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Terrorism Is an Act Essay

… In matters of global challenges, the 2012 assessment revealed that India established active cooperation with Afghanistan and supports the U.S. initiatives in the country as opposed to a year before when it merely looked into the idea. The potential difficulty posed by China as an international actor in 2011 was reassessed a year later when it was acknowledged that Beijing is also an important regional factor and a powerful influence over China altogether.

Problems in the Middle East and Africa with local economy and development were further addressed in the 2012 assessment with Clapper mentioning that international help is required for many countries within the region and that ?violence, corruption, and terrorism are likely to plague Africa in areas key to U.S. interests.

Therefore, what…. [read more]


Cyber-Citizen, USA Cyber-Citizen USA the Debate Research Paper

… Cyber-Citizen, USA

Cyber-citizen USA

The debate over systems security

"If you see something, say something," the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) promotes the use of internet communications to warn of potential threats to national security. Targeting technologically savvy young adults, the DHS attention to domestic terrorism has increased precipitously since the events of 9/11, when the overall attention to the scope of terrorism internationally resulted in a number of strategic commissions to transform security risks into manageable operations. Cyberterrorism according to the National Strategy for Securing Cyberspace, 2003 offers recommendation to protection of critical infrastructure where industrial computer control networks monitoring energy may be vulnerable. The foregoing essay looks at the convergence of public and private efforts in counter terrorism, and particularly in the…. [read more]


Global Domestic Security Threat Impact of NATO Term Paper

… Global / Domestic security threat/Impact of NATO

Current domestic and global security threats: The impact on the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed to cope with the challenges of a bipolar world. However, today's global environment faces multi-polar challenges from non-state actors such as terrorists. Threats once considered domestic concerns now affect the world, like global warming and the need to rebuild the infrastructure of unstable states such as Afghanistan and Bosnia. The globalization of modern society has meant the globalization of modern technological threats, including cyberterrorism, as well as increased international competition for scarce energy resources. All of these problems affect NATO members but cannot be addressed with a regionally specific focus. To create a more secure…. [read more]


European Counter Terrorism Challenges Essay

… This tends to be the focal point of problem for EU and trust tends to be a major obstacle for information-sharing within Europol. Some agencies, who do not employ particular reservations regarding the sharing of intelligence with Europol, are reluctant in providing their intelligence information as they fear that this may spoil their well-established bi-lateral relations with other states, particularly, the U.S.A. Another challenge faced by Europol and its counterterrorism strategies is that the Europol has not been assigned any responsibilities, as it only plays the role of an add-on agency working in parallel to national agencies (Wille, 2008). National services are entrusted with the task of producing and providing national law enforcement authorities with accurate and complete intelligence and hence they are not in…. [read more]


Piracy Maritime Terrorism Term Paper

… Maritime Piracy and Terrorism in the Atlantic and Caribbean Oceans - a Methodology to Counteract

More than six years after the attacks of September 11th, 2001 showed the United States to be a nation deeply vulnerable to the type of attacks which are favored by terrorist organizations, the security policies and approaches to protecting the American people and America's friends and interests remain deeply impeachable. Security responses relating to the combat of foreign wars, the bureaucratic consolidation of American security agencies, the enhancement of surveillance freedoms to be used against the American people and the selling of America's port security to a state-run firm in the United Arab Emirates are all suggestive of a government which has not taken the proper steps to address the…. [read more]


Technology Changed Security and Terrorism? Term Paper

… It would also help in preventing identity theft which is possible under the current system of personal identification using traditional passports that can be easily forged by terrorists. Having a biometric database would also enable quick identification of terrorists and other people with a criminal history. [John Woodward, pg 3]

Terahertz Imaging

Terahertz imaging is the latest in imaging technologies that would help significantly in screening humans for hidden weapons. One of the advantages of Terahertz radiation is that it can penetrate most non-metallic medium. As John Federici, the scientist behind the technology says, "I see the Terahertz spectrum as one of the critical technologies for defense against suicide bombers and other terrorist activities,"[NJIT] Also by using a 'spectral fingerprint', the terahertz scanner can easily…. [read more]


Terrorism vs. Law Enforcement vs. Privacy Essay

… Privacy is one of the first casualties when it comes to using digital technology in today’s world.

