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Impact of Mathematics on Economics From the Medieval Time Thesis

… ¶ … mathematics on economics: Medieval era

A number of new developments occurred during the early Middle Ages in the Arab world to make current methods of calculating economic principles possible: the first was the development of so-called 'Arabic' numbers, which enabled easier calculation methods than the numbers of the Roman numerical system, and the second major influence was that of the development of algebra. However, in Europe, in stark contrast to the ancient Romans and Greeks as well as their Arab contemporaries, medieval Europeans during the feudal era seemed to have less of a fascination with exact calculations and geometric theories. "The Church's education program consisted of schools which taught what was dictated by the Bible and the Pope, they were attached to churches,…. [read more]


History of Economics Is a Broad Subject Term Paper

… History Of Economics

Economics is a broad subject and economists have applied several methods to arrive at conclusions relating to the economy. Economics has to consider various factors like society and the culture which molded the subject. These factors are the basics of economy which everyone in society should look forward to. History of economics and the initiatives put forward to measure them began with the various questions raised regarding the economy. The history of economics is closely related to Robert Fogel and Douglas C. North of the University of Chicago and University of Washington respectively. The central theme of North's approach was with regard to the difference between the rich and poor countries of the world. North was of the opinion that the formation…. [read more]


Managerial Impact on Small Businesses Context Term Paper

… Managerial Impact on Small Businesses

Context of the Problem

Today, all businesses are made up of two kinds of constituents: the physical and the non-physical (virtual). The physical constituents are objects such as machinery, building, along with people; the non-physical (virtual) constituents are objects such as information in relation to clients, intelligence in relation to how to get the optimum from a mechanized process and the privileges to make use of a specific development.

The information development offers, both large and small, corporations with an unmatched prospect to move constituents of their businesses from the physical sphere to the virtual sphere. The development of new products and services does not have to be carried out on paper, selling to customers does not have to take…. [read more]


Dark Ages or Early Middle Essay

… The intellectual life was stimulated by protection and affluence that was also supported by the church. The Arab culture was also introduced in Europe at the same time as Crusades made contacts with the Arabs. Due to this contact, Europe also got hold of the works of Greek authors that were being preserved by the Arabs. The Dark Age is also of particular importance as "philosophy, science, and mathematics from the Classical and Hellenistic periods were assimilated into the tenets of the Christian faith and the prevailing philosophy of scholasticism" ("Middle Ages," 2013).

It was also in the Dark Ages that the Crusades enhanced the ultimate model of militant knighthood. The Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitalers that were the two monastic knighthood orders trained…. [read more]


Middle East Has the Presence Essay

… If the Assad regime falls, however, civil war could well begin again, leading to a partition of the country. For the time being, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf monarchies have been least affected by the revolutions, and it is by no means certain that regime change there would result in governments any more tolerant of minority groups.

Contrary to its current situation, Islamic civilization in the golden age of the Ottomans experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements, and the result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements. At the height of its power and glory, the Ottoman Empire controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa, with borders as far east…. [read more]


Chemistry and Biology on Christian Essay

… [footnoteRef:12] [12: Forsyth, Robert. "Then a miracle occurs': the blessing and limitations of science A bishop looks at science from the viewpoint of the Christian faith." http://www.iscast.org/journal/articles/Forsyth_R_2006-11_Then_A_Miracle_Occurs.pdf (accessed March 20, 2013). ]

Science is a field that provides as knowledge about the simplest things but it also tells us secrets about the depths, structure and composition of the universe. It reveals the complex of human organs. Through the advancements in medical field science has been the savior of many of the lives. Previously, precious human life was being wasted due to petty diseases but now due the advancements in the field of medicine people can now fight dangerous diseases such as cancer and can get back to their life. Science gave rise to various phenomena…. [read more]


Conception of Project Management Book Report

… ¶ … conception of project management is actually the summation of the preceding centuries' worth of work and development within this area. Although this discipline was not termed as such until the 1900's, it has slowly evolved much like any other process utilized throughout the course of time and which includes "building processes" which "have led to the development of project management" and, the basics of which "can be traced back to these periods of time" (Yuen 383) that are discussed within this current study. These time periods encompass the medieval period in Europe and in the Near East, and were stratified to include the Byzantine Empire, Islamic Golden Age, the Crusades, the Carolingian Renaissance, the Romanesque Period as well as the Gothic Period, which…. [read more]


Cultural and Construction History of the Renaissance Essay

… Cultural and Construction History of the Renaissance (1450 to 1600)

Cultural Environment

The European Renaissance between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries began in Florence. It was not a sudden rebirth from the Dark Ages, but approximates more a refocusing outward politically and intellectually. Europe had become more than a series of small principalities vying for hegemony. There were larger cities, a more educated population, and a growing technology that allowed states to concentrate on growth and improvement. Italian cities were freed from feudalism, and were more mercantile and less hinged around a monarch (Skinner 69). On a cultural level, the Renaissance signalled a rebirth of learning and educational reform. People returned to classical works and revised their position on Christianity. There was a rise in…. [read more]


