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History of Sanitation Term Paper

… Western medical specialists claimed that bathing could balance the humors and digestive disorders. Hot water (thermal) baths were thought to promote respiration, relieve fatigue and cure headaches, while cold showers were used to relieve painful joints. A very warm bath was used to bring down a high fever by making the bather sweat. "Bathing is about the sensuality of warm and cold thermal sensations that heighten your sense of awareness, destabilize your mood, generally rearrange the contents of your mind. The experience of extreme opposite temperatures back to back (hot to cold or cold to hot) is particularly revelatory" (Koren 28).

In the west, the medical benefits of bathing were forgotten during the Middle Ages, but recovered once again during the Renaissance in France, Germany…. [read more]

Environment and Islamic Architecture Research Paper

… Environment and Islamic Architecture

As the term implies, "Islamic architecture" is an architectural style that is characterized by functional elements and forms that are inspired by the Islamic religion, and which serves as a framework in which Islamic tenets can be implemented, celebrated and sustained over time. Graceful arabesques, Romanesque horseshoe arches and domes all typify many Islamic architectural styles, but the range and types of buildings that have been included under the umbrella term Islamic architecture in recent years also includes some nontraditional and neo-Islamic architecture as well. Beyond these trends, there has also been a move towards incorporating environmentally friendly elements into Islamic architecture in recent years as well, making a review of these issues a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end,…. [read more]

Definition and Difference Between Arch Bridge Essay

… ¶ … Exposing the Dynamics of Arch and Beam Bridges

Page 2 Brief Summary of the History of Bridges

Page 3 Arch Bridges

Page 6 Beam Bridges

Page 8 Comparing Arch and Beam Bridges

Comparing, Contrasting, and Exposing the Dynamics of Arch and Beam Bridges

There are certainly major differences between a beam bridge and an arch bridge, and this paper delves into the specific and relevant data on both bridges, including their construction and importance vis-a-vis safety and practical usage. Recent research in the literature shows that while arch bridges have previously been considered more expensive and less practical than beam bridges, new technologies are changing the way engineers approach bridge design. Still, the history of beam bridges -- and the development of beam…. [read more]

Baroque Four Baroque -1750) Projects San Carlo Essay

… Baroque

Four Baroque (1600-1750) Projects

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638-1646)

The Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638-1646) or Saint Charles at the Four Fountains is a Roman Catholic church and monastery in Rome. It was built between 1634 and 1638 by Francesco Borromini. It was also the first church in Rome to be dedicated to St. Charles Borromeus, who had been canonized in 1610. (Churches of Roma: San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane) it was also Borromini's first independent architectural commission and is considered to be an iconic masterpiece of Baroque architecture. ( Vino Con Vista Italy Travel Guides and Events) the construction was designed and built as part of a complex of monastic buildings on the Quirinal Hill for the Spanish Trinitarians.…. [read more]

History of Project Management in Twelve Periods Book Report

… ¶ … history of project management in twelve periods of Western history. This involved the exploration of six topic areas that would provide insight into the history and evolution of project management. These included the following areas: cultural environment; scientific environment; general management; construction technology and the Master Builder Tradition

The research into these areas led to the process of placing contemporary project management in its historical perspective and comparing this perspective to the modern state of this science. This process also led to a number of recommendations that were a central outcome of the study. Among these was the recommendation that further research should be undertaken into the architectural principles of each historical period, with particular emphasis on the impact of the economic environment…. [read more]

Domestic Architecture in Ancient Pompeii Term Paper

… Additionally, ceiling beams were also painted, gilded, or inlaid with ivory and the floors were paved in stone or fine mosaic. All historians have generally agreed on the ideology on the division of Pompeian mural painting into four styles based on stylistic variations each having its own specific characteristics. All four styles remained in use concurrently with specific styles chosen for specific rooms. Each of these styles can be defined by the architectural function of the wall it decorates.