Drones have given people the ability to survey, monitor, film and even deliver payloads to people and places—but if used by the wrong people they can wreak havoc and threaten the life and security of people. The rapid rise and application of digital technology is another example (Coats, 2018). With so much technology available all over the world, it is bound to fall into the hands of people who want to attack citizens, steal their information and invade their privacy. Even the government is willing to invade the privacy of its citizens in order to protect the state. The NSA was exposed by whistleblowers Bill Binney and…. [read more]


Cyber Terrorism Term Paper

… In our modern life networking and advanced communication techniques have attained immense significance. " [The] fully interlinked networks depend on a capacity for constant, dense information and communications flow. Modern innovations such as cellular telephones fax machines, electronic mail, World Wide Web sites, and computer conferencing facilities support this requirement. In a wired society, a large percentage of governmental and private work takes place online, with single nodes having virtual instantaneous access to many others. A terrorist could theoretically, without leaving the home base, launch an electronic attack against infrastructure targets from thousands of miles away, plunging a country into chaos. Acting in this way, a perpetrator could crash entire networks upon which most modern information infrastructure depends; alter, steal, or destroy vital national security,…. [read more]


National Security Implications of Transnational Essay

… S. banks. China is trying to steal patents and U.S. technology that companies keep in their sites and in their computers, and the attack on Government increased almost nine fold, to "48,562 in fiscal 2012 from 5,503 in 2006.

Thus Afghanistan, Pakistan, or the region in terms of stability and U.S. concerns, and from Afghanistan the post-withdrawal relationship with the governments involved, the level of development and security it desires, and what kind of peace are not clear. Afghanistan is one example where making and arming insurgents have made the proverbial finger poke the eye. This type of criminals is entering the U.S. As legal and illegal immigrants too.

Illegal Immigrants and Crime

Illegal immigration also causes burdens in the economy and affects national safety.…. [read more]


concise Analysis of Investigative Techniques as the Apply to Terrorism Term Paper

… Military and Law Enforcement Interrogations

With the increase in terrorism threats, an increasing overlap has been observed concerning the kind of interrogations done by law enforcement officers and those done by military officials. Normally, the military wants to collect information regarding imminent activities. Military officers are concerned with intelligence gathering rather than attaining a confession. On the other hand, law enforcement officers normally want information, which will provoke a confession by the suspect. This difference, which was once distinctive, no longer exists. Law enforcement officials who cross-examine alleged terrorists nowadays also try to find intelligence. Entities that have not customarily searched for intelligence will currently have to become conversant with gaining this kind of material. Literature reveals that the law enforcement officials who have cross-examined…. [read more]


Terrorist and Youtube Research Paper

… The impact of disruptive technologies such as internet, social media and communication application can be gauged from the fact that London was a rather safe and quite cosmopolitan area. The use of internet and its potential to facilitate instigation in the future in most developed countries even is not out of bounds.

The internet moderated terrorism

The internet moderated terrorism called the cyberterrorism is also on the rise. The U.S. Department of Defense and its allied agencies face more than 60 cyber attacks each week. The low and high level information warfare between terrorists' outfits and nation states has been operational the on trans-regional basis. Researchers have also argued for interdisciplinary strategies for dealing with internet-based terrorism. Researchers consider video-based messages of Al-Qaeda and other…. [read more]


Technology for Terrorist Fundraising Activities Essay

… In this case, these entities will support those organizations that will share the same kind of beliefs about: ideology, religion or cultural traditions. Evidence of this can be seen with the support the Al Queda was receiving from the government of Saudi Arabia during: the late 1980's and into the 1990's. As, they were providing assistance to his organization because: they shared similar traditions, religion and goals. Once their objectives began to shift (with Bin Laden becoming more anti-Western), is when this relationship changed. This is important, because it shows how popular support for terrorist activities can shift dramatically over the course of time. (Jayasekara 2011)

As a result, there are several different methods that these groups are using to receive funding to include: individual…. [read more]


Counterterrorism the Future of Counterterrorism Policies: Examining Literature Review

… Counterterrorism

The Future of Counterterrorism Policies:

Examining Partnerships

between

Special Operations Forces

Law Enforcement Agencies

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 will never be forgotten by the millions of people who witnessed them, whether live or on television, whether American or foreign, and whether old or young. This date has surely joined others as an infamous date in American history. In addition to the palpable shockwaves of grief and shock that these attacks sent around the world, the September 11 attacks have also ignited a fight between the United States and the forces that plot against it, namely the terrorist forces that exist all around the world, hidden from sight. This "fight" has been labeled by the United States government as a fight against…. [read more]


Intelligence Pathologies Term Paper

… Intelligence Pathologies

The Church Committee Investigations which began in 1974 after the Watershed Scandal in President Nixon's administration found that intelligence agencies had unlimited executive power. The committee found that intelligence agencies abused this power and harassed and disrupted targeted groups and individuals, spied on citizens, assassination plots, manipulation and infiltration of businesses and media. Recommendations made by the Church Committee in the 1970s concerning intelligence agencies have been overlooked. As President Nixon's administration gave more executive power to intelligence agencies during his reign, so did President Bush. Intelligence agencies acquired executive authority after 9/11 are founded on the rhetoric of the war on terrorism, finding weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and identifying the link between Iraq and Al-Qaida. The agencies have carried out…. [read more]


Cyberterrorism With the Continued Integration Research Paper

… As such, greater cooperation between government and corporations regarding key infrastructures and networks as well as a more even-handed approach to research and information dissemination would go a long way towards more effectively combating cyberterrorism, even before any technological developments which might aid in the identification of cyberterrorists and their supporters.

While cyberterrorism is a very real threat to developed countries, perhaps the greater danger is the ruling parties' inability to look past hyperbole towards the development of a productive, reasonable approach to the problem. This remaining confusion surrounding the realities of cyberterrorism and cyberterrorists gives them the space they need in order to conduct numerous, small-scale but extremely effective intrusions. In effect, the way to combat the most pressing current cyberterrorist threats is to…. [read more]


Domestic U.S. Soft Targets the Identification and Vulnerabilities Term Paper

… Terrorism and Domestic "Soft Targets" in the United States

One of the central factors influencing the determination and identification of terrorist "soft targets' in the United States, is the perceived change in terrorist tactics. This has been the focus of many recent studies and refers to the change in focus to more accessible or "softer" targets by terrorists. As Morgan (2004) states, "Most recent scholarship, however, has taken the perspective that contemporary terrorism represents a significant departure from the past" (Morgan, 2004, p.29).

Among the many new aspects that characterize contemporary terrorism is the increase in the indiscriminateness of many terrorist attacks. This has been ascribed to, among others, the influence of the media. "...the saturation of the media with images of terrorist atrocity has…. [read more]


Lone Extremist Terrorist Research Paper

… Terrorism -- the Lone Extremist Threat

What influence does the group with which the "Lone Extremist" is affiliated, or has been in the past, have on the individual actor?

Traditionally, lone extremists either operated largely in isolation and seclusion, but to the extent they were influenced by extremist groups, they typically maintained direct connections to those groups. For example, Tim McVeigh maintained loose connections with domestic radicals but operated in isolation with only a single accomplice (Schmalleger, 2009). Meanwhile, Buford Furrow Jr. who attacked a Jewish community center with an automatic assault rifle in 1999 was a member of the Aryan Nation. On one hand, he acted alone in his attack; on the other hand, there is absolutely no doubt that his association with the…. [read more]


Increasing Threat of Cyber Terrorism Research Paper



Data Mining

The World Wide Web can be considered to be a colossal digital library, singly offering billions of pages of largely- free data, a large portion of which greatly interests terrorist groups. Using the internet, terror outfits can acquire various details concerning counterterrorism measures and terror targets (e.g., transport facilities, public places, seaports, nuclear power stations, and airports). Dan Verton’s Black Ice: The Invisible Threat of Cyberterrorism (2003) cites that the al- Qaeda functions with the aid of huge data pools loaded with information on likely American targets. They utilize the Internet for collecting intelligence on targets, particularly crucial economic nodes. Further, contemporary software facilitates their analysis of the structural deficits in any facility and prediction of the cascading effect of…. [read more]


