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Indoor Air Quality Term Paper

… But public and private entities would benefit from smoke free environments. "The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that the economic benefits of most workplaces and public places going smoke-free would exceed the cost by $39 to $72 billion annually." (Barg)

Currently in the media, the city of Philadelphia has begun a study to see if they can completely outlaw smoking with in the boarders of the city. "Restricting cigarette smoking to outdoor areas is especially important because cigarette smoke contains many toxic pollutants. It is harmful to both smokers and nonsmokers." (Air Resources Board) The city is very serious about this as can be demonstrated by their bans on smoking in 2000 for many of the city's public places. "It exempts establishments whose primary business…. [read more]


Air Quality Italy Term Paper

… Air Quality Italy

Globalization is beginning to put its mark on the environment at a global scale. More and more countries and regions in the world are facing increased levels of pollution due to the irresponsible development of industries and areas which represent high sources of pollution. At the global level action is being taken especially through the Kyoto Protocol to reduce these effects. Nonetheless, the situation is according to specialists out of control and increased measures must be taken in order to reduce the potentially irreversible effects of the industrial pressure that is affecting the global environment.

Pollution appears to be a "disease" of the poor countries or of the countries which are unable to invest in green industries. Some of the most important…. [read more]


Air Pollution Although One Would Presume Term Paper

… Air Pollution

Although one would presume that air toxins would increase an elderly person's risk of contracting a respiratory ailment, a recent health study reported by the Associated Press in the New York Times revealed that fine grit in polluted air also increases the risk of heart disease in older women ("Study Finds Gritty Air Raises Heart Disease Risk in Older Women," 2006, the Associated Press). Breathing in grit from the environment can create inflammation in the lungs which also leads to an increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. A federally financed study of 65,893 postmenopausal women between the ages of 59 and 79 found that for every increase of 10 millionths exposure to grit in the air, the woman's risk of developing fatal…. [read more]


Indoor and Noise Pollution Thesis

… Indoor Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is an endemic part of out modern urban and industrial world. However, indoor noise pollution is often not discussed with the same level of concern and importance as other forms of pollution. The issue of noise pollution has become more important with the growth and development of the modern urban, industrial environment; where the levels and type of noise have tended to increase, often to detrimental effect. As one commentator succinctly summarizes the contemporary thinking on this subject:

Noise has always been an environmental problem for man. It is hardly surprising then that it has become an issue in our modern society where cars and aircraft, machines and people, and the technology of communication, all contribute to noise levels.

(Noise…. [read more]


Air Pollution: A Testament Term Paper

… London is a perfect example of the development of urban air pollution. Beginning in the 1200s, a certain type of coal called "sea coal" was shipped to London. Although it was met with distaste for the smoke, soot, and smell from using it, by the mid-1600s almost everyone in London, including the industry, the wealthy, and the poor, used this soft bituminous coal as the main source of fuel. It was, after all, far more abundant and less expensive than fire wood. However, this coal was met with protest from many sources before it would reach that level of acceptance.

One of the reasons coal was met with protest was because of a lingering belief in an ancient Greek concept which would be called miasmas…. [read more]


Air Pollution Pertains to Substances Term Paper

… All we have on other mycotoxins are information on their toxicity or their laboratory effects;

3. The effects of multiple exposures to mycotoxins in the air and those of other breathed indoor air pollutants are still unknown;

4. effects of other biologically active molecules that produce allergic reactions, such as irritation and acting with mycotoxins are similarly unknown. The measurement of spores and their fragments also varies, and comparison of results is still not possible with current equipment and machines;

5. many mycotoxins may be measurable as environment samples, but not in human or animal tissues. This leads us to rely on circumstantial evidence for exposure measurements, such as the presence of the contamination in the person's environment, discovery of spores in the air, symptoms…. [read more]


Quality of Indoor Air Term Paper

… This sense is associated with the trigeminal nerve, and can trigger avoidance reactions like discomfort, breath holding, paresthesias, and odd sensations like skin crawling, burning and itching. Further, trigeminal irritation can result in dilation of surface blood vessels, decreased attention, disorientation, diminished reflex time and dizziness.