Sociology History of Business Science Research Proposal

… Delimitations

Today, modern business systems help an increasingly globalized world function in seamless ways. In fact, English is rapidly becoming the lingua franca of the business world and transnational borders and cross-cultural factors no longer operate as major barriers to commerce. Further, a wide range of financial instruments exist such as letters of credit and bills of lading whose purpose and operation are readily understood by businesspeople from New York to New Delhi. Business correspondence too has a fairly standardized format that businesspeople all over the world both use and understand and all of these features have helped create a modern business system that is both efficient and effective in achieving the movement of goods and services around the world. All of these business systems,…. [read more]


History of the Modern Era in Summary Essay

… History Of the Modern Era

In summary, the four historical periods of the modern Western history all played their part in the development of the areas of project management expertise and their application to building project activities. The development of knowledge and commerce during the span of the modern era, helped to facilitate the scientific and economic development that was crucial to the supporting society, its projects, and its project leaders. This chapter has provided a basic showcase of the relationships between cultural, religious and humanity themes that dominated from the Renaissance to the Machine Age.

Many of the antecedents of the contemporary age of architecture can be traced back to the Renaissance. This period of history shaped and expanded the European worldview and had…. [read more]


Various Books in Literature Essay

… ¶ … young adult is advantageous.

Historical fiction refers to stories that are set in specific time periods in particular places. The characters are not historical figures, but they may be modeled after them. Settings are as genuine as possible, with detailed references to social, cultural, political, and economic issues. Historical fiction allows young adult readers to understand details that may be excluded from history textbooks, and therefore enhance traditional history lessons. Students are likely to become more engaged in the historical fiction than in the drier factual bits of history that accompany the lesson.

Write a three to five sentence explanation of the history and culture as presented in The Middle Ages as presented in THE MIDWIFE'S APPRENTICE.

Cushman's The Midwife's Apprentice explains the…. [read more]


History of Management of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… ¶ … management and leadership strategies were utilized by civilizations. Oftentimes, civilizations-based what services to provide and how to provide them to their citizens upon the particular needs of that particular civilization at that time. In this case, the vast majority of these societies existed long before there were terms or coursework offered in the management or leadership arena. Herein, beginning with Ancient Mesopotamia, this paper shall trek around the world to varying civilizations noting how the societies managed the particular needs of their citizens given the particular resources at hand and then figuring out how best to manage the particular needs of each country

Ancient Mesopotamia

Through the organizational behavior of the Sumerian priests and the leadership of Hammurabi, the Ancient World of Mesopotamia's…. [read more]


History of the Areas of Expertise Essay

… History Of the Areas of Expertise and Their

Application To Project Activities

History with its flickering lamp stumbles along the trail of the past, trying to reconstruct its scenes, to revive its echoes, and kindle with pale gleams the passion of former days.

Winston Churchill

The historical review conducted in chapter 2 can now be presented and analysed. This chapter will consider and summarise the data given there. The data will be investigated by obtaining significant results concerning development within the historical periods addressed by this research study. The same guiding categories will be utilised to arrange the analysis, namely:

Cultural environment

Scientific environment

Economic environment

General management

Architectural principles

Construction technology

The Master builder tradition

Analysis of project activities

In practice, these items are…. [read more]


History Education Term Paper

… Theories

Tactics

Methods and Techniques

A Specific Method

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, and RECOMMENDATIONS

Results for the Same

Examples of Voices Singing a Canon

The Project Life Cycle

Project Management Puzzle Parts

Map of More and Less Developed Countries

Criteria for LDCs

Selected Economic and Social Indicators for LDCs (2005)

"GREAT" MINDS in MUSIC

"Great music is in a sense serene; it is certain of the values it asserts."

-Rebecca West (Simpson)

Contrary to the consensus some students purport, a thesis does not constitute a torture tactic designed by professors to traumatize students. In fact, according to Teitelbaum (1), "The thesis paper, when carefully assigned and conscientiously done, has definite value." Professors usually assign the thesis paper as a major component of a course requirement. The researched…. [read more]


Muhammad Ali in Egypt Thesis

… But they took away, for five centuries, the possibility of an independent Arab-dom, and Arab nationalists bore them considerable ill-will for it[footnoteRef:13]. The only 'Arab' state conquered by the Turks which was not in irremediable decay, was the Mamluk state of Egypt and Syria[footnoteRef:14]. The Mamluks themselves were a dynasty of Turkish slaves; and in any case they afterwards succeeded, as did all the North African provinces, in enjoying internal autonomy under Ottoman suzerainty. The claim that the caliphate had been transmitted to the Ottoman sultans was made only late in the history of the Empire. It was as Turkish rulers that they held their power, and only secondarily (if at all) as vice-regents of the Prophet. They preserved and even sharpened the distinction between…. [read more]


1500-1700 Ad Humanities Term Paper

… Scientific Revolution: 1500-1700 a.D.

