Viewing papers 1-30 of 37 for history AND of AND construction AND technology AND of AND 12 AND periods AND in AND western AND civilization

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History of Muslims in Europe and in the US Research Paper

… History of Muslims in Europe and in the U.S.

Islamophobia - the United States and the European continent

The Islam is at the moment one of the most important religious, cultural, and eventually political entities of the world today. According to studies made in 2009, it represents 23% of the global population of 6.9 billion people

Even so, there are numerous accounts in which the Muslim population is the subject of discrimination or political differentiation. At the moment, this entire phenomenon is defined as Islamophobia. The present paper addresses the issue of islamophobia from the perspective of the two most important regions where it developed and where is most visible. In this sense, the research takes into account the way in which the United States…. [read more]

History of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… History Of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization

What makes humans different from other animals can be attributed to many things, but it usually begins with our conscious choice to explore the world and separate ourselves from nature through some mastery of it. With the advent of agriculture, humans were now congregating in population centers and living for both themselves and their gods. Religion has always taken a guiding hand through history and is intimately connected to the history of construction itself.

What pushes man to go beyond himself and create structures of immense stature and/or beauty? Only Gods can do that and have done that as evidenced in the still standing great pyramid of Giza and the Parthenon in Athens. Building these…. [read more]

History of Construction Technology Literature Review

… History Of Construction Technology

Time Periods

Tools, materials, innovations

Add (April notes) two subheadings: Construction Techniques and Construction Machines under each one.




Ancient Egyptian


Ancient Greek

Idea of "Simple Machine"




Roman Empire

Works of Vitruvius

Roman Crane


Byzantine Empire

Master builders of Byzatine

Islamic Golden Age


See YC's notes on Crusader Castles -- looks like mostly books

Romanesque (1000-1200)

a. See YC's links

9. Gothic (1200-1400)

a. See YC's links on Gothic architecture

10. Renaissance Period (1400-1600)

11. Baroque Period (1600-1750)

12. Industrial Revolution (1750-1900)

1. Construction Technology of Mesopotamia

1.1. Construction Techniques

The Mesopotamian civilization dates back to c.6000 BC. As one of the first Bronze Age cultures, this civilization was also the…. [read more]

Economics in Ancient Civilization Literature Review

… Source: Stein, Kenneth, 1995.

Egyptologists point to the extent by which tributary construction was attributed to leaders of Ancient Egypt is evidence that continuity was sought in proclamations of economic and political stability; composed in perpetuity as a standard of perfection dictated by those rulers. Tomb paintings referencing elaborate banquets and trade activities in the afterlife, give some inference into the sophistication of everyday economy in the region (de la Croix and Tansey). Mummies provide important support of this fact, and dietary assessments reveal much about the abundance and fortitude of Ancient Egypt at a time when the inhabitants of Europe were largely migratory with caves as the only source of protection from the elements.

According to Wharburton (2000) in Before the IMF: the economic…. [read more]

Cultural and Construction History of the Renaissance Essay

… Cultural and Construction History of the Renaissance (1450 to 1600)

Cultural Environment

The European Renaissance between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries began in Florence. It was not a sudden rebirth from the Dark Ages, but approximates more a refocusing outward politically and intellectually. Europe had become more than a series of small principalities vying for hegemony. There were larger cities, a more educated population, and a growing technology that allowed states to concentrate on growth and improvement. Italian cities were freed from feudalism, and were more mercantile and less hinged around a monarch (Skinner 69). On a cultural level, the Renaissance signalled a rebirth of learning and educational reform. People returned to classical works and revised their position on Christianity. There was a rise in…. [read more]

Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes Dissertation

Traditional Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes: Studies on Origins and History

The study investigates the bamboo flutes found in Southeast Asia, as well as their history and origin. The earliest known extant bamboo flute, a chi, or ancient Chinese flute, from the Zhou Dynasty, discovered in the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, dates from 433 BC. Southeast Asian bamboo flutes, diverse in shape and size, vary in the way musicians play them. During the ethnography, a qualitative study, the researcher utilizes an extensive literature review to explore the development of bamboo flutes in SEA and examines the link between these instruments and music, as well as traditions from and beyond Asia.

