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Inflation Economy Experts Have Not Agreed Thesis

… Inflation

Economy experts have not agreed upon a generally accepted definition
of inflation. Opinion on how inflation is generated and how it manifests
are numerous, determining the existence of numerous definitions.
Definition #1: loss of purchasing power of money caused by growth of
the amount of money in circulation and reflected in a rise of prices
without a proportionate increase in value of the things purchased
(Webster's, 2008).
Definition #2: a persistent increase in the level of consumer prices
or a persistent decline in the purchasing power of money, caused by an
increase in available currency and credit beyond the proportion of
available goods and services (The American Heritage Dictionary, 2008).
Definition #3: the overall general upward price movement of goods and
services in an…. [read more]


Campesino Do We Ever Wonder Reaction Paper

… Campesino

Do we ever wonder where our food comes from? Do we ever wonder just what it takes to ensure that ripe strawberries are available during most of the year, or how we have lemons and limes in the bitter cold months? In fact, the entire process of the food regime is tied up with capitalism, globalism, and international relations. It is not necessarily about the food produced, but the internal and external labor and distribution issues surrounding food. Many, in fact, argue that the world's food crisis is a result of an overdependence on fossil fuels, inflation and financial speculation, the concentration of agribusiness, and the supply and demand curve which often seems to require continual exploitation of indigenous populations. In fact, food may…. [read more]


Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Term Paper

… countrystudies.us/poland.htm).All parts of Poland favor potato cultivation; sugar beets, the most important industrial crop, grow mainly in the west and southeast (www.countrystudies.us/poland.htm).

Section 1.1.3. Labor Force

At the end of 1991, about 30.7% of Poland's estimated population of 38.3 million lived in urban centers with populations of 100,000 or more (www.countrystudies.us/poland.htm).The priority given urbanization and industrialization in postwar Poland caused the urban working class to grow dramatically and the rural working class to shrink proportionately in the first decade of communist rule (www.countrystudies.us/poland.htm).This process slowed considerably over the next three decades (www.countrystudies.us/poland.htm).

Section 1.2. The Polish Economy Under Communism

After World War II, a centrally planned socialist system was transplanted to Poland from the Soviet Union without any consideration for the differences in the level…. [read more]


No-Fault Compensation in UK Medical Malpractice Thesis

… 2 The survey tried to quantify the frequency and/or severity of adverse effects through a population sampling experienced as a result of their medical treatment. The respondent sample consisted of 3638 men and 4568 women, or a total population of 8,206.



395, or 4.8% (4.8 in every 100) patients felt that they had suffered some illness, injury or impairment, which directly resulted from their medical treatment or care. This figure is slightly higher than the estimates derived using the methodology from the Harvard Medical Malpractice Study, which estimated that 3.7 in every 100 patients suffered "adverse effect." The report noted that the proportion responding "positively declined with increasing age and was inversely associated with social grade." Further, the report stated, "there was…. [read more]


Origins, History of the IMF Term Paper

… SRF: Supplemental Reserve Facility loans are to be repaid within a year and a half, and there is a substantial surcharge of 3-5 percentage points.

CCL: This is under the same repayment criteria as SRF, but the surcharge is less (1.5 to 3.5 percentage points).

CFF: This type of loan was designed to help a country experiencing a very sudden "shortfall" in export earnings (caused by world commodity fluctuations), and the financial terms match those of the SBA (except CCF loans have no surcharge).

In the event of a nation suffering a natural disaster like an earthquake, flood, typhoon, or other calamities, or for a country just emerging from war, the IMF provides "Emergency Assistance" loans. They are subject to the basic rate of charge,…. [read more]


China and the World Trade Capstone Project

… However, during the late 1990's, Chinese companies sought listings and raised billions of dollars on overseas equity markets (Lardy, 2001).

Large Chinese companies, including China Mobile, PetroChina, Unicom, and Sinopec collectively raised more than $15 billion through equity sales in New York and Hong Kong in 2000.

Still, this was not enough. China was still not fully integrated into the world economy. High tariffs and various nontariff barriers kept the Chinese economy from being fully involved in international competition.

