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Intelligence and Security Agencies Work Essay

… ¶ … intelligence and security agencies work closely with decision makers, or should they be insulated from them?

Intelligence and security agencies verses decision-makers

The growing trends in the international security platforms continue to warrant increasingly comprehensive security details all over the world. Countries are in the run towards securing their sovereignty and ensuring the safety of their resources, land and people. It is not something of the recent as over the years, since the inception of revolution, which saw the age of colonization and struggle for independence, countries still had their security detail, responsible for maintaining order within the country and securing its borders and establishing the sovereignty of the nation (Great Britain, 2010, p. 370). These organized groups of people that had the…. [read more]

Intelligence Pathologies Term Paper

… Intelligence Pathologies

The Church Committee Investigations which began in 1974 after the Watershed Scandal in President Nixon's administration found that intelligence agencies had unlimited executive power. The committee found that intelligence agencies abused this power and harassed and disrupted targeted groups and individuals, spied on citizens, assassination plots, manipulation and infiltration of businesses and media. Recommendations made by the Church Committee in the 1970s concerning intelligence agencies have been overlooked. As President Nixon's administration gave more executive power to intelligence agencies during his reign, so did President Bush. Intelligence agencies acquired executive authority after 9/11 are founded on the rhetoric of the war on terrorism, finding weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and identifying the link between Iraq and Al-Qaida. The agencies have carried out…. [read more]

Intelligence Counter-Terrorism Protection Literature Review

… Intelligence & Counterterrorism

The intelligence community and the changes in counterterrorism tactics in the past decade have been outstanding examples of fundamental change in both the direction and the mindset of America's defensive forces. Several journal outlets have shaped the value of these strategies since the September 11th attacks, and academics and private individuals alike have had valuable input through the last decade in the arena of intelligence, counterterrorism, and protection in their suggestions and critiques published in the journals International Security, Foreign Affairs, and the Middle East Journal. These three journals each have their own audiences, writers, editorial boards, biases, and agendas, which will allow for the analysis of different research methodologies and conclusions based on varying audiences and establishments.

In Thomas Hegghammer's, 'The…. [read more]

Security Roles Research Paper

… Security Roles

In the present digital age when a substantial amount of data and other key corporate information is stored in servers, the word "security" takes on a new and more important meaning. "Security" in the past has simply meant keeping the doors locked, hiring a professional agency to protect the building and employees, and taking other steps to assure the security and safety of the assets of any given company. But today a security agency -- or a security officer in any company -- takes on a far greater duty and responsibility because of the threat that is posed by criminals, hackers, and other interlopers that would steal or malign a company's precious secrets and strategies. This paper delves into the need for a…. [read more]

Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework Terrorism Essay

… The use of floating blimps, CCTVs, eyes on ground, and close ties with foreign police departments, is all technology formed in the past decade that has enhance U.S. intelligence. (Masters, J, n.d.)

American counterterrorism can also be improved with three specific non-agency related policy recommendations. The first is successfully closing off the gaps in the border between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. The ease in which individuals are able to traverse the expanse of land between the U.S. And Mexico is alarming, to say the least. Even with the 600-mile wall that has been built, a massive portion of the dangerous land between the two nations is still inhabited each year by those looking for higher wages and a higher standard of living. These borders…. [read more]

Is Intelligence Reform Working? Essay

… Intelligence Reform

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, calls arose for a dramatic reformation of the American intelligence superstructure, in response to the perceived failures of communication and investigation that contributed to the success of the attacks. These calls for reform ultimately found an outlet in the form of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA), which sought to streamline and organize American's intelligence efforts in order to make up for perceived failures of the CIA and FBI to share information effectively in the years and months leading up to the September 11th attacks. In some cases, the changes instituted by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act were born out of recommendations suggested by the 9/11 Commission, the Congressionally-mandated…. [read more]

National Security and Homeland Defense Research Paper

… Security Agencies

National Security and Homeland Defense at the Federal, State, and Local Levels: An Overview of Three Agencies


National Security Agency (NSA)

Jurisdiction: Gathers information worldwide; official jurisdiction only on U.S. soil or via diplomatic agreements with other sovereign nations

Size: Approximately 30,000 people work for the NSA worldwide, the majority of them sworn; exact numbers are not made public

The NSA focuses on signals intelligence and information assurance, gathering and analyzing information primarily through the means of high technology and cryptography, and is the primary national agency responsible for processing such information and accomplishing related tasks.

Role in Homeland Defense

Slightly reorganized and with emendations to its scope and specific activities following the creation of the Office of the Director of National…. [read more]

Intelligence Agencies Term Paper

… Intelligence Agencies

What exactly is an Intelligence Agency? It is an agency that is responsible for gathering information about an enemy of any kind, and assimilating this information in such a way that it would be useful to them in their fight against the enemy. One of the more famous Intelligence Agencies of the world is the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States of America. This is an independent agency that the government of the United States which is charged with the specific responsibility of gathering and collecting information about intelligence as well as counter-intelligence activities that are taking place outside of the country. This is generally done with the specific permission and approval of the National Security Council.

