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History of Construction Technology Literature Review

… History Of Construction Technology

Time Periods

Tools, materials, innovations

Add (April notes) two subheadings: Construction Techniques and Construction Machines under each one.




Ancient Egyptian


Ancient Greek

Idea of "Simple Machine"




Roman Empire

Works of Vitruvius

Roman Crane


Byzantine Empire

Master builders of Byzatine

Islamic Golden Age


See YC's notes on Crusader Castles -- looks like mostly books

Romanesque (1000-1200)

a. See YC's links

9. Gothic (1200-1400)

a. See YC's links on Gothic architecture

10. Renaissance Period (1400-1600)

11. Baroque Period (1600-1750)

12. Industrial Revolution (1750-1900)

1. Construction Technology of Mesopotamia

1.1. Construction Techniques

The Mesopotamian civilization dates back to c.6000 BC. As one of the first Bronze Age cultures, this civilization was also the…. [read more]

History of Project Management at the Dawn Essay

… History of project management at the dawn of civilization can be looked at from two different civilisations -- Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. In this section both of these civilsations will be looked at from the perspective of cconstruction technology, architectural design, culture, science, economics, labour, and management, which all led to the creation of the master builder. The first ancient societies arose in Mesopotamia and Egypt in the Middle East. These civilisations had certain features in common. They built cities, invented forms of writing, learned to make pottery and use metals, domesticated animals, and created fairly complex social structures that included class systems.

It is possible to say that the concept of project management has been around since the beginning of history. It has enabled…. [read more]

History of Construction Technology of 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization Literature Review

… History of Construction Technology of 4 periods in Ancient Civilization

Construction in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt

Mesopotamia did not have much timber but the area could boast of palm leaves and reed instead. However, before the consumption of fired pottery, and since the period of earliest Neolith, the villagers residing in the east of Tigris used to construct their homes out of dried clay while the area of Jericho depicts instances of construction that was done by mud bricks, one of which would be altered to accept timber cross-beams (Sttraub, 1952; Derry and Williams, 1961).

One of the uses of buildings and structures constructed in this way was the fact that they had a longer life in a drier climate. Mesopotamia, which was characterized by…. [read more]

History of Construction of 12 Historical Buildings Literature Review

… History Of Construction 26 Buildings

History of the Construction of 12 Buildings

Construction of the Ziggurat

According to Gwendolyn Leick, an expert in Mesopotamian archaeology, "No ziggurats have survived enough to reconstruct either access or the high temple with any certainty" (Leick 108). Despite this lack of material specificity about what was on top of the ziggurat, ancient ziggurat remains give important clues about their material structure, their building process, and their purpose.

Research consensus indicates that the finished ziggurat was an artificial mountain of successive platforms whose size diminished upward. Its masonry was mud brick and rubble mortared together and faced with burnt brick. Kostof writes, "The core was of mud-brick, and the thick facing of baked brick was set in bitumen mortar" (Kostof…. [read more]

History of Muslims in Europe and in the US Research Paper

… History of Muslims in Europe and in the U.S.

Islamophobia - the United States and the European continent

The Islam is at the moment one of the most important religious, cultural, and eventually political entities of the world today. According to studies made in 2009, it represents 23% of the global population of 6.9 billion people

Even so, there are numerous accounts in which the Muslim population is the subject of discrimination or political differentiation. At the moment, this entire phenomenon is defined as Islamophobia. The present paper addresses the issue of islamophobia from the perspective of the two most important regions where it developed and where is most visible. In this sense, the research takes into account the way in which the United States…. [read more]

Twenty Building Projects Discussed Below Represent Essay

… ¶ … twenty building projects discussed below represent the project activities of the periods discussed and provide supporting examples for the historical evidence. They represent the application of the areas of expertise to project activities from the dawn of civilisation to the classical antiquity. Undoubtedly building construction is a dynamic field for historical research. Much can be learned about social organisation, management skills, technology, and aesthetics through investigating the various forms and histories of important buildings. Starting with the great ziggurat monuments in Mesopotamia, the human desire to build large-scale structures is an historical constant. It is also deeply linked to the cultural and religious consciousness in humanity that desired expression through there construction go these buildings. This is an aspect that is clearly evident…. [read more]