As the study focuses on the flutes from three main areas: Mainland…. [read more]

History of Architectural Design and Theory of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization Literature Review

… ¶ … human history, the concept of expression through architecture, stone, granite, metal, wood and concrete has extended through the course of human history. Since the dawn of time man has attempted to express himself and his surroundings as well as convey messages through structures. Man has honored himself, royalty and deities through constructions of ornate structures that posses such detailed reliefs as to leave the archeologist, architect and anthropologist spell bound as to the level of detail utilized by these primitive peoples. The evolution of architectural structures and techniques has evolved continuously as man has improved his ability to utilize those tools that are at his disposal.

The ancient Sumerians and Babylonians utilized various stone structures to create their structures. The ancient Romans utilized…. [read more]

Scientific Revolution and Management of Western Civilization Literature Review

… ¶ … Scientific Method, Scientific Revolution and Scientific Management of Western Civilization

The quest for knowledge for knowledge's sake is an inherent part of mankind, and with this knowledge we are able to progress as a race through scientific advancements, in the form of medicine and technology to name but two. One of the most famous figures who pushed knowledge for knowledge's sake was Galileo, who discovered, to the horror of the Church, that the Earth is not the centre of the universe. So important was Galileo that he has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy" (Singer 217). The Scientific Revolution itself was a major turning point in human understanding of the world, but rather than being confined to a single area or…. [read more]

Greek Temple Architecture Term Paper

… While, many historians have failed to recognize the traces of the temple and have established their facts on the shared memory of the Greeks. Some historians have found concrete evidence that a temple had been build in this place. "The temple of the classical period, before which stood a large altar given by Chios, was erected at the end of the sixth century by the Attic family of the Alcmaeonidae on the site of the building burned down in 548. It was paid for with money collected throughout the entire Greek world, and -- partly at the family's expense -- provided with a marble pronaos and magnificent pediment figures. An earthquake destroyed this edifice in 373, and its replacement could not be completed until about…. [read more]

Iron Bridge Was Conceived of and Erected Research Paper

… Iron Bridge was conceived of and erected for the extremely pragmatic purpose of allowing travelers and tradesmen to cross the Severn Gorge which is part of the River Severn at Ironbridge Gorge. Prior to its construction, the only way to cross this river was by ferry. Iron Bridge is located in a village of Iron Bridge, which is one of several villages in England's Shropshire. Due to the increasing commercial traffic from the village to other parts of England, the construction of Iron Bridge was viewed as an economic necessity and herald of the modern period of industrialization.

The original designer of the bridge was Thomas Pritchard, whose construction plans were finished in 1775. The rest of the project was largely overseen by Abraham Darby…. [read more]

Architecture Through the Ages Mesopotamia Literature Review

… The Erechtheum and the small temple of Athena on the Acropolis are Ionic however. The Ionic order became dominant in the Hellenistic period, since its more decorative style suited the aesthetic of the period better than the more restrained Doric. Records show that the evolution of the Ionic order was resisted by many Greek States, as they claimed it represented the dominance of Athens. Some of the best surviving Hellenistic buildings, such as the Library of Celsus, can be seen in Turkey at cities such as Ephesus and Pergamum. But in the greatest of Hellenistic cities, Alexandria in Egypt, almost nothing survives, so Greek art and architecture was at its apex during this time.

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was a revolutionary period due to…. [read more]

History of Management of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… ¶ … management and leadership strategies were utilized by civilizations. Oftentimes, civilizations-based what services to provide and how to provide them to their citizens upon the particular needs of that particular civilization at that time. In this case, the vast majority of these societies existed long before there were terms or coursework offered in the management or leadership arena. Herein, beginning with Ancient Mesopotamia, this paper shall trek around the world to varying civilizations noting how the societies managed the particular needs of their citizens given the particular resources at hand and then figuring out how best to manage the particular needs of each country

Ancient Mesopotamia

Through the organizational behavior of the Sumerian priests and the leadership of Hammurabi, the Ancient World of Mesopotamia's…. [read more]

Doing Business in Another Country Thesis

… ¶ … Business in another Country

Iran Analysis

When deciding upon the option of opening a business in a foreign location, any company, no matter its size or field of activity, must conduct a thorough analysis of the factors that might influence the company's presence in the country in case. Cultural differences are very important factors that must be analyzed and taken into consideration. Even more, the entire strategy must be built on these cultural aspects.

