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AIDS in Afica HIV Research Paper

… Despite the growing support from local leaders, there are significant obstacles to overcome. Even though the epidemic may seem like the world's greatest health crisis to outside viewers, locally unemployment is consistently identified as a more important issue that AIDS and this creates a situation in which much of the local population isn't receptive to any external assistance (Youde).

Works Cited

Cohen, B. Preventing and Mitigating AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Research and Data Priorities for the Social and Behavioral Sciences. New York: National Academies Press, 1996. Print.

Essex, M., et al. AIDS in Africa. New York: Springer, 2002. Print.

Iwelunmor, J. And A. Collins. "Cultural Implications of Death and Loss from AIDS among Women in South Africa." Death Studies (2012): 134-151. Web.

Johnson, K. "Between…. [read more]

HIV and STD Behavior Interventional Strategies for Adolescents and Youths Term Paper

… HIV and STD Behavior Interventional Strategies for Adolescents and Youths

Teenage sex has been viewed as a social problem for some time, but the spread of HIV / AIDS in society has increased fears of what can happen if young people have unprotected sex. The prevalence of HIV among young people has been increasing, with some populations seen as more vulnerable than others, such as homeless youth and black and Hispanic youth. Programs have been developed to educate these young people, and studies of how effective such programs can be have been undertaken to see if they do work and to improve them if they do not.

Many researchers focus on family influences on adolescent sexual behavior, and communication between parents and their children about…. [read more]

HIV Prevention Cultural Change Typically Essay

… Thus, levels of power are determined according to cultural differences that have been subscribed and dominated based on ethnic (usually physical or religious) differences. Ranks within culture are central to our understanding of cultural variation because the describe the actual fundamental issues that often result in cultural change. Typically, this change occurs because the dominant group takes on the higher rank, with lower ranked groups taking a subordinate position -- resulting in ethnocentrism and eventually the desire of the subdominant group to overthrow, integrate into, or change the position and levels -- causing a deep chasm and eventually cultural change (Harrison and Kagan, eds., 2006).

For many scholars, social inequality combined with a level of mistrust, resource issues, and behavioral differences are the typical end…. [read more]

AIDS and HIV Term Paper

… ¶ … HIV and AIDS

Gallo, R. & Montagnier, L. (2003 Dec 11). The discovery of HIV as the cause of AIDS. The New England Journal of Medicine, 349(24). Retrieved November 17, 2006, from ProQuest database.

Gallo and Montagnier's (2003) article is a qualitative review of the research and history that led to the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of the article was to demonstrate how this discovery followed the typical twisting path of scientific research, comprised of "a mix of good and bad ideas, good and bad luck." The methodology was a qualitative review of research that both authors were heavily involved in.

The tale of scientific discovery begins in the late…. [read more]

Global Health and HIV Essay

… The stigmatization of the African-American identity in relation to diseases in the early twentieth century shows a remarkable continuity today in the context of HIV / AIDS at the turn of the century." (p. 1)

Bharat also described that stigma related to AIDS and discrimination is multifaceted social practice. They are neither exclusive and nor arbitrarily patterned. They generally are constructed upon and strengthen pre-existing doubts, chauvinisms and social disparities pertaining to poverty, gender, race, sex and sexuality, and so on. In this way, racist behaviors and racial inequity associated to HIV / AIDS status are only playing into, and reinforcing, previously active racial stereotypes and disparities about people of color in general. "There is a four part process of stigmatization on the part of…. [read more]

Importance of Change Management in Private Healthcare Organizations Multiple Chapters

… Change Management in Healthcare Organizations

Summary of argument, Hypothesis

Literature Review/Survey/Requirements

182.2 Development of theories/current status

222.3 Assessing Change Management Models and Frameworks

342.4 Redefining Business Processes Using Change Management

402.5 How Does This Project Fit In With the Literature Review

423.1 Introduction: Hypothesis

494.1 Presentation and Description of Results

664.2 Discussion and interpretation of the results

705.0 Conclusion

725.2 Comparison of aims and objectives with achievements

735.3 Contributions of this Research

746.0 Limitations

Recommendations for Future Research

The Importance of Change Management in Healthcare Organizations: Strengths and Opportunities