The wall paintings of the Roman villas are almost as intact as they were when they were created all those centuries ago. Such wall paintings were part of a life-style, important expressions of Roman culture and a reflection of the values of the period. According to…. [read more]

Greece Ancient Essay

… It was given a white undercoat first. Brushes and pens were made from reeds (tall grasses). Painters used tempera and fresco on walls. They used tempera and encaustic on wood or marble. The usual materials for sculpture were marble and bronze. Sculptors occasionally used limestone, terracotta, and wood, and sometimes gold and ivory with a wooden center. They used solid gold and silver for very special sculptures.[footnoteRef:12] [12: Hodge, Susie. Ancient Greek Art. (Heinemann: Chicago. 2006).]

There were other ways to appease the Gods and celebrate ritual and tradition besides art.

People were also expected to perform certain actions in situations in order to honor others and please the Gods. Those that did not do what society dictated they should would be cursed and damned…. [read more]

Schinkel Pugin Viollet-Le-Duc Research Proposal

… Architecture History - Schinkel, Pugin, and Jefferson

According to David Watkin, "The time period in which an architectural work of art is created has everything to do with the way it looks. In other words, the style of an architectural work is a function of its historical period." 1 Thus, works of architecture, much like sculptures and paintings, are arranged into specific stylistic classes based on their appearances and the times or periods when they were constructed. Also, as a fundamental hypothesis of architectural history, buildings and other structures created at about the same time and in the same basic geographical location generally share common stylistic traits, such as those constructed during the Romantic Period in England which generally exhibit traits linked to the Gothic…. [read more]

Classical Art Research Paper

… Middle Ages Art Comparison

During the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, many scholars and artists turned back to Greece and Rome to develop new views of the State, of individuals, and themes for art and literature. Traditionally, the term "Middle Ages" means the stretch of European history that lasted roughly from the 5th to the 15th centuries -- from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire through the Age of Discovery. There is still scholarly debate on whether the Middle Ages includes the Renaissance of the 13th-15th centuries, but most modern scholars find it more useful to divide the period into Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. In art and literature we also often come across the term "Dark Ages," which implies that there…. [read more]

Chinese Jade Burial Suits Essay

… There are 17 Hindu caves beyond the Buddhist site, occupying the center of the complex. The walls of these caves provide stark contrast to those of the Buddhists. They are covered in epic bas-reliefs that depict events from Hindu scripture, and all the caves are devoted to the Hindu lord Shiva. Upon visiting the 16th cave in my tour, I was shocked by its sheer ingenuity. The cave is not technically a cave, but is in fact an enormous carved into the cliff. It resembles many of the temples that populate the region, representing Mount Kailash, home to the venerable Lord Shiva. There is a thick coat of white plaster covering this temple, which gives it the appearance of a snowy mountain. While the names…. [read more]

Interior Design and Theories "Architects Term Paper

… Another design style had erupted during the era as a reaction to the Neo-Classical Style known as Picturesque, and it emphasized on formality, proportion, order and Exactitude.

Neo-Classic architecture and design identified with Western Heritage, Luxury, Eliteness and Sophistication that seeks not to replicate. An example of Neo-Classic architecture and design would be the Schermerhorn Symphony Centre. Other examples are the Newton Memorial, Bibliotheque Nationale, Metropol Church, Hotel Alexandre, all located in Paris and built by Etienne-Loius Boullee. The interior of the White House is has Neo-Classic setting. (Kulahcioglu)

Neoclassical architecture has a few characteristics in common despite the emphasis placed upon the uniqueness of each structure. It involves decisive detailing, careful proportions, skillful use of light sources, and balanced ornamentation amongst many others. Notable…. [read more]

Asses the Text of Andrea Palladio and Sinan Research Paper

… Andrea Palladio and Sinan

The Turkish Architect, Sinan, and the Italian Andrea Palladio, born less than 20 years apart, show remarkable similarities in their work and attitude. One particular similarity is that they are both representative of great architecture in their respective cultures and time periods. Both rose from humble beginnings to become much sought-after professionals, designing luxurious and beautiful buildings for royalty, rich business people, and other clients. While Sinan was employed by the Sultan's court, Palladio made his first breakthrough when he became a student to an amateur architect. Both architects found themselves deeply inspired by observing ruins and buildings constructed by others. When comparing their writing, it is clear that both men also revere their art deeply, to the point where it…. [read more]

African Art the Trade Center/Royal Term Paper

… Although this has all been proven false by more recent archeological investigations, it is a telling history of Britain's attempt to take indigenous peoples out of the historical mix.

