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Fossil Fuels and Their Impact Essay

… A waterwheel was found in 1930 in an ancient gold mine, deep into the ground. The waterwheel has been found to date as far back as 90 AD. Similarly, Chinese used these water wheels to crush their grains in mills and for making cast iron. The Arab countries also used water wheels in numerous applications ranging from steel mills and grist mill to sugar mills. One of the wheels with a diameter as big as 20 meters is found preserved in Syria. A wheel found in Iraq is found to raise as much as 153,000 liters per hour. In ancient times a water wheel served the same purpose that it does now in the use of fossil fuels, that is to convert one form of…. [read more]


Hydrogen Fuel Cars as an Alternative Energy Source Research Paper

… Hydrogen Fuel Cars as an Alternative Energy Source

Hydrogen fuel cells are an alternative source of energy and are likely to be the fuel of the future for cars. Cars are becoming more and more common and numerous people get cars because of their effectiveness, making the automobile-related pollution problem more serious than ever. Considering fossil fuels, the pollution they cause, and the fact that this energy resource is about to be depleted, hydrogen fuel cells energy comes at a perfect time. In spite of the energy's benefits, scientists are yet to develop it into a power that can be used every day by car owners and this respective energy source has to be perfected in order to become utilized effectively.

Fuel cells generate energy…. [read more]


Will Hydrogen Replace Fossil Fuels for Cars Research Paper

… Society's continuing concern about gas prices and supply has stimulated interest in alternative energy sources. One of the energy sources receiving attention is the use of hydrogen as a possible replacement for fossil fuels in powering our automobiles (Pielke). Interestingly, hydrogen is the most common element in the environment but it ordinarily exists as part of other compounds such as water or fossil fuels and it is from these compounds that commercial hydrogen is produced.

The production of hydrogen from either fossil fuels or electrolysis involves a loss of energy and a corresponding high level of greenhouse gas emissions; however, the actual burning of the hydrogen gas produced is an extremely clean process. Although the process of producing hydrogen, at the present, is both inefficient…. [read more]


Use of Hydrogen Fuel as an Alternative to Replace the U.S. Dependency on Fossil Fuels Thesis

… Hydrogen Fuel as a Possible Renewable Energy Source

In the search to find new energy sources that would reduce the world's dependence on fossil fuels, and the United States' dependency on foreign sources for these fuels, hydrogen is emerging as a likely partial replacement. There are several methods by which hydrogen can be produced domestically, and when used in fuel cells the only emission hydrogen produces is water -- there are absolutely no greenhouse gases or airborne pollutants (AE 2009). There are also significant problems with hydrogen fuel that must be surmounted before it truly becomes a viable replacement for fossil fuels and other alternative energy sources; it is much more costly to produce in terms of both money and energy than fossil fuels are,…. [read more]


Hydrogen Fuel Car Research Paper

… Hydrogen Fuel Car

OPTION #2

HYDROGEN FUEL CELL CAR:

CUSTOMER ANALYSIS ISSUES

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car is the new clean energy vehicle for personal transportation. The power plants of the hydrogen fuel vehicle is either to burn hydrogen in an internal combustion engine or convert hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run. This hydrogen for fueling transportation may lead a hydrogen economy. The convenience of hydrogen fueling is the issue should be solved for the future market.

This paper addresses consumer behavior issues relevant to the marketing of the Hydrogen Fuel Car. As this is a preliminary investigation some of the information in it is based on supposition and requires further inquiry. One approach to this additional inquiry might take the form of…. [read more]


Can Hydrogen Replace Fossil Fuels Term Paper

… White Pages: Hydrogen Fuel -- a Feasible Replacement for Fossil Fuels?

The manifestation of a hydrogen economy holds much technical and political appeal. However, the realization of this vision is fraught with many complications and issues. Despite investment and political interest, especially among the Bush administration in the U.S., the hydrogen economy is far from a reality. Switching from fossil fuels to hydrogen fuel cells is not feasible in the near-term. A number of recent studies corroborate this conclusion based largely on technical and infrastructure hurdles.