Healthcare organizations are undergoing a transformational change, driven by both economic realities and increased government regulation and intervention in westernized nations. Because of these market forces, consolidation of healthcare providers and rapid acquisition of healthcare…. [read more]

Menopause Midlife Change Menopause and Female Term Paper


Menopause and Female Midlife Change

The strict definition of menopause is the cessation of the menstrual cycle in women, usually occurring round age fifty. This must last for at least a year before the medical definition is met. It is considered a part of the natural aging process and is brought about by the failure of the endocrine system to produce estrogen and other hormones (Short pause, 1998) causing the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian follicular activity (Parry). While this is biologically correct, psychologically the effects of menopause can begin long before the actual physical onset of the condition and continue long afterwards. Furthermore, it is often not a sudden cessation of hormone production but a gradual…. [read more]

Rape as a Social Issue Research Paper

… This would show that women are capable of performing the same tasks as men, and this would make them look equal within the society.

Programs and policies

There are rape prevention and education programs that provide individuals with information that would assist in preventing sexual assault. The program aims at strengthening sexual violence prevention efforts, which is done at the local, state, and national level. The program engages bystanders and provides them with information about the benefits of having healthy relationships and changing their social norms. The youth are also educated on the importance of building and cultivating healthy relationships with people of the opposite sex. There are hotlines provided in each community. The hotlines offer the community with assistance and guidance in case of…. [read more]

Effectiveness of Impregnated Mosquito Bed Netting in Preventing Malaria in Western Kenya Term Paper

… ¶ … Impregnated Mosquito Bed Netting in Preventing Malaria in Western Kenya

Malaria in areas such as Western Kenya has become am increasingly serious disease, which is responsible for more deaths than HIV / AIDS. The advent and introduction of impregnated mosquito bed netting in areas of Africa has raised hopes of a new method of combating malaria. Numerous studies attest to the fact that impregnated nets significantly reduce the transmission and infection of malaria in the region; especially among very young children.

However, account must also be taken of the various other concomitant factors that impact on the spread of malaria, including cultural and economic issues. Studies also caution against the expectation that impregnated bed nets are a final solution or panacea to malaria…. [read more]

Teen Pregnancy Term Paper

… Teen Pregnancy -- Boston, MA

Teenage pregnancy is medically defined as a pregnancy in a woman who has not yet reached her 20th birthday. Legally, it has numerous definitions, depending upon the country and culture of origin. . This definition does not assume marriage, nor if the woman is legally an adult (depending on the country). Certainly over the years, the idea of pregnancy at an early age has undergone significant changes -- there were times when it was necessary for women to begin their childbearing years earlier due to demographics, lifespan, and other psychographical issues. In the modern, developed world, however, teenage pregnancy is associated with not only social issues, but of dramatic political, economic, and medical issues surrounding the mother, child, and family…. [read more]

Addressing the Issue of Medical Errors With Mandatory Reporting Systems and Computer Technology Term Paper

… Healthcare: Addressing the Issue of Medical Errors


Addressing the Issue of Medical Errors with Mandatory

Reporting Systems and Computer Technology

To combat the current crisis of deaths due to preventable medical errors the health care industry and lawmakers have taken two approaches. The first is the implementation of a system of mandatory reporting systems. The solution is to crate an atmosphere in hospitals that fosters less blame, not more, according to the IOM report. A blue-ribbon pane appointed by the IOM argues that the failure to acknowledge and analyze mistakes deprives hospitals of important information that could help prevent similar mistakes in the future. However, many in the healthcare industry argue that mandatory reporting of errors will foster an atmosphere of lawsuits and backlash…. [read more]

Health Care Systems Management Dissertation

… Health Care Systems Management

As the society grew and evolved, its focus on healthcare increased and it has eventually come to a situation in which the life expectancy at birth doubled or even tripled. Macau is for instance the country with the highest life expectancy at birth with 84.36 years. It is followed by Andorra with 82.51 years, Japan with 82.12 years and Singapore with 81.98 years. At the other end sit Angola with 38.20 years, Zambia with 38.63 years, Lesotho with 40.38 years and Mozambique with 41.18 years (Central Intelligence Agency, 2010).

