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Natural Law Essay

… ¶ … constitutes religion, science, sociology and so on is hard to define and ambiguous at times. Take, for instance, fundamentalism in religion, the fact that life is still difficult to define in scientific terms or the complexity of natural law, in Latin, lex naturalis. What each of these three issues have in common is the difficulty they impose on someone trying to get to the bottom of them because there are so many perspectives one could approach them by and none is self sufficient.

In the seventeenth century, two key concepts started to gain power over scholars. These concepts originated in the Medieval period but had not stretched as far as to gain universal dominance until then. I am referring to the laws of…. [read more]


Hobbes and Natural Laws Term Paper

… Hobbes and Natural Law

Hobbes' argument is that the laws of nature are immutable and eternal, and that issues such as injustice, pride, and arrogance cannot be made lawful, which is an opinion largely verifiable by looking at how humanity addresses the issues that occur naturally and how it creates social contracts and agreements that do not allow specific types of treatment of other human beings to be acceptable. There are reasons why Hobbes takes this opinion, most of which come from the idea that the true state of nature is that nothing is just or unjust, and that everything belongs to everyone. With that, however, comes the idea that violent death is a real possibility, because there are no protectors.

There are only other…. [read more]


Hobbes Gun Control Essay

… Hobbes' language is dependent on the word "nature" and the images and emotions this idea creates. This approach is also very useful as the idea of natural law is very pleasing to the lay man and creates a sense of superiority and destiny that cannot be argued with. Like Hobbes, it is important to separate this gun control movement from any sense of divine intervention or religious overtones, but continually focus on the ideas of self preservation. Fomenting this instinct amongst your political enemies gives you the opportunity to interject counter ideas that support your ultimate objectives.

To obtain political objectives it is important to keep your enemies on edge at not at ease. Hobbes explained this in chapter 17 of Leviathon: "irrational creatures cannot…. [read more]


Nature by Hobbe and Locke Essay

… On this, Locke terms this law of nature as humankind's responsibility to exploit all means to safeguard his individualistic life as well as not to intentionally take part in jeopardizing another person's life or right to possession. The crucial turning point in the mode of reasoning between Locke and Hobbes emanates from their perception of human psychology. For instance, Hobbes argues out that it is the man inherent desires to want everything to himself that discounts the entire law of nature and makes single sovereign power indispensable undertaking. On the contrary, Locke argues out that man's inherent ideology of community consolidates the law of nature and makes it sufficiently powerful to exist on its own. Locke further asserts that man desire to live in the…. [read more]


Hobbes Leviathan Thomas Hobbes Thought Term Paper

… Conclusion

Finding a useful role for Thomas Hobbes and his theories in the 21st Century world is a very difficult task, and his ideas fit more into the authoritarian political tradition rather than the liberal, radical or democratic one. Since Hobbes thought that no human beings were equal anyway except in their capacity for greed, brutality and violence, no one can really criticize him for failing to design a sovereign state that was free and democratic. He did not want people to be free, but to obey the state and its laws and fall into line behind the sovereign, nor did he have much tolerance for protests, elections or freedom of thought in general. Assuming that a Hobbesian state could be constructed today, it would…. [read more]


Greek Philosophers Plato and Aristotle Essay

… He explained it in terms of a force that motivates man to strive for a better way of life not because of some outside restraints place upon by society but because of its basic natural rightness. Kant introduced his theory at a time in humanity's history when science, empirical facts, and a growing body of laws and regulations were becoming burdensome for everyone. Life had become too ordered while, at the same time, too fast and confusing. Kant re-introduced natural law as a method of examining life and to give it meaning beyond science, laws, and rules and he did it without necessarily making such way of looking at things as being divine.

As indicated at the beginning man has struggled with the idea of…. [read more]


Hobbes Locke Federalist vs. Anti Essay

… Hobbes/Locke & Federalism

One of the main things that Thomas Hobbes and John Locke seemed to agree upon was the notion that all men are created equal. However, Hobbes sees mankind as inherently evil, needing the control of a strong government, whereas Locke views the blank slate of human beings as positive and empowering. Certainly, the idea of equality has become one of the best known phrases in American history, used, of course, by Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence as the antithesis of the rule du jour, or the divine rights of Kings. The issue becomes, not just for the framers of the Constitution, but for any reader of Locke and Hobbes, how to determine the actual individual to whom the philosophy applies.…. [read more]


Hobbes' Leviathan John Hobbes if the Sovereign Term Paper

… Hobbes' Leviathan

John Hobbes

If the sovereign command a man (though justly condemned) to kill, wound, or mayme himself; or not to resist those who assault him; or to abstain from the use of food, ayre, medicine, or any other thing, without which he cannot live; yet hath that man the Liberty to disobey."