Renaissance Building Projects: Their Relationship Essay

… ¶ … Renaissance Building Projects: Their relationship with the Scientific Revolution Architectural Principles, Construction Technology and Master Builder Tradition

The four buildings discussed above show evidence of the advance of scientific thinking as well as other aspects particular to the Renaissance revolution in architecture. This also applies to the design of these buildings and the techniques and methods of building, which also showed considerable and even radical change and advances in terms of innovation and the use of new scientific methods in a number of important ways.

A study of these buildings also highlights the fact that during the Renaissance the ideas of regularity, symmetry, and harmony were reintroduced as classical ideals. As Milo argues, the Renaissance builders believed these principles could be actualised and…. [read more]

Building Projects Six Essay

… Building Projects

Six Building Projects of the Carolingian Renaissance and the Crusades

Carolingian Renaissance:

Palatine Chapel in Aachen (AD 792 -- 805)

The Palatine Chapel in Aachen was built as part of Charlemagne's palaces. The palace was located north of the current city Aachen, and present-day sits in the German Land of North Rhine-Westphalia (Favier p. 286). Charlemagne belief was to have the Palatine Chapel in Aachen as a place of religious worship and also serve as a building of royalty for the king (Favier p. 502). The architect that was given the responsibility for constructing the Palatine Chapel in Aachen was Odo of Mete (Favier p. 502). Mete created the massive structure and may have been a magnificent architect of his time, unfortunately there…. [read more]

History of Art Parthenon Ancient Greece Research Paper

… Parthenon was an architectural achievement the likes of which ancient Greece had never seen before. Athens, by the time of its construction, had become a cultural hub -- a place of affluence and learning. The Parthenon, therefore, represented more than a place of worship: it represent an artistic, cultural, social, economic, political and historical monument. This paper will analyze the Parthenon in each of those contexts and show why this achievement of Greek antiquity still stands tall today.

Political and Cultural Context

The man behind the rise of the Golden Age of Greek Art in the fifth century BC was the great statesman Pericles. A patron from a family of aristocrats, Pericles rose to power following the wars against Persia, in which Athens proved itself…. [read more]

History and Evolution of Construction Safety Regulations Thesis

… ¶ … Evolution of Construction Safety Regulations

Author David L. Goetsch (who wrote Construction Safety and Health) -- along with several other authors and scholars -- present informative background into the area of construction safety -- and its evolvement as policy in the United States. This paper reviews the inadequate and sometimes non-existent workplace regulations that led to the development of more adequate rules and laws into the 20th Century.

The Need for Safety Regulations.

"Needless destruction of life and health is a moral evil. Failure to take necessary precautions against predicable accidents and occupational illnesses involves a moral responsibility for those accidents and occupational illnesses" (National Safety Council, MacCollum, 2006, p. 12).

To begin with, author David Goetsch describes the construction industry as "an…. [read more]

Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome Essay

… ¶ … legacies of ancient Greece and ancient Rome in the area of development and use of mathematics. Discuss possible reasons why there were a lot of mathematical developments in ancient Greece but mostly applications in ancient Rome.

The great Roman statesman Cicero stated: "Greek mathematics lead the field in pure geometry, while we limit ourselves to reckoning and measuring" (Lecture 7, 2009). By this statement, Cicero meant that the Romans excelled in construction, architecture, and hands-on disciplines, often using Greek concepts and methods, but they did not spend much time engaged in philosophizing about mathematics on their own. The resources of Rome were diverted to empire-building, and Romans who were active in politics and the military were valued in society, not individuals who shone…. [read more]