The stability or instability of the economic, political, cultural environment may be decisive for the well-functioning of the company. In a country like Iran, characterized by such cultural and religious differences in comparison with Western civilizations, the environment is quite risky and may cause a series of turbulences for…. [read more]

Interventionism From the Perspective Case Study

… These studies serve as the foundation for this present analysis.

Other studies have shown that foreign military intervention can easily be conducted even if they are in violation of the United Nations charter and lack authorization of the Security Council (Cassese 1999). This shows that countries can and do act on their own in engaging in interventionism. The motives for doing so are what this study plans to investigate.

A number of Western countries support humanitarian interventionism but they have not yet intervened in Syria. The reality behind humanitarian interventionism is that there are clear political, geopolitical, and economical consequences to every foreign intervention. Intervention is not merely a humanitarian crusade but rather a highly explosive affair that can cripple countries' infrastructures and have global…. [read more]

Medieval Islamic Art and Architecture Essay

… Medieval Islamic Art

The Transition Between the Byzantine and Islamic Empires

The Islamic conquest that spread with unprecedented quickness through the Middle and Near East regions, and through Iberia and as a major cultural influence in Western Europe thereafter, is often seen as a sharp point of departure from the Eastern Roman power that ruled these regions prior. Steeped heavily in Christian ideology and iconography from a seat of power in Constantinople (now in modern Turkey), the Byzantine Empire would cast a dominant impression on pre-Muslim Arab civilizations. Therefore, the apparent immediacy with which history shows this to have been replaced by the dominance of Islamic influences may not be fully accurate. Or at least, it may lack the nuance to explain the clear and…. [read more]

Sociology History of Business Science Research Proposal

… Delimitations

Today, modern business systems help an increasingly globalized world function in seamless ways. In fact, English is rapidly becoming the lingua franca of the business world and transnational borders and cross-cultural factors no longer operate as major barriers to commerce. Further, a wide range of financial instruments exist such as letters of credit and bills of lading whose purpose and operation are readily understood by businesspeople from New York to New Delhi. Business correspondence too has a fairly standardized format that businesspeople all over the world both use and understand and all of these features have helped create a modern business system that is both efficient and effective in achieving the movement of goods and services around the world. All of these business systems,…. [read more]

Rapid Innovations in Technology Thesis

… For example, Hurrell and Woods emphasize that, "Within weak states globalization and widening inequality are eroding the capacity of governments to deal with an increasing set of social, economic, and political conflicts" (1999: 2). At the regional level, the inequalities being generated by globalization are creating instability and the further marginalization of the already impoverished (Blank 2007). At the global level, the implications of the inequalities being caused by globalization are even more severe. In this regard, Hurrell and Woods add that, "As globalization creates sharper and more urgent problems for states and international institutions, increasing inequality reduces their capacity to manage these problems effectively. In this context, it is unsurprising that the sense of unease about globalization has increased and that political and media…. [read more]

Toll Roads Term Paper

… Privatization of America's Highway Infrastructure

Brief History of Public Roads

The Role of States

Federal Efforts to Build Our Highway System

What is the Answer?

