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Affirmative Action Has a Long Term Paper

… Business necessity can be justified if it can be shown that safety and operational efficiency will suffer without the selection process in question, and if no viable alternatives are available. Professions that have traditionally justified a selection process, which results in an adverse impact, include law enforcement and military personnel. These professions tend to select for young candidates able to demonstrate physical fitness.

The Impact of Affirmative Action

Although the American workforce still has a long ways to go before it equals the diversity of the populace (Schultz and Schultz 69-75), substantial strides have been made in a few areas. For example, the percentage of women in the workforce has reached 47% (Bureau of Labor Statistics), which is almost equal to the percent of adult…. [read more]

Problem's Facing the U Term Paper

… United States: Before the Fall

It is fairly apparent that there are a wide variety of political, social, and economic problems troubling the United States today that appear to herald the decline of this once great nation. The most salient of these problems involve a declining tax base that is increasing the underclass that is growing from widespread unemployment, health care issues as well as urban decay and a structural loss of industry. The vast majority of these problems are characterized by what is best known as a domino effect -- meaning that they significantly impact and create additional difficulties in other areas of U.S. policy. Therefore, in order to best address these problems it is necessary to deal with them from the foremost area…. [read more]

Impact of Affirmative Action in the US Term Paper

… Affirmative Action

The Impact of Affirmative Action in the U.S.

United States is a multicultural nation with divided socio economic status among its various races, ethnic groups and gender. Though ours is a democratic nation, deprivation and discrimination has led to a gap between various groups in the society. Civil rights and freedom of all individuals have not been exercised equally. The term of 'Affirmative Action' first was used by John. F. Kennedy in 1961 was aimed to bring an end to the discrimination against particular sections of society which has been undergoing discrimination throughout history and were deprived of basic rights like education. Affirmative action is a positive reservation, wherein the once underprivileged sections of the society get preference in terms of education, job…. [read more]

Class Inequalities Impact on Our Lives Education Equal Opportunity Essay

… ¶ … Inequalities: Impact on our Lives; Education; Equal Opportunity

Class Inequalities: Their Impact on Our Lives, Education and Equal Opportunity

Inequalities will always exist in society regardless of the nature of the form of government upon which that society is formed. Nevertheless, it is incumbent upon any democratic society for the government to provide equal educational opportunities and to create jobs for their citizens. It is the duty of government to encourage people to become involved in the educational system and to provide students with the resources and tools necessary to facilitate a better society. A robust educational system prepares a nation's citizens with the academic training and skills needed to enter the job market. This does not ensure that an individual with an…. [read more]

Race and Social Class in the United States Term Paper

… Sociology

Race as it Relates to Class in the United States

Since the country's beginning, race, gender, and class have been very important factors in a person's experience in the United States of America. The meaning of race, gender differences, and the separation of class have changed over United States history. For many Americans, their perceptions of class and race and the degree to which gender affect people's lives, often depends on what their race, gender, and class are, too. There are differences between the reality of America, what is represented as American reality in media, and the perceived reality of America. Americans as well as those looking at America from an outside perspective may have questions and confusions regarding what the real connections are…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Essay

… In terms of the education institutions, t least, worthy students are at risk of being turned away due to these universities and colleges have to meet the quota of accepting certain minority students. These however may be problematic to the university (in terms of behavior or skills) or may not qualify. Accepting them will mean turning away better qualified (and possibly equally needy) White students. This also is unconstitutional since each individual should be judged on the basis of merit alone. In this way, affirmative action should be hedged with conditions and should probably apply more in some circumstances than others. Certainly, academic institutions should accept individuals of minority race, but they should not do so at the detriment of other more worthy students nor…. [read more]

Affirmative Action - Historical Review Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action - Historical Review

Affirmative Action is defined as the "set of public policies and initiative designed to help eliminate past and present discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." (National Organization for Women, 1995) the Civil Rights programs were enacted originally to enable African-Americans to become full citizens of the United States. The phrase 'affirmative action' was first used by President John F. Kennedy in his 1961 executive Order 10925 which made it a requirement that federal contractors "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color or national origin. Institutions and organizations with affirmative action policies "set goals and timetables for increased diversity - and…. [read more]

Playwright Israel Zangwill Is United Essay

… This is fascinating because while Muslim immigrants are deeply diverse of their national and ethnic backgrounds, hailing from as far east as Indonesia to as far west as Morocco, their experience especially in view of the events in recent memory has given them a special sense of unity and formed a superset of ethnicity. The broader Islamic culture militates against time honored American traditions and cultural icons. There is no alcohol involved. Muslims do not even eat the same meat as Americans following instead the Kosher traditions of their Semitic Jewish brethren. Pork is a big no! Muslim girls do not go to prom and are not allowed to date or intermingle with boys. Away from their traditional homelands, Muslims cling much more staunchly to…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Defined Affirmative Action (AA) Thesis