History of Art Essay

… History Of Art

Ancient buildings are known to have had a strong influence on generally all buildings which presently exist in the world. There are various factors influencing a certain building's shape, such as its purpose, the investments that people are willing to put in it, and the traditional features which are characteristic to similar buildings. The Pantheon is one of the most famous buildings in the world, and, in spite of the fact that the Western Roman Empire fell a few centuries consequent to its building, the monument has managed to provide inspiration for a large number of buildings constructed after it. Built in totally different circumstances, but, by people that have basically had the same intention, the Hagia Sophia building in Istanbul is…. [read more]

Tajikistan to the North Research Paper

… Communists and an alliance of Islamic and democratic forces fought with each other to gain power. RahmanNabiyev, a communist, won the presidential elections of November 1991. However, his government was not accepted and nonaggressive protests by the opposition elements were observed in March 1992 demanding his resignation. The situation worsened when in April the government opened fire on the protesters. Nabiyev was thrown way from his office in September by the opponents. The civil war came to an end when in November ImomaliRakhmonov formed a government supported by Russian troops was formed. [6]

The civil War caused substantial loss of life and property. Close to about 600,000 people lost their lives and were left homeless. A great loss of education was made. Estimate damage of…. [read more]

Development of the Columns Through History Research Paper

… ¶ … oif columns in architecture extends from the ancient Egyptians and the Greeks and Romans to its modern usage in both public and private constructions and building. The various forms and styles, such as the classical Doric and Ionic, have all contributed and added elements to the structural as well as the aesthetic aspects of architectural development,. What is clear from an overview of the history of columns is that the structural and functional aspects of columns cannot be completely separated from the aesthetic, cultural and religious aspects. This study provides a selective overview of the history of columns and their effect on contemporary architecture. Central as well to this discussion is the argument that the history of columns necessitates an understanding of the…. [read more]

Ishtar Gate, Karnak, Luxor Temple, and Ancient Buildings Literature Review

… History Of Construction of 10 Buildings of Ancient Civilization

Construction of the Ishtar Gate (ca. 575 BC)

The Ishtar Gate is for the most parts of the spectacular finds from earliest Babylonia (Babylon and the Ishtar Gate, 2010). The Ishtar Gate was the eighth gate leading into the inner city of Babylon. It was ordered to be built in about 575 BC by King Nebuchadnezzar II on the north region of the city. Devoted to the Babylonian goddess Ishtar, the gate was built of blue glazed tiles with sporadic rows of dragons and aurochs. According to the dedication plaque, the cover and doors of the gate were made of cedar. Even though the gate ran the Processional Way, the wall was covered in lions on…. [read more]

Great Ziggurat, Tower of Babylon, and Ancient Buildings Literature Review

… Construction

Great Ziggurat

The Great Ziggurat was first constructed in 2100 B.C. By King Ur-Nammu who named it 'Etemennigur' that translates into the house that causes fear. The name was appropriate at the time as the King had built it to pay homage to the god of Sin. The Ziggurat was first excavated by John G. Taylor during the 1850s and eventually led to the find of the city of Ur (Sollberger, 1972). The earlier excavations after the First World War were conducted by Henry Hall and Reginald Campbell Thomson, even though it had been previously excavated as well in the 1920s and 1930s. The ziggurats of Ur are perhaps best conserved as one of the constructions at the Neo-Sumerian city of Ur. Besides this,…. [read more]

Dam Building and Indian Lands Thesis

… Dam Building and Indian Lands

The Native Americans have had much to suffer as a result of the colonists entering their territory and robbing them of their lands. While some cultures might consider territorial possessions to have a less significant value in comparison to others, Native Americans think otherwise. Furthermore, they believe that lands have a spiritual importance and that their society is closely connected to them. Approximately until the start of the twentieth century the Native population in America could not express its convictions because of the discrimination dominating the American society. However, in the twentieth century, and, principally, in the recent decades, Native Americans took advantage of the government giving them the right to reclaim their lands.

Ever since their first landing on…. [read more]

Speech on the New 7 Wonders Thesis

… ¶ … Speech on the New 7 Wonders

The Seven Wonders of the World

Over the years it can be said that different architectural landscapes and settings have never failed to capture the attention of man's naked eye (or his camera lens for that matter). These "wonders of the world," as we now call it, have been a topic of photography sessions, write-ups, sketches, and other artworks for the longest time. These wonders of the world have also taken on the role of socio-cultural emblems of the countries to which they can be found.