At this time, China controlled imports by placing limits on the "type and number of companies authorized to carry out international transactions; imposing onerous inspection and safety licensing requirements on imports; developing technical standards designed in part to protect domestic industries; discriminating against foreign goods in…. [read more]


GDP -- the Production Essay

… For ultimately, a nation's living standards are a basic measure of the overall welfare of its population. Thus, by bettering the healthcare system a nation could limit disease rates and increase life expectancies, thereby bolstering the basic welfare of its citizens.

Another way in which policy makers can increase living standards is by creating policies to limit inequalities in income growth rates. This would essentially allow governmental officials to better ensure that all employed citizens are capable of attaining a desired standard of living. Though it seems a bit socialistic, this type of policy can help to limit poverty and massive class-based societal divides, thus establishing a more accommodating macroeconomic living standard.

Finally, government policies regarding the improvement of educational standards can also help to…. [read more]


Pakistan Economic System Research Paper

… Pakistan Economy

Currently there is a great deal of economic instability throughout the world. Emerging markets are particularly susceptible to experiencing economic instability when global economies begin to falter. Emerging market economies are defined as "an economy with low to middle per capita income. Such countries constitute approximately 80% of the global population, and represent about 20% of the world's economies (Heakal). " There are various countries that are defined in this way and they vary in size (Heakal). For the most part emerging economies are viewed as those that have undergone reform and are beginning to emerge onto the international arena. For the most part economies that are growing rapidly are considered to be emerging markets (Heakal). Additionally emerging market economies are usually transitional…. [read more]


Alan Greenspan's Testimony Term Paper

… Many of the issues discussed and predicted in both reports have come true nowadays in late 2004 and the beginning of 2005. Indeed, the U.S. fiscal and current account deficits have grown lower than any time in history. In order to counterbalance any form of inflationary pressures, the Federal Reserve began to gradually increase the interest rate, reaching 2.5% in February 2005. The dollar, after a record 1.366 against the euro in December 2004 has gained some ground due to the interest rate differential between the U.S. And Europe.

The CBO forecast for 2005 to 2015

reflects in many ways some of the things that have been previously discussed. First of all, we need to look at the real GDP percentage change as the best…. [read more]


Pharmaceutical Industries Have to Operate Term Paper

… The data that was evaluated was a combination from book, journal articles, review papers and the Internet. The information reviewed pertained to a wide variety of situations and industries. There were some common trends observed in all the material. The commitment of the management and the involvement of the worker are critical no matter what the condition of the external and internal environment the company faces. Integrating the core function -- marketing and sale of products along with the goals and the objectives of the organization is the new route the organization has to now follow.

A distillation of the interviews will be provided in Chapter 2.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY -- ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY AND THE INTERVIEWS

Understanding the main…. [read more]


Direct to Consumer Advertising History Term Paper

… THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENOMENON

The National Institute for Health Care Management, a nonprofit watchdog agency, estimated that expenditures in pharmaceutical advertising in the U.S. grew from an estimated $55 million in 1991 to $2.5 billion in 2001. While the numbers seem exponential, the Institute points out that the ads represented merely 16% of the entire budget for drug promotions in 2001. A historic perception perpetuated by the drug industry is that costs are driven by expenditures in research and development. This has been considered a valid argument, as advances in drug research are indeed beneficial to humanity. However, recent examination of the industry's expenditures indicates that marketing (34.4%), not R&D (13.7%), comprise the lion's share of the industry's operating expenditures.

Families USA is a nonprofit…. [read more]


U.S. Housing Market Boom to Bust Research Paper

… U.S. Housing Market Boom to Bust

Housing Market - Boom to Bust

House Prices Rose at Unprecedented Levels.