The Draw of Hydrogen is Significant but Not without Challenges recent study by the National Academies indicated that a transition to hydrogen as the dominant fuel in the United States would have a significant impact over the next fifty…. [read more]


Energy and Energy Sources Term Paper

… Hydrogen Is Not an Appropriate Energy Source to Replace Fossil Fuels

The population is growing and so are its power needs. Fossil fuels are being used, their end products are increasing green house emissions, and there will come a time when they will be depleted. Further, oil spills, such as the current British Petroleum Gulf Coast Spill are becoming more common and more costly. Scientists have been searching for an appropriate alternative form of energy with less harmful global effects and many have focused on hydrogen. However, the use of hydrogen as an energy source will likely not replace fossil fuels. The overall hydrogen fuel process is inherently costly and inefficient, increases green house gas emissions and because of the low output would require extensive…. [read more]


Alternative Fuels vs. Fossil Literature Review

… Fossil fuels have been a primary fuel source for the industrial world, for centuries. Today, there are numerous alternative fuels developed and being developed to compete with fossil fuel usage. When comparing the two fuels, the literature on this topic uncovers numerous facets, centering on environmental, economic and social factors.

Fossil Fuels vs. Alternative Fuels

Categorization of Fuel Types:

According to Demirbas (2008), energy sources, in general, are divided into three categories: renewable sources, fossil fuels and nuclear sources. Petroleum, natural gas and coal products are the primary type of fuels that falls into the fossil fuel category. In contrast, Demirbas defines alternative fuels as "substitute fuel sources to petroleum" (p. 1473), and note they fall into the renewable sources of fuel types. A popular…. [read more]


Energy Sources and the Interchangeability Thesis

… ¶ … hydrogen fuel as an alternative energy in the United States. Hydrogen fuel is often touted as an alternative energy source to replace fossil fuels. However, hydrogen does not occur naturally and must be manufactured, and the energy used to manufacture it uses as much energy as it saves in fossil fuel, so it is really not an acceptable alternative to fossil fuels, it is simply a replacement, rather than a solution.

Hydrogen is created by "splitting water (H2O) into hydrogen and oxygen" (McCarthy). The energy used to split the water can be just about anything, from solar to nuclear, but they all cost money to produce and to utilize, so the energy savings from hydrogen is not nearly as great as many would…. [read more]


Energy and Energy Sources Term Paper

… Hydrogen Fuel

In the later part of the 20th century, most especially after the 1960s and more concern about ecology, environmental consequences, and the state of the World, alternative fuel technologies began to be studied in earnest. Some have hypothesized that the idea of utilizing alternative fuel methods were being studied as early as World War II, some even prior to that as the age of the automobile arose in the 20s and 30s in more developed countries (Gibilisco, 2006). Numerous technologies abound in search for clean fuel: electricity, natural gas, hydrogen and fuel cells. Each, of course, has its own adherents and detractors, each has a specific idea of why it is the "best" technology is, and why it should be utilized, and, each…. [read more]


Eco-Fuels in the Face of Future Scarcity Term Paper

… Eco-Fuels

In the face of future scarcity and high costs (economical & environmental) of oil and petroleum products, eco fuels can be considered an alternative."

Oil can be considered a source of energy that has become the indispensable part of our economy. We also acknowledge the fact that oil is a finite resource and we are constantly using this precious resource due to increase in demands. "We have been living on a great fossil fuel inheritance accumulated during more than 500 million years. We will soon exhaust this capital, and we will have to go to work to try to live on current energy income" (Youngquist, 1998).

The analysis and research shows that there should be an effort to find out ways of alternate energy…. [read more]


Fuel Cell Technology Term Paper

… "

This incredible technology has many benefits.

Benefits of Fuel Cells, particularly hydrogen

The most important benefit to hydrogen fuel cell technology is that the only emission, other than a low amount of heat, is pure water.

In addition, they are incredibly efficient, in comparison with gasoline or battery vehicles where the electricity is gotten from a combustion power plant.