It is through this dynamic role of these constructions that we find it fruitful to revisit the famous "Seven Wonders of the World." Particularly, we are faced with this question: "What…. [read more]

Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens Essay

… "

Left unspoken in this speech was the legitimacy of the underlying ideology that made slavery an acceptable yet "peculiar institution." What was articulated, though, made it clear that the South's position was that African-Americans were inferior by nature and that slavery was the proper institution for them since it improved their character and saved their souls through their introduction to Christianity. Arguing that all men are not created equal, Stephens emphasized that, "Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. . . . Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the…. [read more]

High Aswan Dam Benefits and Losses Term Paper

… ¶ … history of the High Aswan Dam and the benefits and losses to Egypt because of it. It seems the High Aswan Dam has always been surrounded in controversy, even before it actually began construction. An engineering marvel, the dam took over ten years to complete and created one of the largest manmade lakes on earth. Today, the dam controls the Nile River and keeps broad areas of the Nile Delta from flooding each spring, but at what cost?

The High Aswan Dam is actually the second dam at Aswan. The first, constructed in 1899 by the British when Egypt was a British territory, had to be raised twice, in 1907 and 1933. The Nile River is very unpredictable, and it topped the original…. [read more]

Architecture Through the Ages Mesopotamia Literature Review

… The Erechtheum and the small temple of Athena on the Acropolis are Ionic however. The Ionic order became dominant in the Hellenistic period, since its more decorative style suited the aesthetic of the period better than the more restrained Doric. Records show that the evolution of the Ionic order was resisted by many Greek States, as they claimed it represented the dominance of Athens. Some of the best surviving Hellenistic buildings, such as the Library of Celsus, can be seen in Turkey at cities such as Ephesus and Pergamum. But in the greatest of Hellenistic cities, Alexandria in Egypt, almost nothing survives, so Greek art and architecture was at its apex during this time.

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was a revolutionary period due to…. [read more]

History of Architectural Design and Theory of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization Literature Review

… ¶ … human history, the concept of expression through architecture, stone, granite, metal, wood and concrete has extended through the course of human history. Since the dawn of time man has attempted to express himself and his surroundings as well as convey messages through structures. Man has honored himself, royalty and deities through constructions of ornate structures that posses such detailed reliefs as to leave the archeologist, architect and anthropologist spell bound as to the level of detail utilized by these primitive peoples. The evolution of architectural structures and techniques has evolved continuously as man has improved his ability to utilize those tools that are at his disposal.

The ancient Sumerians and Babylonians utilized various stone structures to create their structures. The ancient Romans utilized…. [read more]

Ancient Buildings With Modern Los Angeles Research Paper

… Karim Snoussi

Christoph Korner

Roman Visions

Take a drive around the always-crowded streets of Los Angeles and you'll notice scores of buildings whose architects drew their inspiration at least in part from the ancient world -- from Babylon and Mesopotamia as well (more commonly) Greece and Rome. Such heavy stylistic borrowing from the cities of Greece and Rome should not be surprising given how many American cities have buildings with Classical and Neoclassical elements. Americans, whose country was born during the Enlightenment's celebration of the Classical world, are inclined to borrow from Greece and Rome in part because of those societies' historical values. This paper examines a number of buildings in Los Angeles that have been influenced by Roman architectural styles. These buildings have thus…. [read more]

Construction Subcontracting Term Paper

… Subcontracting Analysis (Cont'd)

What factors should be evaluated when selecting a subcontractor? What are the typical methods used to evaluate these factors and are these methods effective?