US housing prices have risen at an unprecedented level for nearly a decade, ending boldly in 2007. According to Leonard housing appreciation climbed from the 1983-2006 average of 7.4% to the staggering 12.7% appreciation which was nationally common just prior to the current decline. Leonard also stresses that individuals took full advantage of these boom housing appreciation percentages for the first time as home equity loan products came on to the markets in record numbers, something that was unheard of until after 1981. The illiquidity of real property prior to 1981 kept consumers relatively safe from declines, and their equity safe from overspending as they took full…. [read more]


Foreign Policy of China (Beijing Thesis

… But just as China (Beijing consensus)'s economic and military power does not yet match that of the United States, China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power still has a long way to go as demonstrated by a Chicago Council on Global Affairs poll. China (Beijing consensus) does not have cultural industries like Hollywood, and its universities are not yet the equal of the United States. It lacks the many non-governmental organizations that generate much of U.S. soft power. Politically, China (Beijing consensus) suffers from corruption, inequality, and a lack of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. While that may make the "Beijing consensus" attractive in authoritarian and semi-authoritarian developing countries, it undercuts China (Beijing consensus)'s soft power in the West. Although China (Beijing consensus)'s new…. [read more]


Creative Powers it Is a Fact Term Paper

… Creative Powers

It is a fact that the society in which we live will never be truly free in all areas of life. Indeed, it has been suggested by some that total freedom would result in anarchy, and that rules are necessary in order to ensure a civilized society. On the other hand, too little freedom would hardly be conducive to creativity in any sense of the word. It would therefore be useful to what degree freedom within society, in terms of the law, culture, education, politics, and other influences, relates to individual and collective creativity in the same society.

Freedom in Society

Freedom is a very wide concept, and difficult to define. It means different things to different individuals and different societies. If Hayek's…. [read more]


Best Practices Investment Promotion Term Paper

… The nation has over 120,000 sq. km of farmland, which means that around 10% of the total size of the entire country is land area which can be used for agriculture (people.com.cn, 2007). In fact, when it comes to agriculture, China is able to grow a wealth of cash crops such as wheat, rice and corn, among a range of other cash crops along with around 70,000 sq. km of fresh water lakes that offer aquatic crops as well (people.com.cn, 2007). China also has abundant rainfall each year (6 trillion cubic meters) which make it a strong candidate for theoretical hydropower "Theoretical hydropower resources provided by the country's rivers amount to 676 million kw, of Which 378 million kw can be exploited for power generation,…. [read more]


National Debt Jefferson vs. Hamilton Term Paper

… ¶ … Macro Vision of Jefferson vs. Hamilton

The debate and sparring that took place in the 1790s between the Federalists and the anti-Federalists had a huge impact on the progression of American history. Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists, and he had married into the wealthy Schuyler family, representing the urban mercantile interests of the seaports; the anti-Federalists, led by Thomas Jefferson, was the mouthpiece for the rural and southern interests. The debate between Hamilton and Jefferson concerned the power of the federal government vs. that of the states' governments, with the Federalists favoring the former and the anti-Federalists advocating states' rights.

Hamilton sought a strong central government acting in the interests of commerce and industry. He brought to public life a love of efficiency,…. [read more]


Impact of Global Technological Advancements on the Jamaican Economy Term Paper

… ¶ … Global Technological Advancements on the Jamaican Economy

Advances in information communication technology (ICT) have led to changes in the economies of developing nations that are forcing them to conduct business in the global marketplace. ICT development has led to an integrated marketplace that means businesses that never had access to the international marketplace now can engage in business on a global level. However, in order to receive the benefits that this new technology has to offer developing nations must have the infrastructure and social structures in place to allow their population to take advantage.

Manufacturing is a growing sector, but resource-based production remains the mainstay of the economy. As resource-based economic pursuits are dwindling, the Jamaican economy must undergo some drastic changes if…. [read more]


Iran: A Path Towards Rapprochement Term Paper

… By shifting the Jews out of Europe, a certain amount of religious conflict was avoided in Europe, and the Jews felt happy that they had got their own land for the first time after the great Exodus, yet the people disposed of their land was the Arabs. This is the fundamental reason for the conflict which does not seem to get solved. The war that took place between Iraq and Iran in September 1980 also clearly showed that oil is under attack when a conflict takes place in that region. Both the sides led the attacks against the tankers from the other country as well as the refineries, and then to stop the other country by stopping its oil, led to attacks on neutral shipping…. [read more]


Blackboard, Inc. Marketing Plan Term Paper

… Blackboard Inc. marketing plan

Blackboard Inc. is a software company focused on delivering high quality products that satisfy a wide array of customers. Their products and services mainly target students, teachers and universities and are aimed to facilitate the e-learning process. Aside from online learning, the Blackboard products are also used for online purchases and other e-commerce operations. However, the current marketing plan is focused on the learning features of the Blackboard products, represented by the Blackboard Academic Suite.