It is almost impossible to determine if the volatile compounds released by mold play a large part in the total concentration of VOC's in any indoor environment. Certainly, a mold-contaminated building may have volatile chemicals that are also released by paints, cleaners, and building materials.

Perhaps not surprisingly, the odors released by molds can be highly aversive among many people. The ability to perceive and respond to odors varies widely among the general population. As such, a segment of…. [read more]


Indoor and Noise Pollution Term Paper

… ¶ … Control of Indoor and Noise Pollution

Noise pollution and indoor air pollution can come from a variety of sources, and can affect people in a variety of ways. The purpose of this paper is to determine the sources, impact and control of indoor and noise pollution. The method being used is a literature review. As Salwen (1996) explains, "A literature review often becomes a study in itself....A literature review can organize studies alongside one another and explore differences among them. This becomes more possible as the literature review proceeds and focuses on details of those findings most relevant to your theorizing" (pp. 28-29). Therefore this seemed to be the most appropriate method considering the nature of this study.

Background

Indoor Pollution

A significant…. [read more]


Measles, Sars, Air Quality Global Research Paper

… References

CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2004). Supplement B: SARS Surveillance. V. Reporting of cases of SARS-CoV disease. CDC.gov. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/sars/guidance/B-surveillance/reporting.pdf.

Dardis, Melissa R. (2012). A review of measles. Journal of School Nursing, 28(1), 9-12.

De Vries, Rory D., Mesman, Annelies W., Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.H., Dubrex, W. Paul, and de Swart, Rik L. (2012). The pathogenesis of measles. Current Opinions in Virology, 2, 248-255.

Gans, Hayley A., Yasukawa, Linda L., Sung, Phillip, Sullivan, Barbara, DeHovitz, Ross, Audet, Susette et al. (2013). Measles humoral and cell-mediated immunity in children aged 5-10 years after primary measles immunization administered at 6 or 9 months of age. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 207, 574-582.

Huoi, C., Casalegno, J.S., Benet, T., Neuraz, A., Billaud,…. [read more]


Air Pollution Term Paper

… The natural protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere protects us from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays, on the contrary man-made ground -level ozone is harmful to us and all living things inhibiting our planet.

Nitrogen Dioxide

Oxides of nitrogen include NO and NO2. These have lower reactivity than Ozone. Nitrogen dioxide dissolves in water in the airways to form nitric and nitrous acids, which damage the airway epithelial lining. Children and patients with asthma have increased susceptibility to nitrogen dioxide; there is a wide variation in individual responses to this pollutant.

Nature and Sources OF Nitrogen Dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is a light brown gas that is an essential constituent of fog in cities. High-temperature burning processes; such as discharge by vehicles and power…. [read more]


Old Smoke Book Report

… Old Smoke Case Study

Darlene works for Redwood Associates in the personnel department. However, at times her job requires her to spend time in the main files room, where Frank and Alice work. Frank and Alice are smokers, but are always careful not to smoke around Darlene, and to open the windows and air the room out. Nevertheless, Darlene is sensitive to the odor of stale smoke, some days more than others. On a particular Monday morning, Darlene was not feeling well, and had to work in the file room. Over the weekend, the odor of smoke settled, and despite airing the room out, to her it reeked of smoke. This prompted her to exclaim to her supervisor that she simply could not work in…. [read more]


Communicable Disease: Measles Term Paper

… , 2011). Based on its high degree of contagiousness, vaccine coverage levels in the range of 95% to 98% are needed in order to prevent the continuing spread of the disease (Naseri & Salimi, 2011). According to epidemiological studies by Diekmann, Heesterbeek and Britton (2013), "Weather conditions may influence the probability of transmission [and] age structure may necessitate the use of a more complex model, including seasonal effects of the school system" (p. 78). In sum, measles is largely under control in the Americas, especially the United States, but lapses in ongoing vaccination regimens can eventually disrupt this protection (Diekmann et al., 2013).