Outsourcing may be a term of fairly recent origin, but the practice itself is truly ancient because humans have been compelled to organize themselves into cooperative networks throughout history just to survive. Indeed, many of the same reasons for such practices remain applicable today. Few companies today possess the expertise, talent and resources to accomplish everything required of an organization in-house and most therefore outsource some component of their business systems (Child & Faulkner, 1998). From this perspective, it just makes good business sense to ally with others that are in a better position because of superior talent,…. [read more]

Cambodia Economic Development Term Paper

… Royaume Du Cambodge

Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in the world, and certainly in Asia. After emerging from the rule of the Khmer Rouge, Cambodia had nothing as was forced to start over. From that starting point, the country's economic development was never going to be easy, and even its low levels today represents healthy progress. Yet, by objective measures and without taking history into account, Cambodia has a lot of issues that it needs to remedy going forward.

This paper takes a look at several major issues. The first sections introduce the company -- its history and the current state of the economy, including trade measures, a discussion of key industries and the key issue of energy. From there, a number of…. [read more]

Ancient Ballgame of Mesoamerica Term Paper

… The teams would often be made up of seven players, though the number did vary, usually between two and eleven players. In some cases, the game would be played in large massive groups without team formations, where the goal would be for each individual playing to win, rather than to play as part of a team. The goal of the combatants was to get a rubber ball through the stone rings attached to the walls. Almost every description that has been found detailing the playing rules of the game specify that neither the hands nor feet can touch the ball. Especially the no-hands rule seems to be consistent throughout all versions of the game, yet some historical items contradict this information. "Two 8th century Maya…. [read more]

Sound Technologies and Sound Design Thesis

… The synchronization of sound films was experimented during 1912 to 1914. These developments underlined the importance of technology and innovation in coming years of film industry. The history of film music also does not provide a coherent record of its developments as Lumiere brothers are also reported as introducing their film with music in 1895. However the confirmation of such records is a trivial task due to unclear documentation.

Phonographic sound and films were among the early films with music. It is also stated that a number of cinemas in Europe were dedicated for phonographic sounds. The introduction of phonographic and these cinemas throughout the world have influenced sound and music in films. It is reported that these cinemas showcased short films with operatic performances.…. [read more]

Dragon Rising Book Report

… ¶ … Dragon Rising by Jasper Becker

Explain why the history of China matters to the present. What can it tell us about modernization in China?

As one of the most ancient civilizations on earth, China's history has been of interest to and highly influential on the West ever since Marco Polo first returned with glowing accounts of the exotic architecture, interesting people and fabulous riches that could be found there. In reality, these same attributes remain salient today, but there are even more Chinese than when Polo visited and interest in the country has never been greater. For instance, Becker reports that, "The Peoples Republic of China now lays claim to all the territories conquered by the Manchus and rules over the destinies of…. [read more]

Cultural and Construction History of the Romanesque Period Essay

… Cultural and Construction History Of Romanesque Period

Cultural Environment

The term Romanesque is an architectural category that refers to the art and architecture of the Mid -- Late Medieval Period in Europe (1000 to 1240 AD). It was coined in the nineteenth century to delineate features of the post-Roman Empire style. The Romanesque period saw the decline and downfall of the Roman Empire, a vacuum that was filled by the Roman Catholic Church. During this time, cathedrals and castles connected with the church and the Crusades sprang up in stone. Their Romanesque elements comprise round-headed arches, barrel vaults, apses, and decorations, and in southern Europe are often blended with Byzantine elements (Atrisgerinko). Additionally, the Romanesque style developed to reflect a rebirth of art, science, and…. [read more]

History of Sanitation Term Paper

… Western medical specialists claimed that bathing could balance the humors and digestive disorders. Hot water (thermal) baths were thought to promote respiration, relieve fatigue and cure headaches, while cold showers were used to relieve painful joints. A very warm bath was used to bring down a high fever by making the bather sweat. "Bathing is about the sensuality of warm and cold thermal sensations that heighten your sense of awareness, destabilize your mood, generally rearrange the contents of your mind. The experience of extreme opposite temperatures back to back (hot to cold or cold to hot) is particularly revelatory" (Koren 28).

In the west, the medical benefits of bathing were forgotten during the Middle Ages, but recovered once again during the Renaissance in France, Germany…. [read more]

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