Gasoline powered cars have an overall efficiency of just 20%, which means that only 20% of the thermal energy content is turned into mechanical work. ("Gasoline")

Electric cars have only an overall efficiency of 26% when their electricity comes from combustion power plants ("Gasoline")

Fuel cell vehicles, powered by pure hydrogen are up to 80% efficient. ("Efficiency")

Hydrogen is preferable because when a reformer is…. [read more]


H2 O2 Fuel Cell Term Paper

… ¶ … Fuel Cell

The study focuses on the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell technology. The fuel cell is an energy delivered technology that combines hydrogen, oxygen and other oxidizing agents to produce energy. The paper discusses different types of fuel cell technologies, and their differences are based on their chemical components, their temperature output and differences in their level of power output. The fuel cell technologies have been used for different applications, which include space mission, transportation, back up power, and for the stationary plants. Despite the benefits derived from fuel cell technologies, the technologies are not still cost effective. The paper suggests that there is a need for further research to make the cell fuel systems to be more cost effective to be produced for…. [read more]


Lotus Rental Car's CFO Feasibility Research Paper

… Therefore the feasibility of the idea may be in question. What can be foretold in the future from this is that the need to move to cars that use alternate fuels that do not pollute and are an alternate to the fossil-based fuel. That however is beyond any action of any individual company.

Laws:

One of the problems of the current vehicle fleet could be the changes in laws that are going to come. Pollution laws are getting stringent day by day. These small laws will build up in course of time to force all manufacturers and users of vehicles to change. But the effect will be universal and therefore at that time the Lotus Company will not feel any crunch that is not felt…. [read more]


Electric Hybrid Cars vs. Gas Powered Term Paper

… Electronic/Hybrid Cars vs. Gas PCs

One of the most profound social questions of the modern day is the nature of the market addition on fossil fuel usage. Within the global economy the fossil fuel industry, and the worlds dependence on it has driven prices of fuel to enormous levels contributing to a global market situation where a very few hold a growing percentage of wealth and the rest must struggle to eek out an existence with what's left. "Today, more than half the world's population lives on less than $2 per day, and almost 1.1 billion people live in extreme poverty, defined as less than $1 per day."

Rice, 76) Though this may seem divergent of the topic at hand, which is global dependence on…. [read more]


Eco Fuels Introduction Eco Fuels Are "Free Term Paper

… Eco Fuels
INTRODUCTION
Eco fuels are "free energy" fuels that can be easily made and are
environmentally safe.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Some Eco fuels can be made at home and some are bought from manufacturers
that may or may not be local. The main identifier of Eco fuels are that
they do not come through a utility meter.
THESIS STATEMENT
There are several fuels that already are available and free to use, once
the user knows how to make, store and use them.
I. Hydrogen may be used for heat, cooking and powering vehicles. It
qualifies as an eco-fuel because it can be produced in a totally
renewable way (Energy, 2006).

II. Alcohol: There are many types of alcohol, all being eco-fuels. Alcohol
is derived from…. [read more]


Alternative Fuels Term Paper

… Ethanol for Fuel

In the famous fairy tale Rumplestiltskin, the miller's daughter is required to spin straw into gold. Only magic can accomplish it. But today, as the price of gasoline goes up and up, most Americans believe that alternative fuels must be developed -- soon -- and are hoping for some similar magic. The reality of the impending fuel crisis was brought home by Hurricane Katrina, which shut down Louisiana oil refineries and drove up the prices. Great hope that bio-fuels will be the solution to the problem has triggered interest and investment in the development of alternative fuels -- particularly, in ethanol. The challenge is to find cost-effective ways to make alcohol out of such renewable resources as corn, soybeans, and sugarcane, cellulose…. [read more]


Brazil Biofuel Term Paper

… Brazil Biofuel

This work will discuss the biofuel developments in Brazil and the many issues surround it. It will serve as an introduction to biofuel efficacy and create a sense of the current epicenter of biofuel use and production. The work will discuss the history of biofuel use in Brazil, the effects it has had on culture and economy, the pros and cons of biofuel, the import and export market effects, cost differentiation, sugar vs. corn ethanol, auto technology in Brazil, and some limited discussion of U.S. And other international responses to Brazil's programs.