Part B:

Appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak.

In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control are the primary clearinghouse…. [read more]


Alton Tower Book Report

… Alton Towers is one of the largest theme parks in the United Kingdom today and it continues to draw large numbers of visitors using a combination of innovation marketing programs as well as continuing investments in newer and more exciting rides and attractions. These efforts are absolutely essential in the highly competitive environment that exists in London and its environments for the tourist dollar, the marketers at Alton Towers and its controlling group do not enjoy the luxury of sitting still and watching their competitors erode their market share. Because the travel and tourism industry remains the largest industry in the world and air travel has even increased in recent years after recovering from its downturn following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, identifying…. [read more]


Combating Environmental Pollution Research Paper

… There are air purifiers that can be used indoors, such as HEPA filters and other types of filtration options, but these are not always successful in removing everything from the air (Truffer, et al., 2003). Some types of particles and other pollutants are simply too small to get rid of, as they pass through even the best of filters. On an outdoor level, there are no filters that can be used to remove naturally occurring elements from the air that is breathed. Human elements and chemical compounds provide more opportunities for governance, of course, because they are more easily identified. If human beings are polluting the air, they can be made to stop or to reduce their level of pollution in some cases, since they…. [read more]


Appalachian Trail Conservancy Grant Grant Proposal

… The Conservancy looks to these members for input, while maintaining an independent role and seeking to advance practices and strategies that best align with and support our mission. Therefore, to assess the extent to which the proposed project remedies the problems noted above, it will be necessary to quantify the results to measure the project's effectiveness. The following are the project objectives;

1. The employees and clients will learn about the Conservancy's pioneering efforts to value and invest in nature, mitigate related business risks and realize new opportunities for their own companies. Hikers will benefit from the Conservancy's core competencies in conservation planning, site-based conservation, habitat management, community outreach and capacity building, and conservation finance.

2. Network with peers from a variety of industries and…. [read more]


Harvard Business Review). Green Business Strategy Book Report

… Harvard Business Review, (2007). Green Business Strategy. Harvard Business School Press.

Green Business Strategies

Overview- in the international business arena, particularly as a result of globalization, multinational corporations are beginning to understand that being "green" or ecologically minded, is not simply for environmentalists. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Frangois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S.…. [read more]


Sociology: Changing Societies Book Report

… A union leader in Washington, D.C., isn't a miner, but miner's groups are his reference group because he identifies so strongly with their needs and aspirations.

Primary groups refer to groups where a person received his or her first important lessons about life and social realities - most often, a typical primary group is the family. Individuals develop their self-concepts and their sense of themselves in a primary group. In a secondary group, such as the HR department at work, a person is less emotionally connected, and feels less totally included in the group's values and actions. A secondary group allows for roles to be played in order to carry out that group's utilitarian functions, whereas in a primary group, one's role is pretty much…. [read more]


Cedar Point Amusement Park Case Study

… Cedar point Amusement park is located in Sandusky, Ohio. It is among the world's largest and most highly rated amusement park offering ever innovative coaster thrills that can be paralleled by very few amusement parts of the kind with the ever changing thrills presented to the clients like the yet to be unveiled in 2013 winged ride known as the GateKeeper

This paper will look at the history of Cedar Point Amusement Park from the time it was developed to date. This will be how the park developed chronologically each development studied year after year. It will further talk of its location and how it best suits it. It will further look at what the park offers and how it if it has had any…. [read more]


Mold Remediation in Wilkes-Barre Case Study

… The minimum recommended PPE include N-95 respirator mask, goggles without air vents, long sleeved shirts or jackets, pants, and work boots.

3. Seek immediate medical care if any of the following symptoms emerge after working in structures suspected of being contaminated with mold: breathlessness, fever, chills, dry cough, and unexplained fatigue and headaches.