… Affirmative Action Defined

Affirmative action (AA) has had many different and intricate definitions developed over the years. In comparison to the principle definition of equal employment opportunity (EEO) where inactive and indirect efforts to remove biases are give importance, AA gives higher significance to the direct, decisive and insistent participation to make sure that the discrimination towards minorities or women in the workplace or in academic structures, whether its formalized or not, are removed so that equality exists in all spheres. One thing that is important to note here is the phenomenon of affirmative action does not actually equalizes the allocations for minorities or women, instead its suggests how equality can be brought into a structure if it hasn't been recognized legally (Chambers et al.,…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action

The impact of Affirmative Action on the Professional Success of African-American MBA Graduates


Affirmative action as it stands in the professional and business sphere has generated a wide spectrum of controversy. Antipathetic views have flourished over the years arguing that African-American MBA graduates should receive similar treatment and meet the standard criteria for admission into business organizations. The inimical perspective is that affirmative action in a sense gradually introduces reverse discrimination against the majority. "Those who believe Affirmative Action's time is limited are of three minds. Some believe that discontinuing affirmative action would be a mistake-whenever that might be. Others see discontinuation is long overdue. Still others see affirmative action as a current necessity whose life expectancy is limited." (Roosevelt, 2004,…. [read more]

Affirmative Action and Race Relations Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action and Race Relations

Affirmative action, in higher education and elsewhere has been a hotly debated issue, since its inception, among a group of minority faculty and faculty organization from U.S. law schools conceived of the need for forcing social change through guided plans and procedures that would make up for missing opportunities for racial minorities, a year prior to Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination. (Sander, 2004, p. 367) Since then there have been many legal challenges to affirmative action, the moniker given to the general guide of the plan, which was tailored significantly by nearly every university and many other institutions independently. The specific and individual affirmative action plans, of many institutions have been challenged, supported, challenged and struck down in several supreme…. [read more]

Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity the Policies Term Paper

… The affirmative action is considered to be socially disruptive as it supports the social divisions. "The affirmative action strives to divide citizens into different groups rather than emphasizing on equal treatments and granting the deserving respect on the basis of merit" (Ezorsky, 1991) This has a gloomy consequence of predicting an intimidating atmosphere with each of the groups accusing others and throwing abuses. (Ezorsky, 1991)

Again simply identifying a group as a beneficiary for special privileges does not entail a particular member of that group the necessary right to have special treatment. The process also involves a cyclical process whereby the positions evacuated by moving up of a specially benefited member of the group through affirmative action, is again to be filled in by another…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Essay

… Affirmative action is reverse discrimination, because preferential treatment is given to women and non-whites. Affirmative action enables those who are less qualified to receive admissions or promotions than those who are truly deserving of the positions. Affirmative action creates resentment, and affirmative action prevents non-whites and women from the satisfaction of overcoming adversity.

Many who might benefit from affirmative action, such as non-whites and women, oppose affirmative action policies and therefore support the rebuttal. Froomkin (1998) points out, "while many minorities and women support affirmative action, a growing number say its benefits are no longer worth its side effect: the perception that their success is unearned." Another reason why the rebuttal is a strong one was epitomized by the Bakke case of 1978, in which…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Is an Issue Thesis

… Affirmative action is an issue that has garnered a great deal of discussion in recent years. Ever since the inception of affirmative action in America, affiliated policies have been embroiled in controversy. In recent years one of the primary complaints about affirmative action policies is that they are no longer needed because segregation and other factors that made such policies necessary no longer exist. As such in some states and at some institutions affirmative action policies have been abandoned.

The purpose of this discussion is to explore the issue of affirmative action. The research will focus on the various opinions associated with affirmative action policies. The research will expose the advantages and disadvantages associated with affirmative action. The investigation will also focus on the ways…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Term Paper

… Affirmative Action

In my opinion, it is ridiculous to judge affirmative action programs under the same standard (strict scrutiny) as other forms of racial discrimination. The reality is that, due to a lengthy history of intentional race-based discrimination, certain minorities (especially African-Americans) have not had the same educational and employment opportunities as non-minorities. Therefore, minority students, even those whose inherent capabilities are equivalent to high-achieving non-minority students, do not generally have the same home-based resources to help them attain high academic achievement. For example, minority parents are frequently less-educated and less able to provide assistance with home and school work, which can be essential for a child's educational success. In addition, minority students do not generally have the same access to advantages based on finances,…. [read more]

United States Supreme Court: Federal Government Research Paper

… Supreme Court is the highest federal court in the land. It is embedded in Article III of the Constitution and serves two main functions - developing procedural laws for lower-level federal courts and interpreting laws for both federal and state courts. The Supreme Court maintains ultimate appellate jurisdiction over the nation's federal courts as well as over cases in state courts that have to do with federal law. Currently chaired by Chief Justice John Robert, who is assisted by eight associate judges -- Elena Kagan, Sonia Sotomayer, Samuel Alito Jr., Stephen Breyer, Ruth Ginsberg, Clarence Thomas, Anthon y Kennedy, and Antonin Scalia -- the Supreme Court has, for the two centuries of its existence, been responsible for some landmark and life-changing rulings. The most recent…. [read more]

U.S. and Supreme Court Contrast Essay

… Of the nine Supreme Court justices, a simple majority is all that is needed to secure a ruling. The numbers of judges who are not in that majority are labeled as of "a dissenting opinion." This simply means that the minority is in disagreement with the greater number.