Increased corporate taxes and revenue for localities

Fears of price gouging

Competition leads to better management

Managing downside risk

Examples of privatization at work

Chicago Skyway

Considerations for future Pennsylvania projects

The future of New Jersey highways

Advantages vs. consumer fears

Hybrid techniques

Solutions must consider local situation

The Privatization of America's Highway Infrastructure

"I am aware, Gentleman, that the want of a good, permanent road is, at present, the principal defect in the communication between the middle counties and the metropolis." - Thomas Mifflin, Pennsylvania Governor 1791

Roads are one of the oldest elements of the infrastructure of any…. [read more]

Grave Goods of the Avars in Medieval Carpathian Basin Research Paper

… " (Bardos, n.d., p. 2)

Excavations also located iron furnaces but state that 100% of the excavated graves in the Avar cemetery had been robbed but that what was left "shows a miraculous richness and variability." (Bardos, nd, p. 2) It is reported that the "constitution and quality of the find material designate a community of high social level. The finds mirror the material culture of Europe in the 7th century. The rich Byzantine ornaments, the folding iron stools of Italy, western type belt mounts, glass wares, bronze dish and bronze jug, pieces of costume from the land of the Merovings." (Bardos, nd, p.3)

V. Preparation of the Dead By Avars

The early parts of the cemetery are reported to contain German type objects including…. [read more]

Ancient Buildings With Modern Los Angeles Research Paper

… Karim Snoussi

Christoph Korner

Roman Visions

Take a drive around the always-crowded streets of Los Angeles and you'll notice scores of buildings whose architects drew their inspiration at least in part from the ancient world -- from Babylon and Mesopotamia as well (more commonly) Greece and Rome. Such heavy stylistic borrowing from the cities of Greece and Rome should not be surprising given how many American cities have buildings with Classical and Neoclassical elements. Americans, whose country was born during the Enlightenment's celebration of the Classical world, are inclined to borrow from Greece and Rome in part because of those societies' historical values. This paper examines a number of buildings in Los Angeles that have been influenced by Roman architectural styles. These buildings have thus…. [read more]

Conception of Project Management Book Report

… ¶ … conception of project management is actually the summation of the preceding centuries' worth of work and development within this area. Although this discipline was not termed as such until the 1900's, it has slowly evolved much like any other process utilized throughout the course of time and which includes "building processes" which "have led to the development of project management" and, the basics of which "can be traced back to these periods of time" (Yuen 383) that are discussed within this current study. These time periods encompass the medieval period in Europe and in the Near East, and were stratified to include the Byzantine Empire, Islamic Golden Age, the Crusades, the Carolingian Renaissance, the Romanesque Period as well as the Gothic Period, which…. [read more]

Social Constructionism and Historiography Research Paper

… [footnoteRef:16] Writing from a Soviet Marxist point-of-view, Boris Hessen claimed that Newton's science was a part of the capitalist revolution in the 17th Century and developed to meet the economic and military needs of the new bourgeois elites.[footnoteRef:17] Hessen and Merton could in fact be considered the founders of the externalist school in scientific historiography, with the central thesis that science is socially constructed by outside political, economic and cultural influences rather than the internalist school and its argument that science progresses due mainly to the genius of the great innovators like Newton and Einstein. [13: Helge Kragh. An Introduction to the Historiography of Science. Cambridge University Press, 1987, p. 18.] [14: Kragh, p. 27.] [15: Kragh, p. 28.] [16: Robert Merton. The Sociology of…. [read more]

Inflation Unemployment and Phillips Curve in China Dissertation

… Inflation, Unemployment and Phillips Curve in China

Research particularities

Inflation, unemployment and their definitions

The problem of inflation

The definition of inflation

Measures of inflation

How inflation is measured

Global values of inflation

Types of inflation

Issues raised by inflation

The problem of unemployment

The definition of unemployment

Measures of unemployment

How unemployment is measured

Global values of inflation

Issues of unemployment

The Phillips curve

Defining the Phillips curve

The original Phillips curve

Mathematics behind the original Phillips curve

The modified Phillips curve

Mathematics behind the modified Phillips curve

Two Phillips curves

The Phillips curve in China

General information about China

People's Republic of China interest rates

Phillips curves in China

Relationship between inflation and unemployment in short-term and long-term

The real estate bubble in…. [read more]

Transition to Agriculture Term Paper

… The new way of life based in permanent settlements led to the emergence of human 'communities.' These permanent communities were responsible for numerous other developments and the growth of 'civilizations' as we know them today. For example, archeological findings indicate that construction of solid buildings coincided with the appearance of the first agricultural societies. Since mobility was no longer a requirement, the human 'tool kit' began to expand. Technology started to develop since 'specialization' now became possible with people adopting specialized activities at which they were skilled. Population began to expand exponentially since it was now desirable to have more children with agriculture requiring more 'hands' in the fields.