The three hundred years between 1500 to 1700 a.D. was a period of a profound change in the thinking of the people (of Europe in particular). During this time, the centuries old beliefs of the people based on dogma and religious belief were challenged by a number of intellectuals who based their thinking on experimentation and mathematical analysis to understand the physical world around them. This revolutionary change in the way of thinking led to the application of knowledge to practical uses and propelled the Western world from the dark ages to the modern age. The significance of the period, which later came to be known as the period of "Scientific Revolution," lies in the fact that the scientific developments of…. [read more]


Standardized Tests Truly Reflective of All Students Term Paper

… ¶ … standardized tests truly reflective of all students, even those with cultural diversity, limited English, and disabilities?

In order to determine the answer to that question, first standardized tests in general must be examined for their fairness to minorities, those with cultural diversity, limited English and disabilities.

To that end, this paper will first examine the reliability of standardized tests as a fair indicator, focusing primarily on the experiences of African-American students. Taking that conclusion in hand, the paper will then tackle the issue of whether NCLB and AYP are successful in depending on standardized tests to determine both funding and students' and schools' success and failure.

This paper concludes that standardized tests are not at all fair towards minorities - as indicated in…. [read more]


Cultural and Construction History of the Romanesque Period Essay

… Cultural and Construction History Of Romanesque Period

Cultural Environment

The term Romanesque is an architectural category that refers to the art and architecture of the Mid -- Late Medieval Period in Europe (1000 to 1240 AD). It was coined in the nineteenth century to delineate features of the post-Roman Empire style. The Romanesque period saw the decline and downfall of the Roman Empire, a vacuum that was filled by the Roman Catholic Church. During this time, cathedrals and castles connected with the church and the Crusades sprang up in stone. Their Romanesque elements comprise round-headed arches, barrel vaults, apses, and decorations, and in southern Europe are often blended with Byzantine elements (Atrisgerinko). Additionally, the Romanesque style developed to reflect a rebirth of art, science, and…. [read more]


Cultural and Construction History of the Byzantine Empire Essay

… Byzantine Empire: Cultural and Construction History

Cultural Environment

The Byzantine Empire denotes the east of the Roman Empire after a political, cultural, and religious schism in the fourth century AD. Byzantium itself, located in a strategic area between the Adriatic and Black seas, was a major trading port founded by Greek traders. It was the strategic location of the city that allowed trade, commerce, and ultimately political hegemony to transfer power from West to East when it became apparent that Rome could no longer manage its political domain appropriately (Harris).

Scholars of the period often point to the advancement of the Eastern Roman Empire whilst the west subsequently was defeated by invaders as a question of how the east did prevail whilst the west succumbed.…. [read more]


Scientific Revolution and Management of Western Civilization Literature Review

… ¶ … Scientific Method, Scientific Revolution and Scientific Management of Western Civilization

The quest for knowledge for knowledge's sake is an inherent part of mankind, and with this knowledge we are able to progress as a race through scientific advancements, in the form of medicine and technology to name but two. One of the most famous figures who pushed knowledge for knowledge's sake was Galileo, who discovered, to the horror of the Church, that the Earth is not the centre of the universe. So important was Galileo that he has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy" (Singer 217). The Scientific Revolution itself was a major turning point in human understanding of the world, but rather than being confined to a single area or…. [read more]


History of Project Management at the Dawn Essay

… History of project management at the dawn of civilization can be looked at from two different civilisations -- Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. In this section both of these civilsations will be looked at from the perspective of cconstruction technology, architectural design, culture, science, economics, labour, and management, which all led to the creation of the master builder. The first ancient societies arose in Mesopotamia and Egypt in the Middle East. These civilisations had certain features in common. They built cities, invented forms of writing, learned to make pottery and use metals, domesticated animals, and created fairly complex social structures that included class systems.

It is possible to say that the concept of project management has been around since the beginning of history. It has enabled…. [read more]


History of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization Essay

… History Of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization

What makes humans different from other animals can be attributed to many things, but it usually begins with our conscious choice to explore the world and separate ourselves from nature through some mastery of it. With the advent of agriculture, humans were now congregating in population centers and living for both themselves and their gods. Religion has always taken a guiding hand through history and is intimately connected to the history of construction itself.

What pushes man to go beyond himself and create structures of immense stature and/or beauty? Only Gods can do that and have done that as evidenced in the still standing great pyramid of Giza and the Parthenon in Athens. Building these…. [read more]


Positive Outcome in the Educational Term Paper

… Third, there is a growing awareness that rapid technological change and our nation's economic competativeness will compel workers to adapt existing skills and learn new ones to optimize performance.