Preventing Terrorist Attacks Research Paper

… This is one of the reasons for which precautionary measures have been taken in order to limit the capacity of terrorists from infecting the drinkable water. These measures include the replacement of "chlorine gas as disinfection to alternatives which are believed to be safer, such as sodium hypochlorite or ultraviolet light. However, some consumer groups remain concerned that many wastewater utilities, including facilities that serve heavily populated areas, continue to use chlorine gas. To prepare for potential accidental releases of hazardous chemicals from their facilities, more than 2,800 wastewater and drinking water utilities, water supply systems, and irrigation systems already are subject to risk management planning requirements under the Clean Air Act" (Copeland, 2010). This measure taken per se however is not aimed at particularly…. [read more]


Internet and the Increased Availability Term Paper

… In addition, the magnitude of the new problems that are being confronted depends on how national security is defined and how thresholds for acceptable damage are set (Lewis). The report also points out that

From a legal or public safety perspective, no country will accept even a single attack on infrastructure or interruption of services. If the goal is to prevent cyber-attacks from costing a single day of electric power or water service, we have set a very high standard for security. However, from a strategic military perspective, attacks that do not degrade national capabilities are not significant. From this perspective, if a cyber-attack does not cause damage that rises above the threshold of the routine disruptions that every economy experiences, it does not pose…. [read more]


Advanced Persistent Threat Research Paper

… ¶ … Persistent Threat

Historical Background of APT

Today, APT, or Advanced Persistent Threat, describes cyber attacks, which are produced by organized teams of individuals, whom have extremely in-depth resources. These teams of individuals have highly advanced technological and database penetration skills and they target specific profiles. Attack tactics are very precise and deliberate and they remain consistent in their attacks. The attackers evaluate the attacked profile's defense and what their likely response will be to the attack in an attempt to anticipate what techniques will need to be implemented.

According to a 2010 CSO Cyber Security Watch Survey, threats posed to organizations by cyber crimes have increased faster than potential victims over the last few years. Cyber threats are becoming significantly more common throughout…. [read more]


Homeland Security Strategies Research Paper

… They also emphasize the Department's commitment to securing the U.S. from terror and beefing up security along the United States borders, enforcing immigration laws, securing cyberspace and generally building resilience to disasters (DHS, 2007). The other function often overlooked is to secure the major infrastructure like bridges and towers, airport as well as key natural resources and also respond to and recover from the incidences that may occur within the U.S. The mention of maximizing effectiveness and efficiency of the tax payer's dollar implies that the leaders of this Department are people of integrity.

From this paper it is clear how an organization's missions, goals, and objective are integral in coming up with a strategic plan. It is also clear that a strategy must have…. [read more]


Forecasting Future Trrends in Digital Case Study

… Taylor, 2011). Technology is altering radically, until it's hard to keep up with the difficulties that seem to continue on an ordinary foundation.

Digital crime will keep developing for the reason of technology. Research makes the point that the more technology comes out the worse digital crime is going to get. It is to the point now you can use your cellphone to finish up transactions that are illegal (Eijkman, 2013). They are even making tools that are years in advance in fax machines, scanners, copiers, and printers. Everything is turning out to be more and well-organized for behavior that is considered to be criminal. These kinds of things criminals utilize in order to access whatever information or to finish a job that is documented…. [read more]


Law Enforcement After 911 Essay

… Attorney General John D. Ashcroft and the White House "cut the FBI's request for items such as computer networking and foreign language intercepts by half, cut a cyber-security request by three quarters and eliminated entirely a request for 'collaborative capabilities' " (Dana, 2004). Despite these restrictions, the FBI adopted a whole set of new approaches after 9/11 to enhance its counterterrorism efforts. For example, the agency's intelligence before 9/11 had no centralized management, no cohesive intelligence cadre, and no cross-program approach. After 9/11, the FBI adopted an enterprise-wide intelligence program, centralized its management, enhanced its ability to fuse, analyze, and share intelligence; began to allow intelligence to drive investigative strategies, and intelligence sharing became the rule, which substantially increased intelligence production.