But in order to analyze the one particular product, emphasis must be placed on the current features and characteristics of the overall company, including its' vision, objectives, core competencies, human resource and financial highlights. The outside environment must also be analyzed in order to identify what…. [read more]


ECB Can Be Successful Term Paper

… Even though this veto existed it was never used, this may be due to the manner in which Wilhelm Vocke, the president of the Bank deutscher Lander, managed the difficult political situation of the bank (Uwe, 1994). He was able to negotiate and co-ordinate policies with the Commission, creating a stable banking environment and one that was able to negotiate through the political difficulties, which were external but influenced the bank.

By 1950, the legislation for the creation of the central bank had begun. The legislation was formed under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. During the creation of the legislation differences emerged between the parties involved regarding what the correct leadership should be between the central bank and the political authorities. It was argued by Fritz Schaffer,…. [read more]


Disrupting America's Economic System Term Paper

… The U.S. Treasury, led by Andrew Shaw, subsidized these gold flows by offering to temporarily place public deposits in banks if they imported gold from abroad.

The policy lowered the gold import point by offsetting the interest lost while gold was in transit. Goodhart [1969], however, notes that the gold import point was often low enough to have justified specie inflows without the subsidy. In the fixed exchange rate world of 1906, such large gold outflows were a significant threat to a country's ability to maintain the par value of its currency, which, for the pound sterling, was $4.867.

Faced with its lowest ratio of reserves to deposits since the 1893 crisis, the Bank of England nearly doubled its discount rate, from 3 1/2% on…. [read more]


Government Subsidized Student Loans Thesis

… Higher education is taken to be a safeguard against unemployment with statistics indicating that unemployment among university graduates was 4.4% whereas for people who had not completed secondary school, unemployment was near 11.5%. (The Economist, 2011)

Although the phenomenon, with the state supporting education may sound ideal, and other emerging countries too might try to emulate the model in an effort to bring their economies up to par, several contrary view points have been voiced by critics that question the economic and political feasibility of the subsidized student loans.

Foremost is the startling figure of $1 trillion worth of outstanding student loans. Secondly there are arguments that this loan is for students who have already completed their studies and hence subsidizing it further will not…. [read more]


Marshall Plan and Its Results in Greece Term Paper

… Like most of Western Europe in the post-World War II years, Greece
faced many challenges. Greece's problems were a direct result of the war
and occupation by the Axis Powers and a direct result of internal conflicts
between various factions vying for power within the nation. Between World
War II and a brutal Civil War, Greece's infrastructure, people, and economy
were nearly devastated by the late 1940s. The United States' famous
European Recovery Program, more commonly known as the Marshall Plan,
combined with the Truman Doctrine helped rebuild the shambles that was the
Greek government and nation following the stresses of excessive and violent
internal and external conflict.
The need for outside assistance was obvious to the western world in
the years following World War…. [read more]


Behavioral Finance and Human Interaction Term Paper

… Retail sales can serve as a measure of the economy's strength. Low retails sales often mean that the economy is weak, which could cause a drop in the Federal Reserve interest rates.

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures the average change in the prices that consumers pay for a fixed amount of goods and services. The Federal Reserve monitors this data and uses it as a key measure if inflationary pressure on the economy. As a general rule, if the CPI's value increases, the money supply will tighten.

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures economic activity. It is the output of all goods and services created by labor and property in the United States. GDP provides important information on the current economic climate.