Let it first be explained that it seems very likely that when Hobbes speaks of "liberty" in this case he actually means "prerogative" and not "freedom" in the traditional sense. I wholeheartedly agree that a human has "the liberty to disobey," that a human being under the pressure of being ordered to die has the prerogative to disobey. The early colonies in America had the liberty to disobey the King of…. [read more]


Hobbes, Locke, and Democracy Essay

… But since the government's first responsibility is to maintain peace and security, there must be a unanimity of purpose in the government. This is more easily achieved with a single ruler, such as a Monarchy, but it also risks the loss of the consent of the people by becoming detached from the people and their needs. However, in a democracy, the will of the people is paramount as they are the one who will elect those in governmental positions. But since democracies often result in a representative form of government, parliaments, congresses, etc., there is often a plurality of voices in the government. This makes having a single unified purpose very difficult as many voices often mean many differences of opinions. This leads to a…. [read more]


Hobbes and the Intercession of Justice, Law Essay

… Hobbes and the Intercession of Justice, Law, And State

A cursory definition of power might quickly pose the argument that such is founded upon the strength of leadership. To view a king or a president or a company CEO as an exemplar of empowerment is traditional as it adheres to a socially constructed view of authority as being hierarchical and being constituted upon the relationship between law, justice and the state. Subject to chance and forged upon infinite human interactions which are given oversight by no omnipresent mortal force, the decisions we make and the actions we assume, traditional views of government have argued, should be accounted for as appendages of a larger power structure. In his consideration on the balance between the presence of…. [read more]


Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau Term Paper

… "

Locke's account of the state of nature leads to a political outcome where if all men are free and independent, and all can act to preserve their own rights, then clearly the only way in which society and government can form is by agreement among men for the sake of more easily preserving their own rights. In the Two Treatises of Civil Government, Locke states that "man seeks out and is willing to join in society with others, who are already united, or have a mind to unite, for the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties, and estate." According to Locke, the power of governments comes from the individual power of every individual to preserve their own rights, in which they give over to…. [read more]


Hobbes and Rousseau Term Paper

… {Rousseau 64-5}

Rousseau's social contract is a natural development in human society, rather than something imposed by fear, as Hobbes believes. Rousseau sees human nature developing from the limits of the basically animal condition of the state of nature by recognition of mutual obligation, appreciation of beauty, desire to produce and possess the fruits of industry, the wish for security and so on (Rousseau 50-53). Above all, the escape from the state of nature to one of civil society is not a loss of freedom but the only guarantee of true freedom, for it frees people from the demands of unfettered appetite and passion: 'man acquires with civil society, moral freedom, which alone makes man master of himself; for to be governed by appetite alone…. [read more]


Hobbes vs. Locke Thomas Essay

… Locke considered that kings are likely to fail during their ruling and that it would thus be wrong for a community to accept being ruled by a monarch. The philosopher believed that moral limitations needed to be imposed on a government in order for its people to be able to have access to inalienable rights. Hobbes' thinking contrasts Locke's, taking into account that the former believes that moral limitations should have nothing to do with a government's powers. Hobbes focused on promoting law as a rational concept while Locke concentrated on demonstrating that it was actually a moral idea.

The law of nature, from Locke's point-of-view, needed to guide governments so as for people to be safe. He considered that a state of perfect freedom…. [read more]


Thomas Hobbes and John Locke Term Paper

… Hobbes does believe in the rights of the individual, which at first examination seems contrary to the notion of conservative authoritarianism. Hobbes also promotes the ideal that all humans are equal, in the sense that all humans live a terminal existence.

Hobbes believed that authoritarian governments were necessary however to keep men from destroying themselves. Though no one is naturally superior to another, Hobbes argues that when two people desire the same object, each naturally would have a claim to it; thus people in pursuit of limited goods often turn to conflict or struggle to acquire those goods. One might argue that Hobbes biggest desire was to preserve human beings as individuals (Wiser, 2003); as such authoritarianism serves to keep law and order in a…. [read more]


Free Will and Determinism Essay

… . For Hume, responsibility required causation and even the very concept itself was derived from personal experience. Chisholm agreed that people are the primary causes and movers of their own actions, and that in the case of immanent or direct causation there is no other cause. Yet he denied that any exact science of humanity was possible, beyond describing what individuals would be inclined or motivated to do under a given set of circumstances. Thomas Hobbes argued that to know what a person wills or desires, and how strongly, would then indicate "just what it is that he will do -- or more accurately just what it is that he will try, set out, or undertake to do," but Chisholm agreed with Immanuel Kant, however,…. [read more]


Thomas Hobbes and John Locke Term Paper

… Consequently, the social contract involves this alliance with a sovereign for purely personal advantages.