Not all changes necessitated by the transition from a nomadic to a sedentary way of life…. [read more]

September 11 Term Paper

… Before the attacks on the World Trade Center took place, people from different origins lived there safely without being targeted in any way. They set up their businesses there and lived peacefully. There was a sense of security that prevailed for all people living in the U.S., and there was a great respect for human life no matter what color caste or creed. Even if differences did significantly exist, the media did not splash them out as it is today.

Since the attacks on the World Trade Center took place, all residents and permanent citizens of the U.S. have lost their sense of security. Today, a non-white is seen as a threat to humanity and non-Muslims, especially if s/he is of Arab origin. Anyone with…. [read more]

Peasant Life During the Meiji Restoration Thesis

… Peasant Life During the Meiji Restoration

The Meiji Restoration brought political, social and economic changes in the life of Japan that needed a period of sacrifice, like most of the changings following a revolution or a change of system in the life of a country. The transition from the Tokugawa to the Meiji period is considered a period of abrupt passing from a feudal Japan into a capitalist society. During that period, the rural population represented more than two thirds of the total population. The peasants were the main working force and sources of income for the country's resources. The industrial era was in its early stages and still running a long way until being able to take over from the agricultural sector.

The political…. [read more]

Missing Reel the Untold Story Term Paper

… In 1885, Le Prince began his own experiments in the area of film.

While in Paris to tend to his sick mother in 1887, Le Prince constructed a sixteen lens camera, soon to be followed by a small sixteen lens projector and a stereotypical viewing device. The next year he succeeded in building a much larger sixteen lens projector and began to apply for (and receive) patents for his new motion picture device.

In October of 1888, while the talk of London was the horrific murders being carried out by the Western world's first "superstar" serial killer, Jack the Ripper, Le Prince shot two pieces of film which are now recognized as the first such ever of their kind. The first showed the garden of…. [read more]

Evolution of Project Management Research Paper



"Archetypically, Apollo manifests as an image of the modern project manager-one who works well within the interior of her or his organization, moving effortlessly across and between horizontal boundaries, but does not adopt the necessities of power in order to move vertically"

(Henderson, Interpretation and Discussion Section ¶ 11).

History Confirms Project Management's Value

Professions like architecture, engineering, medicine, economic, technology, astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, etc. all have their own well-documented history. As a professional architect, the researcher asserts that project management also deserves a relevant recount of its history. Since ancient times, people throughout the world have been building projects that enrich one's cultural heritage and have contributed to project management's remarkable, relevant evolution. The pyramids of Egypt and…. [read more]

Dream Content as Therapy: Ego vs. Repression Dissertation

… For example: a parent has repeating nightmares, and the child "dreams his dreams " because the child is in a psychic resonance with the parent. The child's dreams end when the parent's does. Four, it might be a repetition of a past traumatic event in current lifetime. For example: a person might dream of a recent rape, a childhood assault or a wartime battle. This type of nightmare is so deeply etched in the psyche that it can require heavy use of behavioral dream-work techniques to modify the content and emotional intensity.

A fifth factor could be that the dream is a depiction of a past or probable life. For example: a client might dream the last events prior to a violent…. [read more]

Secular Humanism Research Proposal

… Secular Humanism

The rise and influence of Secular Humanism in the 20th century


Brief Overview of the Antecedents of Secular Humanism

The Enlightenment and Renaissance

Political and Economic Factors

The Modern Era

Historical aspects; The Formalism of Secular Humanism

The Role of Science

Secularization in the West

Influential Thinkers

Secular Humanism in the Twentieth Century and its Crisis

The Influence of Secular Humanism

The phenomenon of secular humanism is a central facet of the constitution and character of contemporary Western culture and society. The modern development of this ideology or worldview has progressed from the humanism of the Enlightenment to the particle style of secular humanism that we find in the twentieth century. This cultural phenomenon became a dominant social and cultural force during…. [read more]

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