The majority opinion is the one that determines what the legislation will be, but the dissenting opinion can reflect whether or not the Supreme Court rehears the subject later on, and in terms of how soon that occurs. One of the most famous modern Supreme Court decisions was the Roe v. Wade decision determining the legality of abortion. In that case, Roe v. Wade made abortion illegal by a 7-2 decision (Roe 1972).

Judges who are of…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Minority Friend or Foe Term Paper

… ¶ … affirmative action help or hinder minorities. Why?

Affirmative action is regarded as the set of preferences and quotas, which are offered within prescribed limits of time and scope, with the purpose to 'benefit the least advantaged or to achieve a certain proportionality of benefits between the more advantaged and the less advantaged in society'. Affirmative Action is also considered to be 'a policy of favoring qualified women and minority candidates over qualified men or non-minority candidates with the immediate goals of outreach, remedying discrimination, or achieving diversity, and the ultimate goals of attaining a color-blind and a gender-free i.e. no sexual discrimination society' (Johnson, 2004) the color-blind society is termed as the society in which the 'race has no more significance than eye…. [read more]

Illegal Immigration it Has Been Pointed Out Term Paper

… Illegal Immigration

It has been pointed out many times that the United States is a nation of immigrations, with only the Native American population having been here long enough to lay claim to be native to the land. Immigration has been a contentious issue for some time, long before the current level of concern related to a fear of terrorism and to a concern about economic impact. Economic impact was long raised as something to be considered, but racial, and ethnic attitudes also affected levels of all immigration. As the immigration system has evolved and responded to new situations, so have laws concerning illegal immigration and the nature of proposals offered to solve the problem of illegal immigration.

Between 1820 and 1910, at least 38…. [read more]

Managing Diversity Is a Fact Research Paper

… 15). As Figiel and Kummel Sasser point out, companies are comprised of people and people have prejudices that cannot be easily erased. A third general problem for Diversity is the different attitudes of different cultures. For example, Rich and Mihalek discuss a study involving a fictional job applicant who lies on his resume and showing that different cultures may act differently when faced with ethical problems. Focusing on students in order to determine how they will eventually behave in the workplace, Rich and Mihalek found that minority students "felt much stronger than the non-minority students that the liar was preventing a more qualified person from getting the job...felt a stronger sense of loyalty to the university...are more sensitive to ethical transgressions by their peers and…. [read more]

Outsourcing of Government Functions a US Study Term Paper

… Government Outsourcing

The Outsourcing of Government Functions: a U.S. Study

Outsourcing of government functions is one of the most highly controversial practices of the 21st century. There are several prevailing positions regarding the outsourcing of government contracts to private companies. Valid arguments exist for increasing government outsourcing and for limiting future outsourcing as well. Regardless of which side one happens to be one, once thing is certain, outsourcing is a trend that is likely to continue in the future, particularly in the face of the global economy and advances in communication that make it easier than it was in the past.

By March of 2007, the number of government contractors rose to 7.5 million, which is currently four times the size of the federal workforce…. [read more]

BLE/ESL Education in North America & US Term Paper

… In the presidential role, Johnson led one among the major bilingual education campaign victories in the nation: the enactment of the 1968 BEA (Bilingual Education Act), which was the 7th Title of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

The 1968 BEA's ratification marked a significant change in tolerance when it came to bilingual education. However, the funds earmarked by the law for bilingual educational initiative development was typically based on a deficient perspective of bilingual learners. The year 1974 saw the historic Lau vs. Nichols American Supreme court case going beyond the BEA to declare that teachers had to deliver affirmative remedial services aimed at focusing, especially on linguistically deprived learners. This victory coerced school administrations into deliberating on and dealing with their growing…. [read more]

Effects of the Expansion of Race and Ethnicity on United States Society Term Paper

… ¶ … Race and Ethnicity Upon American Society

The impact of race and ethnicity upon American society is a much-debated topic. The one fact that cannot be denied is that the rapidly increasing minority populations will have a cumulative effect in changing the broad demographic patterns manifest in the United States today. Projecting to the year 2015, the United States Census Bureau suggests that America will still remain predominantly 'white' but that other groups will continue to "increase disproportionately," creating a more diverse and multiethnic and racial 'face' of the 'typical' American. (O'Neil, 2006)

The greater influx of Asian and particularly Latino immigrants means that even traditional conceptions of understanding racial conflicts must come into question. "Perhaps the most dramatic result of these changing population…. [read more]

Internet Voting in the U.S Term Paper

… The administration, however, showed no signs of stopping. U.S. Department of Defense spokesperson Glenn Flood said that they were aware of the concerns way before but expressed confidence that the system would be safe and secure at election time.