The people who built the Great Zimbabwe lived at the site and built it up from approximately 1100-1450 AD (Ampim). It is divided, primarily, into two different areas. These are the Hill enclosures and those in the valley. It is believed by many that the hill enclosures were the first seats of the kings, but they eventually moved to the Great Enclosure which is in the valley. This is a picture looking down on the valley enclosure.

The Great enclosure iint he valley is also thought to have housed the harem of the king (Tyson) as…. [read more]

Soviet Afghan War Conflict Analysis Thesis

… Soviet-Afgan War Conflict Analysis


The objective of this work is to analyze the Soviet-Afghan War that lasted from 1978 to 1989. At focus in this study is that in this particular conflict the capable Soviet military invaded a powerless Afghanistan in support of the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan in their battle against the Mujahedeen, a grassroots militia resistance force.

Despite the well-armed troops and superior technology employed by the Russians, in the form of tanks and helicopters, the Mujahedeen was victorious in a long and bloody war of attrition. This was in no small part to intelligence and arms provided to the Mujahedeen by the U.S. After the defeat of the Russians was achieved, the U.S. turned…. [read more]

Ancient History of Yemen Research Paper

… In the south it is important to remember that the League did not always have influence but it tried to do so without ceasing, frequently depending upon its own internal evolutionary strife and who its power brokers were at any given time.

Intermittent clashes took place along the frontier in 1954. The leader of the north (San'a) signed a tripartite military alliance with Saudi Arabia and Egypt on 24 April 1956 (Jidda Pact) and, in 1958, federated with the United Arab Republic (the federation was called the United Arab States). These arrangements were dissolved in 1961. San'a also claimed South Yemen (Aden). When the treaty was broken, a long period of Egyptian-supported subversion began in San'a. [as a direct result of Arab League influence by…. [read more]

Obama and Election History Research Paper

… Obama and Election

History was made in November 2008, not just American history, but world history as the United States elected its first African-American President. but, the election of a Black man as President, as unheard of as it might have been just 50 years ago, or even 25 years ago, was history because it was a national catharsis -- a repudiation of the greed, avarice, and selfishness that had so characterized American society for the past eight years. Obama's election was a referendum on a new America -- a younger America with an optimistic, but not Pollyannaish, view of the grave and serious problems faced; but a dramatic change from past politicians in that Obama stands for a more open government, dialog with international…. [read more]

Critique a Building After 1400 Term Paper

… ¶ … architecture of the Alamo in San Antonio Texas from Michelangelo's point-of-view. Specifically it will critique the building from the point-of-view of architect Michelangelo, who is totally unrelated to the building's design. Michelangelo will critique the building according to his own architectural values and beliefs. The Alamo is one of the most famous American buildings. Parts of the original buildings in the Alamo compound are more than 250 years old, but according to many European architects, that is simply nothing compared to many of their buildings that have been standing for centuries. Michelangelo was a noted painter and sculptor, perhaps one of the world's best. He was also a noted architect, and as he stands before the present day Alamo in San Antonio, Texas,…. [read more]

Sandia Mountains Environmental History Essay

… Railroads put an end to the traditional geographical isolation of the Pueblos by the 1880s. Electricity came to Sandia Pueblo in 1952, followed shortly by natural gas, indoor plumbing, and automobiles (New Mexico State Record Center and Archives 2012). Technology influenced the lives of the Pueblo people but did not weaken their bond to the region.