Characteristics of…. [read more]


Economics Politics Trade Term Paper

… Economics, Politics, Trade

Geopolitical base

Geography

Political Systems

Monetary, trade and economic backgrounds

Germany

Peru

Economics, Politics, Trade

This paper shall be a comparison of two countries of the world-one which is a developed country and another developing country. The developed country chosen for the study is Germany and the developing country is Peru. The paper shall deal with the geopolitical base and the Monetary, trade and economic backgrounds of the two countries.

Geopolitical base

Geography:

Germany occupies 356,959 square kilometers. It is the sixth biggest country in Europe with Alps in the south and extending 853 kilometers from Denmark as its northern border. Germany measures roughly 650 kilometers from the Belgian-German border in the west to the Polish frontier in the east. The province…. [read more]


Contrarian Investment Strategies Thesis

… Contrarian Investment Strategies

Over the last several decades a number of different investment strategies have evolved. All of them were designed to help investors be able to successfully time the up and down moves, that occur on the world equity markets. However, the overall results have varied dramatically as investors, traders and analysts argue about which theory is the best one to achieve this objective. At the heart of this argument, is the belief that the markets will overshoot in both directions. Where, some will claim that the markets reflect all expectations and available information in the price of the stock (commonly called the Random Walk Theory). This makes it impossible to determine if the markets will move up or down-based past market conditions. While,…. [read more]


Personal Financial Management Term Paper

… Financial Planning

Charting the Course: Planning for Life after College

It has frequently been said that the end of college is not an end at all, but is rather the beginning of life's journey. Because life is a journey rather than a race, it is important to make some plans ahead of time so the path is known and the destination understood to the extent possible in advance. When most people set out on a journey to destinations unknown, they usually secure a map ahead of time to avoid getting lost. Likewise, a map of an individual's life journey can help a person stay on course and avoid the pitfalls that await the unwary along life's roads; however, in some cases, there is no real…. [read more]


NAFTA Historical Beginning Term Paper

… 3. A panel of experts was utilized to handle disputes.

The creation of CUSTA sparked interest from Mexico. The free trading area or FTA spanned greater than 360 million people, and $6 trillion in annual output. NAFTA may also be considered a link to two of the largest trading partners to the U.S.: namely Mexico and Canada.

History Bibliography:

Mariama W. Williams, A Brief History of GATT and NAFTA; Women's Alternative Economic Network

Gary C. Hufbauer, Reginald Jones Senior Fellow and Diana Orejas, NAFTA AND THE ENVIRONMENT: LESSONS FOR TRADE POLICY, Institute for International Economics (2001)

Daryll E. Ray, Director, Agricultural Policy Analysis Center Melissa B. Cooney, NAFTA and the Small Mexican Farmer, Graduate Research Assistant University of Tennessee

US-Mexico Chamber of Commerce.

NAFTA Objectives…. [read more]


Dividend Policy at Linear Technology Case Study

… ¶ … dividends of the Linear Technology are announced on annual basis which is the reflection of the fact that the organization has been a profit making institute, and has been able to generate the required revenue to ensue the smooth functioning of the organization. The attainment of the critical limit has made to possible for the stakeholders of the company to secure the dividends. There has been a general assumption by the finance scholars that the declaration of the dividends do not influence the firm value, which is because it does not offer any tax disadvantage to the investor, while offering an opportunity to the company for raising funds in the capital markets 'for new investments without bearing significant issuance costs'. The analysts are…. [read more]


Monetary Policy Failed Reactionary Research Proposal

… Monetary Policy

Failed Reactionary Monetary Policy

During the campaign to the 2000 presidential election, the incumbent party had a list of economic achievements under its belt which included a record low of unemployment rates, a balanced budget -- even a surplus -- and a broad trend of rapid economic growth. The opposition, represented by our current outgoing president, George W. Bush, came to office under the promise of repaying the American public its investment in the economy. As it took office, the economy plunged into recession, with the market correcting itself of the unprecedented expansion of the previous decade. With events like the Enron scandal revelation, the continually detrimental culture of corporate malfeasance and the costly attacks of September 11, 2001, the economy's correction transformed…. [read more]

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