In matters of combating…. [read more]


Cyberterrorism What Is Cyberterrorism? Essay

… For example, trends one and two, "Computer-related security incidents" and "Entry barriers for cyber-attackers," are too closely related to constitute separate trends. Moreover, each informs the other, since the security incidents delineated in trend number one often result from the fact that there are too many points of entry for cyberterrorists. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to categorize trend two as a subset of trend one. Similarly, while trends seven through ten usefully describe the various areas in which cyberterrorism occurs, it would be more useful to group them together. This would allow the authors to focus instead on the similar underlying structures that cause cyberterrorism to take place in these venues.

In choosing how to help my organization guard against cyberterrorist attacks I…. [read more]


National Preparedness (Ppd-8) Examines Term Paper

… The entire design of the United States places an emphasis on personal liberty that, without changing the entire nature of the country, necessarily means that the governmental sector cannot control individual movement within the country. Therefore, "a comprehensive approach to emergency management, specifically critical infrastructure security, cannot be accomplished if the private sector is excluded from these efforts. Because 85% of the nation's infrastructure is controlled by the private sector, the government's new programs and policies must be fashioned to encourage their participation" (Hardenbrook, 2005).

While the federal government may think that it can exert downward control through measures such as PPD-8, and, with that downward control eliminate the risk of terrorism, the reality is that such a plan is unrealistic. First, it would require…. [read more]


Healthcare and the Threat Essay

… Besides using a cyber attack to disable or disrupt the ability of emergency services at a hospital or field location to function, cyber attacks could be used to destroy medical records and alter prescriptions maintained as digital files in such a way that lives could be threatened. A cyber attack designed to cripple the ability of emergency services to respond to an emergency could also be used to amplify the destructive effect of a terrorist bombing.

Types of Cyber-Terrorism

A cyber terrorist could be anyone who has the appropriate technical skills, even a disgruntled current or former employee. The most common forms of cyber-terrorism today are denial of service, destruction of information, and the alteration of information (Clem, Galwankar, and Buck, 2005, p. 273). Making…. [read more]


Attack Causality in Internet-Connected Cellular Essay

… S. information infrastructure for intelligence collection, intellectual property theft, or disruption" because "terrorist groups and their sympathizers have expressed interest in using cyber means to target the United States and its citizens" (U.S. Department of Homeland Security 16).

While the calamitous conflicts still simmering throughout the Middle East provide conclusive proof that predicting future events is an untenable approach to counterterrorism intelligence, there are many circumstances which dictate the adoption of preventative strategy. The advent of the internet has enabled likeminded individuals across the planet to connect and exchange ideas on an instantaneous basis, allowing the once isolated realm of jihadist ideology to flourish under the cover of online anonymity. By monitoring suspicious activity through the use of wiretapping technology and other clandestine means, the…. [read more]


Cyber Ethics, Morality, and Law Research Paper

… The author gives a robust introduction to cyber terrorism and cyber warfare in the 21st Century (Dunlap, 2013). This journal is an absolute necessity for specialists in information technology and data security experts. Such people are in need of a direct briefing on advancements connected to cyber terrorism attacks and cyber warfare.

Part 2 - Reflective Diary - Reflection on Cyber Ethics, Morality, and Law

Security could be decomposed to the confinement of others' access to a single person with three components of anonymity, secrecy and solitude. Anonymity refers to the right granted to an individual for protection against unwanted attention. Solitude is the absence of physical proximity of a single person to others. Secrecy alludes to the assurance of customized data from being unreservedly…. [read more]


DHS S Response to Radical Terrorism Term Paper

… ISIS" Terrorist Group and DHS Policies

This section explores the profile of ISIS terrorist organization that threatens the U.S. homeland. The profile includes a discussion of the group's ideology, targeting, tactics, capability, and overall goals; an analysis of attacks, and propaganda released by the group.

Ideology

Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is an Islamic terrorist movement that has captured news headlines for their constant violence they continue to spread across the world. It is commonly recognized as an extremist Sunni political-religious body within Islam that looks to recover the golden regime of the beginning of Islam (the duration of the prophet Muhammad and the Caliphs who followed him). That is to be done, according to Salafist jihadist belief, by jihad (a holy war)…. [read more]

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