History of Biofuel in Brazil

Brazil's history in the biofuel business is a long standing one, as the nation implemented some of the first legislative mandates that demanded the use of…. [read more]


Electronic and Hybrid Engines Essay

… The internal combustion engine is used to generate electricity for the motor. General Motors -- GM uses a slightly modified version of this design in the Chevy Volt. GM refers to this design as an extended range electric vehicle -- EREV. The electric motor drives the wheels almost all of the time, but the vehicle can switch to work like a parallel hybrid at highway speeds when the battery is depleted." (Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Govt Energy site)

Modern Hybrid Vehicles Schema:

There is a combination of processes that involve the combustion engine, electromotor and an accumulator with the modern combustion engines runs in a range of 30-40%. Gas engines' effectiveness is on the bottom on the range while the diesel…. [read more]


World Energy Outlook 2050 Essay

… The amount of energy coming from the sun to earth can be estimated from the fact that it has been estimated that the total amount of heat that comes from sun to the earth every day is sufficient to fulfill the power demands of the whole globe for a period of eight years. Yes, it is true that in the past we didn't have the resources and technology to make use of this energy for our benefit but today we have carried out enough technological advancements to make use of all this energy that is going to waste every single day (European Renewable Energy Council EREC, 2010).

2.2 Technological Maturity's Stages

A lot of development has been carried out in the field of renewable energy…. [read more]


Mechanical Engineering Dissertation

… ¶ … shaping the future of energy production today, including the push for more environmentally friendly alternatives as well as the most cost effective approaches. In this environment, liquefied natural gas has emerged as a viable interim solution to many of the challenges involved in the transition from a fossil-fuel-based global infrastructure to one where a blend of energy-production approaches are in place. The primary advantages of using liquefied natural gas relate to the cost efficiencies in its transportation, since it occupies around one-six-hundredth of the space of the natural gas from which it is produced. One of the most significant disadvantages of liquefied natural gas, though, is the enormous expense involved in its manufacture and storage. At present, there are about 60 liquefied natural…. [read more]


Demand for Suvs, Hybrids Research Paper

… For drivers who need large utility vehicles like trucks for works, hybrid technology has proved to be disappointing. Overall, the "the hybrid has a greatly-reduced towing capacity and payload, which is most likely due to the addition of the electric motor and batteries" ("Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid trucks," Cars Direct, 2009). Given the higher initial purchase cost with reduced power, this has caused many to go with the non-hybrid option if they use their vehicles commercially and must rely on the vehicle in all weathers to do heavy-duty activities.

In terms of overall customer satisfaction, statistics indicate that it is relatively low for hybrids. "Only 35% of hybrid car owners bought a hybrid again when they purchased a new vehicle in 2011" (Kim 2012).…. [read more]


Solar Is the Solution Essay

… First, Heckeroth states that biomass takes viable land away from agriculture, thereby contributing to the problem of poverty. Poverty is a gross social injustice. Therefore, biomass is bad.

Hydrogen fuel cells are "no more efficient than biofuels," and inefficient energy sources are bad. Therefore, hydrogen fuel cells are bad. Heckeroth also points out, "96% of all hydrogen is currently extracted from fossil fuels." If this premise is true (which is unclear because Heckeroth does not cite his sources) then the conclusion that is drawn is that hydrogen fuel cells present the same environmental problems as fossil fuels do because they are the same basic source.