Epidemiology Study of Mold Exposure in the 2011 Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA

All individuals identified by their primary healthcare providers as suffering from symptoms related to mold exposure would be offered an opportunity to participate in a longitudinal cohort study examining the long-term health effects of the disaster. Patients would be followed for at least a year, with follow-up intervals chosen by the healthcare provider. Relevant medical problems that would…. [read more]


Mold Spore Trapping Current Scientific Term Paper

… Allergies are probably the most common reaction to contact with molds. Atopic individuals (i.e., those experiencing allergic reactions that are hereditary) who are exposed to mold, mold spores, or mold byproducts may manifest allergic reactions once they become sensitized to the particular strain of toxic mold.

The reactions can run the spectrum, from very mild and temporary reactions to acute, chronic, and end-system illness.

According to The Institute of Medicine:

in 5 Americans suffer from allergic rhinitis - the most common chronic disease in human beings in 9 Americans suffer from allergen-related sinusitis in 10 Americans have allergen-related asthma in 11 Americans suffer from allergic dermatitis

Approximately 1 in 100 Americans suffer from serious chronic allergic diseases

Current-Day Understanding

The biological system's response and effects…. [read more]


Nebosh Unit Essay

… Another important universal responsibility of commercial shopping centres involves training staff in emergency evacuation procedures. Emergency evacuation plans must be clearly communicated and displayed in order to clearly demarcate emergency exit areas. Fire safety equipment should be tested regularly under an appropriate maintenance contract. Without a top-down enforcement from senior management there is often a passive attitude in regards to conducting due diligence in fire safety and related OHS matters.

Legal Considerations

There are severe liability issues that senior management is taking too lightly. The HSE conducts three main forms of regulation - guidance (not compulsory, but aimed at helping businesses comply with the law), approved codes of practice (emphasis on best practices and ways businesses can avoid dangers due to not providing relevant provisions…. [read more]


Planning and Start Up of a New Business Term Paper

… Planning and Start-Up of a New Business

Business PLAN for a STARTUP COMPANY

The present plan has been developed to offer the company an overview of the industry in which it would operate and the strategies it would have to implement in order to ensure a successful outcome.

General Company Description

Products and Services

Marketing Plan

Operational Plan

Management and Organization

The first part of the business plan will offer a general overview of the organization and the industry in which it will activate. This part will also describe the types of products and services offered by the startup company.

During the past recent decades, humanity has been increasingly focused on developing a professional career in order to improve the quality of their lives. However,…. [read more]


South Korean & German Trade Show Industry Dissertation

… Trade Show Industry in Germany and South Korea



Trade as Marketing and Communication



Area of Study



Study Components



The History of Trade



History of Trade Shows



Patterns of Trade Shows



Marketing Theories



Trade Shows and Market Entry



Development of the Trade Show Industry



Contributions of the Trade Show Industry



Marketing Processes in the Trade Show Industry



Marketing Planning and Tactical Considerations in the Trade Show Industry



Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research



Data Analysis Plan



COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES OF THE TRADE SHOW INDUSTRY…. [read more]


Home Building Proposal Befficiency, Safety Essay

… The plan above also integrates green features from the beginning instead of adding these energy-efficient elements after the home has already been constructed.

Remember, high water-heating bill might not be just due to the price of gas or electricity, or even how much energy one uses. The problem may be traced back poor insulation, or improper ventilation and air condition. One's home is impacted by the environment around it, as well as its internal infrastructure.

By viewing one's home as a string of interconnected systems, from heating and cooling to insulating, we've pinpointed problem areas to find more efficient solutions.

4. Deliverables

The proposed deliverables for this project, as outlined above, are summarized here:

1. Inspections of and re-piping of the heating system to fix…. [read more]


Noise Pollution Thermal and Acoustic Risks Term Paper

… Noise Pollution

Thermal and Acoustic Risks of New Airport Expansion

The Airport Services Limited Company has retained Bradford Environmental Consultants to conduct studies on the impact of thermal and acoustic risks associated with an expansion project at the Yakutsk International Airport. Airport Services Limited is one of the UK's premier freight forwarding and travel management companies (Airport Services Limited, 2007). It has decided to expand its commercial offerings to the Yakutsk International Airport.