As noted, interest in thinking and problem solving has been renewed, but traditional approaches to teaching these skills have met with very mixed results (Nickerson, Perkins, & Smith, 1986). It now appears that the efficacy of these efforts was determined by at least three interrelated factors: First, instructional designers often failed to appreciate the importance of domain-specific knowledge in effective thinking and problem solving (Chi, Glaser, & Farr, 1988). Programs that emphasize the use of generic reasoning and problem-solving heuristics may be theoretically general across situations, but they usually lack power in any specific situation (Anderson,…. [read more]


Architecture H-Conclusion History of the Renaissance Metaphorically Essay

… Architecture

H-Conclusion

History of the Renaissance

Metaphorically speaking, the term Renaissance has been associated with rebirth and images of freedom, light, openness and creativity. These connotations stem from the historical origins of the Renaissance which took place approximately from the mid 15th to early 17th centuries and was a foundational period in European history. This period saw the emergence of a different intellectual as well as artistic view of life and reality. The creative sources of the classical era were revivified and there was a resurgence of a more interrogative and questioning attitude towards life and reality.

It should be pointed out that the Renaissance should not be understood in an historical sense as a sudden, radical break or a change for the Dark Ages…. [read more]


Renaissance Building Projects: Their Relationship Essay

… ¶ … Renaissance Building Projects: Their relationship with the Scientific Revolution Architectural Principles, Construction Technology and Master Builder Tradition

The four buildings discussed above show evidence of the advance of scientific thinking as well as other aspects particular to the Renaissance revolution in architecture. This also applies to the design of these buildings and the techniques and methods of building, which also showed considerable and even radical change and advances in terms of innovation and the use of new scientific methods in a number of important ways.

A study of these buildings also highlights the fact that during the Renaissance the ideas of regularity, symmetry, and harmony were reintroduced as classical ideals. As Milo argues, the Renaissance builders believed these principles could be actualised and…. [read more]


History of Project Management in Twelve Periods Book Report

… ¶ … history of project management in twelve periods of Western history. This involved the exploration of six topic areas that would provide insight into the history and evolution of project management. These included the following areas: cultural environment; scientific environment; general management; construction technology and the Master Builder Tradition

The research into these areas led to the process of placing contemporary project management in its historical perspective and comparing this perspective to the modern state of this science. This process also led to a number of recommendations that were a central outcome of the study. Among these was the recommendation that further research should be undertaken into the architectural principles of each historical period, with particular emphasis on the impact of the economic environment…. [read more]


Walter Gropius Germany's High Culture Term Paper

… Following the archetypal Taylorist logic, he further observed: "Precise numerical records by the famous American scientific managers Taylor and Gilbreth, show that the average American bricklayer is not more productive than the German bricklayer. Rather, the reason for the astonishing double efficiency in the United States lies in the adoption of appropriate building methods" (Gropius, 1927).

Gropius and his collaborators introduced time and motion study at the Dessau and Praunheim housing projects using photo cameras and stopwatches. Scientific management stressed the careful selection of the most adequate worker for each task, and so did the modernist architects. They believed in a talent-based selection of apprentices to bring forth artistic excellence and channel good design to industry (Bayer, Gropius, and Gropius, 1975: 22).

The avant-garde architect…. [read more]


New Reference Is Not Required. A Total Essay

… New reference is not required. A total of 15 references are needed

Baroque architecture from the late seventeenth century onwards was fully determined by the cultural interests of the Christian churchs, whether Catholic or Anglican. It was an expressive form designed to counteract the Reformation view of simplicity. As part of the counter-Reformation, the Baroque was reactionary and wished to reassert the dominance of the church through the display of florid, dynamic, and powerful forms that would move its audience to recognize ecclesiastical power. To this end, it invented a style based on curves and emotionality, eliminating a more linear and transcendent style common in Roman predecessors which was meant to replicate harmony and peace. The Baroque wanted noise and dynamism.

Out of this cultural…. [read more]


World Civilization From 1500 CE to the Early Twentieth Century Assessment

… ¶ … History 1500-Present

World Civilization from 1500 AD to Present

Worldwide trade from 1500 to 1800 AD: the Rise and Implications

Europe was expanding its boundaries at the end of the medieval world: Spain and Portugal had navigated the globe. The Crusades had opened roads to the East, and the sea lanes had given way to a new world in which nations sought God, gold, and glory. The world has always become smaller with the advent of new technology -- and the new technology in 1500 was navigational and nautical; by 1800 that technology had become increasingly more "scientific" and even militaristic. America had been colonized and the trade routes from East to West to East and back again were flourishing.

Italy saw the…. [read more]

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