Yet government, by Locke's reasoning, is the result of the breakdown of the natural law. Civil organizations come into being because certain individuals choose not to follow the Law of Nature, so people band together to uphold their inherent rights. "The consent of the people is the sole basis of this government's authority." (Strathern 1999, p.52). Therefore, sovereignty should rest within the people who choose to enter society, and not a king positioned to protect the people.

John Locke's and Thomas Hobbes, despite coming out of approximately the same time and social circumstances, took quite different approaches to their philosophies, and specifically, their approaches to the state of man in the…. [read more]


Plato and Hobbes on Justice Term Paper

… Plato and Hobbes on Justice

There are some similarities between the speech of Thrasymachus, the character in Plato's Republic, and the ideas of justice presented by Thomas Hobbes in his work, Leviathan. Plato's influence can be traced to the works of many later philosophers and some elements presented by him can be underlined in the work of Thomas Hobbes. If one is to draw a parallel between the speeches of Thrasymachus in Plato's Republic on justice. He would discover that there are some obvious similarities. However, in the Republic, the ideas presented by Thrasymachus are rebutted by the character Socrates. As some of the arguments put forward by Socrates, Hobbes' theory of justice can be rebutted as well.

Thrasymachus' position on justice as "simply what…. [read more]


How and Why Does the Multitude Escape the Natural Condition of Mankind Hobbes Research Proposal

… Hobbes & Natural Condition of Mankind

Thomas Hobbes' the Leviathan

Due to the violent nature of mankind, human beings naturally seek peace which is best achieved by establishing a commonwealth ruled by a sovereign power through a covenant.

The objective of this paper is to illustrate Thomas Hobbes' philosophy on the natural conditions of mankind (state of nature) and why absolute monarchy is the best political system to adopt. His most famous work, entitled The Leviathan, was published on the 17th century as a reaction to the political havoc during the English Civil Wars which resulted to the beheading of King Charles I and the Parliament taking over the commonwealth.

In The Leviathan, Hobbes points out that mankind's nature is self-preserving and competitive and consequently…. [read more]


Hobbes and the Character of Humankind Essay

… ¶ … Hobbes think is the essential character of humankind? Use specific examples from Leviathan (excerpted in text) to support your position

Hobbes contends that despite the fact that most people believe that there are massive differences between the strength and intelligence of one person over another, we are all essentially equal. While there may be minor differences between us, people usually have a tendency to overestimate their own strength and intelligence, and underestimate the strength and intelligence of others. Therefore, the gap between us is usually not as wide as we make it out to be. This equilibrium, according to Hobbes, is the ultimate cause of conflict because "From this equality of ability arises equality of hope in the attaining of our ends. And…. [read more]


Law for Aquinas Is God Term Paper

… Plato held that the body and the soul were separate and of a very different constitution, while Aristotle saw the soul as form of the body, a view accepted by St. Thomas Aquinas. Thomas was a Christian thinker and accepted the immortality of the soul, but he had to answer the question of whether this made sense given that the closeness of the union of body and soul might mean that the possible subsistence of the soul apart from the body could be ruled out. For Thomas, the soul informed the body but was not exhausted by the process. The soul, he argues, must be a spiritual and subsistent form because it is capable of knowing the nature of all bodies. It cannot be itself…. [read more]


Hobbes vs. Locke Term Paper

… Locke and Hume

The Enlightenment was a time when man, stepping out of his shackles, began to use his rational facilities and pulled himself out of the medieval pits of mysticism and in the process shoved aside the state and church authorities of the day. It was a spontaneous and defused movement which fed upon itself and led to the great scientific discoveries from which we all benefit today. Beliefs in natural law and universal order sprung up, which not only promoted scientific findings and advancements of a material nature, but which also gave a scientific approach to political and social issues. One, foremost among their ranks, was John Locke (1632-1704) and David Hume (1711-76). In this paper, we will examine their view on ethics…. [read more]


Hobbes and Locke Essay

… Locke and Hobbes

In many ways Hobbes and Locke agree on the nature of the family and its role in providing proof for mans desire for society, yet they disagree on the analogous comparison between family and government as well as many finer points of how a family is and should be governed. The family to both men is a scaled down model of a political society, but Hobbes voices that paternal power is based in fear, as the mother and father both hold the power to take the life of the child, just as it is in government and Locke stresses that maternal and paternal power is equal over children and that God directs the father than the mother to care for a child…. [read more]


Origin of Rights Term Paper

… Origin of Rights

In today's world, the concept of rights is embedded deeply in our culture. Individuals in the United States have the right to freedom of speech guaranteed in the Constitution. Most individuals know that they have the right to single phone call after arrest, and they know about their Miranda rights. Americans understand that they have specific property rights, such as the right to own the land. In addition, the concept of universal human rights comes up frequently as these rates are violated in different areas of the globe during times of war. Subjects such as animal rights have been become frequent and controversial topics of discussion across the country.