The Serve program was set for use by America's 6 million eligible voters outside the country or the military in November in 50 counties and seven U.S. states and to handle as many as 100,000 votes (Lyman 2005). UC Berkeley assistant professor David Wagner said that internet's security plagues, paired with personal computers not intended for use as voting machines are quite vulnerable and not fixable. He did not think that any present or emerging technologies will allow internet elections to be secure. Flood said that…. [read more]

History and Philosophy of Social Work in the US Term Paper

… ¶ … Philosophy of Social Work in the U.S.

The basic concerns of social welfare - poverty, disability and disease, the dependent young and elderly - are as old as civilized society itself. The means by which these concerns are addressed were once limited only by the laws of survival. Sharing another person's burden meant weakening one's own standing in the struggle of daily existence. However, as societies evolved, the dependence between members increased, so, as individuals became vulnerable, the society as a whole was affected, and systematic responses to disrupting factors were introduced.

Since the needs and the ability to provide for those needs are different in each society, there is no universal solution to the welfare problem. In some countries there is a…. [read more]

Affirmative Action the End of Legally Sanctioned Term Paper

… Affirmative Action

The end of legally sanctioned racial segregation in the 1950s and 1960s was a major step in the direction of racial equality. However, as had been the case with the end of slavery, the removal of formal oppression did not eliminate customary and private discrimination. As a result, the federal government had to take certain steps to ensure that African-Americans were no longer being discriminated against. Moreover, because some effects of past discrimination, such as inferior early education, made African-Americans less desirable candidates according to some objective criteria, the government instituted a system of preferences. At the time, there was simply no other way to end the vestiges of injustice. However, many people argue that the time for affirmative action has past, and…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Term Paper

… Affirmative Action is defined as the taking of proactive steps to ensure that minorities and women are adequately (and therefore, from a historical perspective, increasingly) represented in today's economy. This, in today's world, is a controversial topic; because, the presumption is if a sub-section of society is given preferential treatment then certainly it introduces biases into that system. This essay will be an opinion against affirmative action. This essayist will also attempt to address the assigned readings for this essay. All three readings are supportive of affirmative action.

Affirmative action is premised on aiding a section of society to ensure an artifice -- representation or to redress perceived historical loss. During the civil rights movement of the fifties and sixties, in the United State, leaders…. [read more]

Confusion: Trailer Hitches Facts Essay

… The Commerce Clause gives the Congress the exclusive power to regulate commerce between the states. Interstate transportation, particularly transportation like trucking, which involves taking items for sale between the states, is one of the areas where the courts critically examine statutes to see if they would impair interstate commerce. This statute would require Tanya to either change her trucks or avoid going through Confusion in order to engage in her trucking business. This could impact the import/export of goods into and out of Confusion. It could also require Tanya to take a longer route to deliver or pick up items from states other than Confusion. Therefore, it would obviously impact interstate commerce. Moreover, it does not appear that it would matter if the state had…. [read more]

Positive and Negative Effects Essay

… These arguments include the negative impacts on non-minorities as well as the negative impact on minorities. The primary argument is that affirmative action leads to reverse discrimination, an argument that has merit since affirmative action permits employers to use race as a primary hiring qualification (Messerli, 2012). The critics who point out reverse discrimination often suggest that the ideal is a color-blind society, not a shift from group to group in who will receive preferential treatment. Next, the concern is that affirmative action lowers expectations in such a way that students and employees are not adequately prepared to progress beyond their current level (Messerli, 2012). One of the more interesting criticisms of affirmative action is that "it demeans true minority achievement" because success is recognized…. [read more]

Downside of Affirmative Action Term Paper

… Therefore, many minorities may be unqualified for the positions, yet are chosen over more qualified candidates solely because of the skin color. This is an excellent example of reverse discrimination.

In many states, colleges and universities have quotas set by the government that force them to include a certain amount of minorities in their admissions procedures. This practice has resulted in reverse discrimination, as whites with better academic achievement are passed over in favor of minorities.

Future of Affirmative Action

Beginning in 1995, affirmative action has been standing on shaky ground. Addressing Affirmative Action in a White House memorandum, President Clinton called for the elimination of any program that creates a quota; creates preferences for unqualified individuals; creates reverse discrimination; or continues even after its…. [read more]

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