The past few decades have witnessed numerous processes of global change, one of the most important of them being the liberalization of markets and the globalization of not just economies, but cultures,…. [read more]

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency Criminal Term Paper

… Therefore, whatever the causes are of juvenile delinquency, part of the strategy to eliminate juvenile delinquency must include changes to society within the infrastructure and social context, as well as changes individuals make regarding their own choices.

The causes of and conditions for juvenile crime are usually found at each level of the social structure, including society as a whole, social institutions, social groups and organizations, and interpersonal relations. Juveniles' choice of delinquent careers and the consequent perpetuation of delinquency are fostered by a wide range of factors, the most important of which are described below. Juvenile delinquency is driven by the negative consequences of social and economic development, in particular economic crises, political instability, and the weakening of major institutions (including the State, systems…. [read more]

Elder Abuse Phenomenon Correlating Relationship to Elder Mortality Term Paper

… Elder Abuse Phenomenon Correlating Relationship to Elder Mortality

Elder abuse has received increased scrutiny from the law enforcement and healthcare community in recent years. This increased attention is due in part to the increasing number of elderly in the United States and the passage of various laws designed to improve the reporting of such episodes of abuse as well as the prosecution of those who abuse the elderly. Unfortunately, elder abuse is particularly difficult to detect in some cases and studies have shown time and again that many elderly people are highly reluctant to admit to such abuse for fear of reprisals from the abuser or the possibility of being institutionalized if existing domestic living arrangements are disrupted. The purpose of this study was to…. [read more]

Improving Diabetes Self-Care Among African-American Women 50 Years and Older Thesis

… Improving Diabetes Self-Care among African-American Women 50 years and older

Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide (International Diabetes Foundation, 2007). Diabetes is a condition that can cause serious side effects, in addition to the potential for death, if not managed properly. For a majority of patients management is not difficult. It requires monitoring of blood sugar levels on a daily basis and adherence to a diet and exercise regime. Yet, many do not manage their diabetes properly and experiences serious complications as a result.

Certain populations are at greater risk for diabetes and are at a greater risk of complications due to improper management. These tendencies towards lack of management can be culturally based, making certain populations prone to diabetes and the…. [read more]

Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender Students Term Paper

… Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, & Transgender Students

In today's educational environment, students who happen to be lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) often find it hard to cope in their learning environment. LGBT students must endure an abnormal amount of stress throughout adolescence and young adulthood. According to Khayatt (1994), it is quite normal for LGBT students to experience harassment, isolation from their social group, the feeling of marginalization, and an inability to speak openly about their sexual/gender orientation. LGBT students have developed a myriad of ways of coping with the pressures of fitting in. Some of these methods have proven to be self-destructive, however. Up to thirty percent of all teenage suicides are believed to be LGBT. When LGBT students are not doing violence to…. [read more]

Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia Term Paper

… Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia

This proposal for a clinical case study of the treatment of a woman diagnosed with dysthymia employs a cognitive behavioral approach to identifying effective treatment modalities for patients with depressive disorders. In cognitive behavioral sessions, psychotherapists seek to help a patient identify his or her harmful thinking patterns in order to develop better coping strategies and social skills. The focus of the research in this study is on how people in general think, behave, and communicate in the present rather than on their early childhood experiences.

Proposal for a Clinical Case Study Dissertation - Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology

Chapter One. Introduction

Statement of the Problem



Chapter Two: Review of the Relevant Literature

Background and Overview…. [read more]

Inmates Relationships With There Family Compared and Contrast of Drug Use Term Paper

… family and community support and the outcomes of drug abuse treatment programs in female prisoners prior to family and community reintegration

Various research study designs have been utilized in understanding the different aspects associated with or linked to successful completion of drug abuse treatment programs and this is true of the study of those who are presently incarcerated in prison system and while family and social support has been mentioned in previous research studies conducted among prison populations measuring the success of drug abuse program completion this aspect as not been studied specifically to measure the impact that family and social support has on the success of prison inmates in their completion of drug abuse treatment programs. The work of Pelissier (2004) informs this study…. [read more]