The Sandia people are intensely religious, holding a deep connection to the Sandia Mountains. Religion and life are inseparable in traditional Pueblo culture. The Pueblo ideal embraces a way of life that is in harmony with all of nature. Pueblo beliefs hold that there are sacred mountains in each direction, plus the sun above and earth below, and that these define and balance the Pueblo world. Many Pueblo religious…. [read more]

Hanna Barbera History of the Animators Term Paper

… Hanna Barbera history of the animators, what they did before becoming animators, what cartoons they created, process of animation, lighting, & sound that was used

Brief history of both Hanna & Barbera and how each evolved as animators:

William Denby Hanna and Joseph Ronald Barbera popularly as Hanna Barbera are no doubt the masters of animation. Born on 1910, in Melrose, New Mexico, William Hanna's interest in drawing made him to start his career with Harman-Ising animation studio. He was placed in the layout and story unit there. This served as the first step to the evolution of William Hanna as animator. After seven years of service in Harman-Ising studio he moved to the animation division of MGM in 1937. At MGM he and William…. [read more]

Theodore Roosevelt Research Proposal

… Theodore Roosevelt: An American for a New Age

Few Americans have so profoundly influenced the modern era as Theodore Roosevelt. Statesman and cultural crusader, the twenty-sixth president of the United States brought issues of race, conservation, and American power to the forefront of public discussion. Roosevelt was both a product of his times and a sign of things to come. Raised in New York City, he developed an affinity for the American West and all that it symbolized. Product of the era of the Civil War, he advanced upon the issues that came out of the conflict and tried to lead the country forward. Roosevelt's views on race and social relations would reflect reformist attitudes. He believed strongly in the idea of projecting American power…. [read more]

Muhammad Ali in Egypt Thesis

… But they took away, for five centuries, the possibility of an independent Arab-dom, and Arab nationalists bore them considerable ill-will for it[footnoteRef:13]. The only 'Arab' state conquered by the Turks which was not in irremediable decay, was the Mamluk state of Egypt and Syria[footnoteRef:14]. The Mamluks themselves were a dynasty of Turkish slaves; and in any case they afterwards succeeded, as did all the North African provinces, in enjoying internal autonomy under Ottoman suzerainty. The claim that the caliphate had been transmitted to the Ottoman sultans was made only late in the history of the Empire. It was as Turkish rulers that they held their power, and only secondarily (if at all) as vice-regents of the Prophet. They preserved and even sharpened the distinction between…. [read more]

King Herod, the Great Term Paper

… In the spring of 30 B.C. Herod met Octavius in Rhodes. But before he left he gave instructions to two of his friends that if was executed then they have to kill Alexandra and Mariamne, so that his sons and his brother Pheroras would rule his kingdom (3).

King Herod played his part well when he came in Rhodes to stand before Octavius. He confessed immediately that he was a true friend of Marc Antony and that he did not fight against Octavius due to his war against the Arabs (3). His arguments to Octavius gave the impression that if he was loyal to Marc Antony then his loyalty would benefit Octavius. This explanation allowed Herod to remain as the ruler of Judea and he…. [read more]

History Education Term Paper

… Theories


Methods and Techniques

A Specific Method


Results for the Same

Examples of Voices Singing a Canon

The Project Life Cycle

Project Management Puzzle Parts

Map of More and Less Developed Countries

Criteria for LDCs

Selected Economic and Social Indicators for LDCs (2005)


"Great music is in a sense serene; it is certain of the values it asserts."

-Rebecca West (Simpson)

Contrary to the consensus some students purport, a thesis does not constitute a torture tactic designed by professors to traumatize students. In fact, according to Teitelbaum (1), "The thesis paper, when carefully assigned and conscientiously done, has definite value." Professors usually assign the thesis paper as a major component of a course requirement. The researched…. [read more]

Urban and Redevelopment Planning a Comparative Study of the Emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai Term Paper

… ¶ … United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi and Dubai

A Comparative Study: Emirates of Abu Dhabi

It has often been recalled throughout history that it is said that the Phoenix will rise from the ashes if the saying has only predicted the Phoenix rising from the sands of the Desert then surely it would be proclaimed that the Phoenix was indeed the nation of the Arab Emirates. Dubai was a small fishing village in the 18th century and home to the Bani Yaw tribe however, history places civilization in this area during the first millennium BC. The museum in Dubai contains a collection that was excavated from Al-Quasais and another excavation yielded a caravan station that was from the sixth century AD in the expatriate…. [read more]