The Yakutsk International Airport is located in a major oil field and in an area that is rich with many natural resources. This airport was of very little commercial interest in the past due to the harsh environment surrounding it. It is the only airport located in the permafrost zone (Yakutsk International…. [read more]


Environmental Policies and Problems in China Term Paper

… Environmental Policies and Problems in China: Air Pollution

From all appearances the economic success of China is secured, as China's economy is the fastest growing in the entire world however, unfortunately, China also has the highest annual incidence of early deaths stated to be attributed to air pollution. The National Geographic report entitled: "Chinese Air Pollution Deadliest in World" states that a World Health Organization (WHO) report "estimates that diseases triggered by indoor and outdoor pollution kills 656,000 Chinese citizens each year, and polluted drinking water kills another 95,600." (Holder, 2007) Pollutants which damage the air quality are inclusive of sulfur dioxide, particulate matter - a mixture of extremely small particles and water droplets- ozone, and nitrogen dioxide." (Holder, 2007) According to Holden's (2007) report:…. [read more]


Asthma and ER Utilization Term Paper

… Asthma is more prevalent among African-Americans. The incidences were almost twenty two percent higher than Caucasians. On average, in every state in American, blacks suffered from asthmatic attacks almost eight percent more than whites did. The Hispanic population also suffered a greater number of attacks. (CDC, 2001)

Geographic disparities play an important role in the negative impact of asthmatic attacks. In poorer states, where more residents have difficulties in accessing health care have a greater incidences of asthma. Climatic conditions and states with greater polluting industries pose a greater risk for complaints with asthma. The states of Arizona, District of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming have higher percentages of asthma complainants than…. [read more]


Construction Thermal Insulation Materials Rockwool Research Paper

… Architecture

Construction Thermal Isolation Materials [Rockwool]

Isolation construction materials

Building insulation consist roughly to anything in a structure that is utilizes as insulation for any reason. Thermal insulation in structures is a significant feature to attaining thermal comfort for its tenants. Insulation decreases unnecessary warmth loss or gain and can reduce the power burdens of heating and cooling structures. It does not automatically having anything to do with problems of sufficient exposure to air and might or might not influence the amount of sound insulation. In a constricted way insulation can just mean the insulation substance used to reduce heat loss, such as: glass wool, cellulose, polystyrene, rock wool, urethane foam, vermiculite, and the earth, but it can also entail a variety of plans and…. [read more]


Global Warming the Chief Motive Research Paper

… Global Warming

The chief motive for the existence of Houston, Texas, is the oil industry present here, given that the business is responsible for the rapid progress experienced by the city. There is much controversy regarding the city's potential to be a welcoming haven for tourists or for people that simply want to become its inhabitants. When hearing about Houston, most people relate to the high humidity in the territory and the fact that it is a polluted city. While some might not find humidity to be something extremely unpleasant, the pollution present in the city is certainly a downer for people who interact with the area.

In addition to its main oil industry, Houston has focused on a series of other manufacturing facilities that…. [read more]


Green Interior Design Just a Short Few Research Paper

… Green Interior Design

Just a short few years ago "green building," "green living" and "sustainable development" were ideas and concepts known almost exclusively to the environmental and conservation movement. And to perhaps a few progressive builders and custom designers. But today the green movement and sustainable living concept are the dominant themes across the board. This paper delves into the importance of using sustainable products and building strategies. The need to use sustainable products, to reduce the amount of energy used, and to employ sustainable building practices is pivotal to builders, to manufacturers, to the interior design community -- and to the health and safety of clients and the public.

Meanwhile, Dr. Louise Jones' essay in the book Environmentally Responsible Design reports that 78% of…. [read more]

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