It all the idea of rights has infused our culture, and deeply impacts…. [read more]


Human Nature and Common Peace in Leviathan Essay

… Leviathan

In his work on political philosophy, Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes outlines what he theorizes as the state of nature for man. In this state of nature, without any government or regulated society, each individual is essentially at war (or potentially at war) with every other man, as there is no higher rule of conduct that prevents this eternal and ongoing conflict. Without any established rules of right and wrong and without any system of punishments, rewards, restraints, or inducements towards certain modes of interactions and behaviors, each individual has only the power that they can physically possess and implement, and life is essentially brutish.

Into this state of nature Hobbes inserts some fundamental laws, however, and these both more clearly illustrate the state of nature…. [read more]


Human Rights, Beyond Intervention Term Paper

… For these critics natural rights are merely a form of social construction, which has been manufactured and has no intrinsic and unassailable worth. This view is expressed by the school of thought known as Legal Positivism. Legal Positivism is applied in contemporary jurisprudence and its philosophy of law and central thesis is that the laws are rules that are made and created by human beings and that there is no inherent or necessary connection between law and morality. Legal positivism is based on social conventions and denies any inalienable basic human rights. Also, "Legal positivism is a conceptual theory emphasizing the conventional nature of law. Its foundation consists in the pedigree thesis and separability thesis, which jointly assert that law is manufactured according to certain…. [read more]


Human Nature a Comparison Essay

… Plato does not see human nature in this perfect vein any more than Hobbes does. Plato is not so jaded by his idealistic leanings that he believes that people are in some way actually good at the root of their being. He differentiates what he believes about the two natures in The Last Days of Socrates. He says "the soul is in the very likeness of the divine, and immortal, and intelligible, and uniform, and indissoluble, and unchangeable; and the body is in the very likeness of the human, and mortal, and unintelligible, and multiform, and dissoluble, and changeable" (Plato, 1967, 96). His differentiation is that of the two natures that are said to exist within humans. The soul is perfect and only wishes for…. [read more]


Thomas Hobbes' Philosophy Term Paper

… " (Hobbes)

Hobbes asserted that by surrendering his judgment to the sovereign the subject was making the law of the commonwealth public conscience. The surrendering of judgment was essential to the power of the sovereign.

For if the subjects did not surrender their judgment everyone within the society would only be subject to their own conscience which may not serve the greater good and would with certainty render the sovereign powerless. If the sovereign was powerless he could not maintain peace and there would be no social contract.

The idea of the power of the sovereign is one reason why Hobbes believed that men must submit their will and judgment to the sovereign. According to the notes of Michael Green who is a professor at…. [read more]


Kant Hobbes Rousseau Essay

… Kant, Hobbes, Rousseau

One of the philosophical theories which has attracted the attention of numerous writers is represented by the theory of the social contract. The main philosophers who have dealt with it in their works are Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The main idea transmitted through the theory of the social contract is that people are better off giving up part of their freedom in order to have an authority protect their rights and freedoms instead of living in a state of absolute freedom which would eventually be characterized by a perpetual conflict.

Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau try do explain which is the reason which legitimates the authority of the state since it is the state the structure which organizes individual rights…. [read more]


John Lock Thomas Hobbes Thesis

… Locke v. Hobbes

The Political Philosophies of Locke and Hobbes

Two of England's -- and the world's -- most important philosophers were John Locke and Thomas Hobbes. Though their lives overlapped by forty years, and both saw the same major political battles and shifts occurring in their native land, the two had markedly different views on the nature and purpose of government.

At the heart of the difference in the two men's thoughts and conclusions are certainly the simple differences of personality and intellect, but biographical differences might also have played a part. Therefore, in order to understand the different concepts of politics and the nature of man that these two men developed, it is necessary to understand the times in which they grew up…. [read more]


Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke Aristotle Term Paper

… Conclusion

It is very interesting and noteworthy that Aristotle in his writings from the year 350 B.C.E and our Founding Fathers in writing the Constitution in the year 1776 so closely adhered to the same beliefs. Could it be that people are born with an innate sense of justice and freedom or did the Founding Fathers only mimic Aristotle and Locke? It is not reasonable to believe that men fought and died and struggled for freedom and democracy based on mimicry and at the same time there is no confident ability to deny that surely the Founding Fathers were students of writers such as Aristotle and Locke.

14 Aug 2004 Aristotle, Locke, Hobbes and the U.S.

The Declaration of Independence (1776) (Retrieved from the Internet…. [read more]

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