Youth Aging Out of Foster Care to the World of Homelessness and Crime Research Paper

… Foster Care Aging Out

Societal Problem

Annually, about 20,000 of 542,000 youths age out of foster care across the United States (Courtney, 2005). Except for incarcerated youth, foster youth are the only individuals who are involuntarily removed from their families through government intervention. Despite the fact that this separation is mandated to protect these young adults from harm by their caregivers, when they leave their homes, the state becomes responsible for helping them handle their new independence. Due to the youth's already unstable upbringing, this separation often aggravates problems, such as severe health problems, participation in crime, substance abuse and unemployment. Courtney (2005) reported that 37% of foster youth who are 17 to 20 years of age do not have a high school degree; 12%…. [read more]

Expectations of Each Gender in Comprehensive and Abstinence Only Education Thesis

… Sex Education

Gender Bias in Sex Education: A Review

During the 1920s, education began to be viewed as the cure-all for social problems. One of those social problems was a lack of correct sexual knowledge for school-age children and adolescents. Thus, "mandatory, state-sponsored" sex education was implemented (Carter 2001, p. 212). At first, teachers' lessons in sexuality were abstinence-based. Students were taught that sex before marriage was both immoral and dangerous. Furthermore, a fear of sexually transmitted disease became paramount among society, used as both a motivator for adolescent chastity and as a scapegoat for declining rates of procreation among whites and impetus for the increasing divorce rate among this population (Carter 2001, p. 212-214). Though it was always controversial, sexual education created even more…. [read more]

Community Health Aides Around the World Essay

… Funds that could be used to hire more registered nurses and physicians are being diverted to the community health aide positions, which no longer fulfill the intentional purpose according to the program design (Cumper and Vaughan 365).

The professionalization of community health aides in Jamaica illustrates the potential for a co-optation of the program in the interest of the aides themselves, and presumably for the convenience of health center staff (Cumper and Vaughan 365). As discussed below, the community health aide program in Jamaica provided the strongest insight -- albeit, a negative insight that illustrates a potential problem for other nations that are less far along in the development of community health aide programs.


The rural population of Rwanda has about one physician for…. [read more]

Female Genital Mutilation and Violence Against Women Thesis



Violence against Women


While the population for this study is women worldwide, since gender violence is a matter for all women, that particular focus for this research is the topic of Female Genital Mutilation. Certain cultural pockets both in Africa and the Mid-East have practiced what is know culturally as female circumcision, but also now referred to as of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), usually by those who do not practice it. There are variations as to how and who performs these surgeries; frequently they are preformed without anesthesia and by unlicensed surgical practitioners, often by midwives or other family members. It is a tradition that usually goes back many generations and its origins are often quite difficult…. [read more]

Impact of Persistence on Academic Success for Latino a College Students Dissertation

… ¶ … Latinos -- Introduction

It is widely understood that that Latino community is the fastest growing ethnic / cultural group in the United States. According to the U.S. Census data, California is among the states with fast rising numbers of Hispanics (most often alluded to in this paper as Latinos). As of 2006 in Los Angeles County Latinos comprise 47.3% of the population ( (U.S. Census); in Orange County Latinos comprise 32.9% of the population (U.S. Census). In other counties the percentages are startling, especially for those who are unaware of the rapid growth of Latinos. Kern County, close to Los Angeles, is 45.2% Latino; Monterey County (near the Bay Area) is 51.5% Latino; Riverside County is 42.2% Latino; San Bernardino County is 46%…. [read more]

Marketing Toothpaste Flavors Marketing Plan Marketing Plan

… Market research shows that children love certain fruit flavors (apple, strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, banana, etc.), chocolate, and peanut butter. All of which could be combined with packaging, special names and/or characters to resemble something similar to the old Funny Face drinks from the 1960s and 1970s; instead of Freckle Face Strawberry, we might change it to Smilin' Strawberry. This could extend to Pucker Peanut Butter, Oh My Orange, etc. The point is getting the children integrated into the color, taste, and character of the toothpaste (Funny Face Packs, 2005; Taste Test: Healthy Store-Bought Snacks for Kids, 2011).


