, for instance, we find that biological determinism has become part of the way we explain the human condition. . It claims, for example, that the behavior of human beings is determined by the genes possessed by individuals and leads to the conclusion that all human society is governed by the sum of the behavior of all the…. [read more]

European Imperialism Up Until 1858 Essay

… He rarely became involved in discussions of theology, even among his fellow Hindus. They regarded him as another incarnation of Buddha or Jesus Christ, while Christians, Jews and Muslims were all monotheists and did not believe in reincarnation. Unlike them, Gandhi did not even regard God as a spiritual Being but more of a Principle based on Truth (Gorringe, p. 155). He had no interest in the historical Jesus, either as a Christian or a Jew, or even whether he really existed at all, but he was most interested in the ideals expressed in the Sermon on the Mount. Jesus extended his blessings to the poor, the sick, the hungry and the powerless, and for Gandhi that was the heart of any true religion. His…. [read more]

Expansive Period, Important Force Change Essay

… This unequal distribution of rights did not prevent the state from functioning efficiently at first. But as the Empire grew more difficult to maintain, and the leaders grew less competent, Rome's authority began to ebb away.

The rise of Christianity in the Middle East began to play a significant role in Roman politics after the Emperor Constantine attributed his victory to fighting in the name of the Christian faith. However, this ideology could not keep the Roman Empire intact. The Germanic tribes briefly assumed authority, but any sense of coherent, unified reign was transient. The so-called 'Dark Ages' was not really dark, as many historians have pointed out. However, it lacked the coherent cultural exchanges and intellectual ferment of previous eras. Without a stable sense…. [read more]

Israel Is a Country Caught Term Paper

… Israel is a country caught in multiple kinds of crossroads. The country is in the middle of the Middle East, an area fraught with tensions literally for millennia. The land currently called Israel has been fought over from Biblical times, and who should and should not be allowed to live on that land remains a topic of debate among some to this day. Many people are acutely aware of the long history of the region. Put the words "Israel" and "History" into GOOGLE, and the first two websites found trace Israel's history back to events in Genesis. Although some groups of people dispute that claim in important ways, the view Israel has of its history plays an important role in the historical events of the…. [read more]

Roman Empire Term Paper

… "

Over time, there were improvements made concerning conditions and pay. The army also possessed all of the components necessary to be a strong military force such as "good leaders, training, discipline, weapons, armor, equipment, and numbers. During the wars with Carthage the Romans also built up a large and effective navy (Suggitt)."

Successful Transitions

The Romans were sensitive to the needs of the people they conquered, and searched for ways to make the transition peaceful, such as increasing the wealth of towns through improved trade, fair governing methods and allowing the people to become Roman citizens. Those who were conquered were also allowed to keep their own leaders, weapons, and style of fighting.

The majority of those conquered were "poor farmers who lived in…. [read more]

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