To substantiate the claim that solar energy is a good option that should be taken immediately, Heckeroth also uses a…. [read more]


Cafo's the Impact of Concentrated Essay

… When people are educated to the effects of CAFO's and the location of such places, they can then mobilize local communities to force changes in their practices. Such local activism can also force the government to increase their regulations and inspections, and insist upon greater transparency from these farms. And while new technology has a place in the future, it is the incorporation of alternative farming practices which holds the key to the future existence of agriculture. Since it is the concentration of livestock production in small areas that seems to be the cause of the problems, what is needed is a change to a medium-sized organic-style farms. Not only will this decrease the environmental impact of CAFO's in the local community, but it will…. [read more]


Green Technology Jim Lorick Term Paper

… Green Technology

Jim Lorick discusses the economic ramifications and implications of environmentalism in his article "Green Technology." According to Lorick, "green," or environmentally sound, technologies are one of the market's latest trends. Green technology can include anything from energy-saving appliances to solar paneling to alternative fuel sources. The market has shifted toward a greater demand for high environmental standards, at least in first-world nations. Public policies are beginning to reflect the growing trend in green technology. At the moment only wealthy individuals, organizations, corporations, and governments can afford to make the shift from "dirty" to "green" technologies. However, future payoffs for implementing environmental technologies will be great. If companies are willing to invest even small amounts of money into developing or implementing green technologies, then…. [read more]


Energy Issues Book Report

… ¶ … generations are proving unacceptable for future use. As both environmental and political factors threaten the status quo, and our dependence on fossil fuels for our main energy source, it is clear that new sources of energy must be found and pursued. Thus, the current governmental administration is pushing for huge energy reforms. With this push comes a new effort to explore and use solar power, water resources, wind energy, hydrogen, and biofuel sources like ethanol.

Traditional coal and fossil fuels have been used for over a century. These fuels tend to include oil, gas, and coal. Although used in small amount prior the nineteenth century, they exploded in popularity and use during the Industrial Revolution. With the rise of industry over the next…. [read more]


Strategy and Policies of the Oil Industry in Responding to Global Warming Essay

… Strategy and Policies of the Oil Industry

Over the last several decades the issue of global warming has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this is the changes in the environment that are being seen around the globe worldwide. A good example of this would be the in the North Pole, where during the summer the polar ice caps are melting at a faster rate every single year. Where, a study conducted by the Danish Meteorological Institute found that within ten years the Arctic will be ice free during the summer months. (Terril 2010) This is problematic because the ice is warming based on a phenomenon known as global warming. Simply put, the overall amounts of emissions that are released…. [read more]


Ford Motor Company Case Study

… In one specific area, Ford leads all other companies around the world, not just its industry. Social networking is a force that has become the newest marketing possibility. While introducing the all new Fiesta, Ford decided to make a bold step. They decided not to waste any money on traditional marketing. The company held a contest with members of social media sites (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) to find 100 people who would drive the car for six months, then blog and place comments on social media networks about the experience (Bullas, 2010). The program had over 11 million total hits over the six months of the program, and they had over 15,000 inquiries about the car (97% of whom had never owned another Ford product) (Bullas,…. [read more]


Renewable Energy Development Term Paper

… Biomass, which uses forest and agricultural residues, is used around the world, and the use geothermal energy is growing slowly. All of these forms of energy need to be fully explored to gain more usage and recognition.

Another viable renewable energy source is the fuel cell, which has been around since 1829, longer than the internal combustion engine (Flavin & Dunn, 1999, p. 167). Fuel cells combine hydrogen and oxygen to provide water vapor and electricity. They can be extremely efficient, and have been used in the space program since the 1960s. However, they still have not come into commercial use, mainly because of the difficulty of using the hydrogen, which is highly volatile and expensive. However, "Researchers are now testing various catalysts that, when…. [read more]


Environmental Issues in Air Transport Industry That Relate to the 21st Century Aviation Research Paper

… Air Transport

There are many environmental issues and problems related to the manner in which certain industries function. The Air Transport Industry has some specific environmental issues that it is facing in the 21st century. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the environmental issues in the Air Transport industry that relate to 21st century Aviation.

Air Transport and environment issues

There are several issues that are present in the aviation industry as it pertains to the environment. These issues include greenhouse gases and ways in which to reduce emissions. In addition, there are several strategies that have been embraced in the 21st century including the NexGen strategy that will be explored as an aspect of this discussion.

Greenhouse Gases

The problem of global…. [read more]

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