Active Ingredients: Sodium Fluoride 0.24% (0.15% w/v fluoride ion). Purpose: Anicavity

Inactive Ingredients: Sorbitol, Water, Hydrated Silica, PEG-12, Cellulose Gum, Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Flavor, Sodium…. [read more]

Non-Hospital Entities Ambulatory Care Long-Term Care and Mental Health Services Essay

… ¶ … society that has a much higher percentage of older adults than any previous generation. The global median age is increasing due to a decline in fertility and a 20-year average increase in life span during the Post-World II era. In the United States alone, the proportion of the population aged > 65 is expected to increase from 12% in 2000 to almost double that, 20% in 2030. What that means from an economic perspective is that there will be far more older adults who need medical care than any other time in history (Public Health and Aging, 2003). There are several reasons that Americans should, but do not always, plan for medical care as they age. Many think Social Security and Medicare /…. [read more]

Decisions by School Superintendents Improper Term Paper

… Members of the faculty are also exhorted to recognize that students are individuals and are entitled to an atmosphere conducive to learning and to even-handed treatment in all respects of the teacher-student relationship.

Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct

It is no use to preach to children if you do not act decently yourself - Theodore Roosevelt in a speech to Holy Name Society, Oyster Bay, August 16, 1903.

Most educational institutions develop a set of rules governing teacher behavior that reflect the district policy. They summarily ban the obvious: harassment and sexual contact with students.

Improper attitude or unprofessional conduct. Conduct that bases a person's employment, enrollment as a student, or participation in scholastic activities on that person's age, color, disability, sex, national or ethnic…. [read more]

Health Maintenance Organization Impact on the Minorities Thesis


The focus of this research study is the health maintenance organization impact on the minorities' community and specifically the communities of Hispanics, African-American and Latinos in the locations of New York City, New Jersey, Connecticut and Chicago. In recent years it has become increasingly clear that the U.S. .healthcare system is failing in making the same quality of care provision for ethnic minority populations as are made for the majority white population and the racial and ethnic disparities in accessing quality healthcare have been documented in research studies. It is reported that African-Americans experience the highest rates of mortality from heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease and HIV / AIDS than any other U.S.…. [read more]

Dually Diagnosed African-American and Latino Adolescents Term Paper

… Dually Diagnosed African-American and Latino adolescents


Abuse of substances on the part of adolescents has grown to be a national concern in the United States and has sparked many studies in this area in the last decade. Great challenges are presented for the clinician and the substance abuse treatment system in developing and applying appropriate and effective treatment for these adolescents. Studies have shown that of the adolescents who have substance abuse disorders, many of them also have mental health illness a combination of which is termed 'dual diagnoses or co-occurring disorders. The combination of these two disorders often have devastating impacts on the adolescent, their family and…. [read more]

STD's Can Have a Physical and Emotional Effect on the Human Body Research Paper

… ¶ … Sexually Transmitted Diseases also had negative psychological, as well as physical, effects on the individual.

The purpose of the report is to convince the audience that STDs are not only a serious problem, but that many are able to remain hidden for years, silently causing neurological damage. This neurological damage, when untreated, may have longer and more serious effects upon the body than some of the initial physical issues.

STDs, sexually transmitted diseases, are caused by infections that pass from one person to another during sexual activity, sharing of blood or body fluids, or by accident in medical procedures. A more common and correct term under use now by the medical and public health profession is STI, or sexually transmitted infections, which is…. [read more]

Community Health Problems Health Issues and Analysis Essay

… Community Health Oklahoma

Modern healthcare is a rewarding, but challenging, career choice. The modern healthcare professional's role is not limited to only assisting the doctor in procedures, however. Instead, the contemporary professional takes on a partnership role with both the doctor and patient as advocate caregiver, teacher, researcher, counselor, and case manager. The caregiver role includes those activities that assist the client physically, mentally, and emotionally, while still preserving the client's dignity. In order for one to be an effective caregiver, the patient must be treated in a holistic manner. Proper communication and advocacy is another role that the modern caregiver assumes when providing quality care. The interconnection and synthesis of multidisciplinary nursing, for example, becomes critical, not just in the idea of achieving national…. [read more]

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