History of Management of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… ¶ … management and leadership strategies were utilized by civilizations. Oftentimes, civilizations-based what services to provide and how to provide them to their citizens upon the particular needs of that particular civilization at that time. In this case, the vast majority of these societies existed long before there were terms or coursework offered in the management or leadership arena. Herein, beginning with Ancient Mesopotamia, this paper shall trek around the world to varying civilizations noting how the societies managed the particular needs of their citizens given the particular resources at hand and then figuring out how best to manage the particular needs of each country

Ancient Mesopotamia

Through the organizational behavior of the Sumerian priests and the leadership of Hammurabi, the Ancient World of Mesopotamia's…. [read more]

History of the Violin Term Paper

… One cannot argue that the violin of today is both a work of art and a musical instrument that must be appreciated for its complexity and brilliance.

The quality of sound and tonal differentiations produced when playing depend on many factors, including the construction of the actual instrument itself and the skill of the player.

The history of the violin is long and highly debated. There are those that claim the violin has been in existence since early biblical times, whereas others argue that the true violin as we know it today did not emerge until the mid 17th to eighteenth centuries. These differences in opinion are due largely to one's interpretation of the violin.

Some consider musical iconography a testament to the actual presence…. [read more]

History of Management Literature Review

… Management theory technically came into being in 1899, when Frederick Winslow Taylor, the author of the Principles of Scientific Management, came forth with a new management style by which he sought to increase the productivity of laborers off-loading steel (Stewart). There is no denying that since Taylor's advent of management theory that businessmen have been promulgating and setting forth doctrines pertaining to how best to get things accomplished. Since Taylor, the founder of management theory, emerged in 1899, does that mean that prior to 1899, management theory did not exist? Perhaps, the name did not exist; however, the process itself - of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people -- existed in the philosophies, politics, economies, and basic organizational structures of…. [read more]

Oppression of the Chechen People by the Russian Government Term Paper

… Oppression of the Chechen People by the Russian Government

Russian Oppression of the Chechen People

The purpose of this work is to research the interactions and wars in between Russia and Chechnya as well as the oppression perpetrated against and upon the Chechen people and to show that the Chechen people are a nation that loves peace and equality as well as valuing their cultural heritage and not at all the war-mongering nation that Russia would have the world to believe.

The Russian rule of the Chechen people has seemingly brought the people of Chechnya to their knees however one must question the true validity of Russian rule in a land where a people have never accepted that rule but continued to war against the…. [read more]

Master Builders Today, the Professions Literature Review

… By the time of 700 B.C. And the inscriptions of Sennacherib, much more detail is provided about the temple construction and the use of these structures in feasts and celebrations. Esarhaddon (681 to 669 BC), who was Sennacherib's son and successor of king of Assyria, tells of his interest to rebuild Babylon and its temple to the appearance of "favourable signs in the heaven and on earth" (Luckenbill 260) He proceeded cautiously by asking an oracle if he was making the correct decision: "To (await) the decision of Shamash and Adad, I prostrated myself reverently; to (learn) their final decree, I arranged the soothsayers at the entrance to the Bit-mummu. I saw a vision concerning Assur, Babylon and Nineveh. (For guidance) concerning the artificers who…. [read more]

Hellenic Sculpture and Hellenistic Sculpture? Term Paper

… The portrayal of the female nude begins to be explored, while the depiction of children also changed -- in the Classical period, for example, children were portrayed as miniature adults. However, in the Hellenistic period, the realism of youth is fully portrayed leading to a series of works which depict children with the pudgy belly, robust legs and genuine proportions of a small child.

This realism elicits an emotional response in the viewer quite unlike that of classical and archaic art, and while we must guard against imposing modern perceptions on these works, it does seem likely that they were intended to provoke some kind of response in contemporary observers.

Perhaps the best example of this is the series of sculptures at Pergamon -- in…. [read more]

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