The types of intelligence agencies…. [read more]

Intelligence Policy Term Paper

… Intelligence Policy

Political factors that shape contemporary debates over intelligence policy, effectiveness, and accountability

Achieving a successful policy in a country is not an easy task. In the United States, there are many political challenges facing the intelligence community. They include the public lacking confidence in the ability of agency performing its tasks competently and legally to the satisfaction (Tocqueville, Mansfield, & Winthrop, 2002). From this perception, the intelligence policy reforms to be implemented are left out as a responsibility of the intelligence community alone. Agents from the Congress and the executive branch will also have an opportunity to address these issues. However, the intelligence community has been enacting some changes to adapt to the demands arising from the effects of the Cold War. For…. [read more]

Security Privacy Term Paper

… Security vs. Privacy in the National Intelligence Debate

Too often, when people are afraid, privacy -- as well as other civil liberties -- is sacrificed on the altar security. There is the erroneous assumption that the transformation of free societies into police states will ensure security from external and internal threats. The chief among these threats in recent years in the West has been terrorism. The September 11th attacks on the United States were brazen and tragic. Thousands of lives were lost, and many Western nations began to cower in fear of similarly scaled attacks. The knee-jerk reaction of the public was to call for greater security and protection from these threats so as to prevent terrorism in the future. But how do we provide…. [read more]

Intelligence Community the History Essay

… Intelligence Community

The history of deception and intelligence is deeply seated within the American way of life and the roots of democracy. The creation of the republic which began with a declaration of independence from a tyrant monarch gave birth to the institution that is protected by intelligence gathering techniques and operations.

Since that time, enemies of the state have existed and attempted to infiltrate the American way of life through a variety of means. Each actor appears to be attempting to influence the political structure. Angevine, R.(2004) wrote "the importance of military intelligence has long been a matter of debate. More than two millennia ago, the Chinese general and military theorist Sun Tzu asserted that secret operations are essential in war, yet the term…. [read more]

Intelligence Surveillance Policies and Procedures Thesis

… Intelligence/Surveillance Policies & Procedures

After the tragedy of September 11 attacks on Pentagon and World Trade Center, the National Security Agency (NSA) was given authority to listen to all kinds of communications between those U.S. residents who are suspected to have links to Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups around the world. It was assumed that by tapping their communication American intelligence community can efficiently detect and deter terror attacks. The Congress also provided the U.S. president legal coverage to pursue American enemies, disregarding all preceding intelligence and surveillance acts such as Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act or Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act (Donohue, 2006).

It is noteworthy that previous U.S. presidents also have used and enjoyed such powers and…. [read more]

Intelligence and Politics Origins and Reasons Book Review

… Intelligence and Politics

Origins and Reasons of Intelligence Intervention in Policy -- Uri Bar-Joseph

The salient question raised by Uri Bar-Joseph in his book Origins and Reasons of Intelligence Intervention in Policy, has to do with intelligence professionals interfering with -- or otherwise being allowed to have enormous influence over -- foreign policy decisions made by political leaders. Bar-Joseph's book also deals with political leaders who use intelligence-gathering experts -- and their findings -- to formulate personal agenda-advancing policies in a way that is an anathema to good government. This paper reviews and critiques Bar-Joseph's book -- as well as his 2009 article in Political Science Quarterly -- and provides scholarly sources as additional perspectives on what Bar-Joseph asserts and documents.

Moreover, there are arguments…. [read more]

Security Aviation Security Pre and Post 911 Term Paper

… Security

Aviation Security Pre and Post 911

The security in most airports did not used to be much of a problem for anyone. For many years before the events of September 11, 2001, travelers did not think much about security at all, it was just something that was expected at the airport, and oftentimes it seemed as though it was not taken very seriously. People had to walk through a metal detector, and their bags had to go down the conveyor belt to be X-rayed, but it seemed more of a formality than it did something to do with their safety and security. It was just one more thing they had to do when they went to the airport.

After September 11th, all of that…. [read more]

Security Plan Case Study

… Security Plan

The Maryland public safety education and training center deals with firearms training, public safety and education, and drug abuse resistance. The center is located on a 700 acre plot. The center has been divided into two main facilities namely Drivers Training Facility and Firearms Training Facility. The center is located 25 miles away from any residential community in order to prevent crime and promote security. Locating the facility far from residential communities has ensured that there are no unauthorized entries to the center. The firing ranges are located 25 miles from the center to ensure that there is no accidental damage to the property. This also protects people within the center as there is no risk if accidentally been shot. Having bullet traps…. [read more]

Homeland Security and Preparedness, Response Capstone Project

… (Edwards, 2012, p.26)

(2) Geo-Call Mapping A county map with colored push pins representing call types and locations. The color bar and pie charts correlating calls by day and time. Awareness of crime locations and nexus to day and time lead to meaningful patrol, prevention, and disruption. (Edwards, 2012, p.26)

(3) Deputies Resource Center The center offers professional magazines, intelligence pamphlets, and case law updates. This creates a professional culture with efficient and effective law enforcement. (Edwards, 2012, p.26)

(4) Intelligence Database Intelligence information is submitted. Intelligence is shared. (Edwards, 2012, p.26)

(5) All Hazards An intelligence analyst e-mails important information regarding potential public safety hazards. This leads to situational awareness among all public safety stakeholders. (Edwards, 2012, p.26)

(6) Open-Source Alerts An intelligence analyst…. [read more]

Domestic Intelligence Agency the Necessity Research Paper

… "

Such a pool of recruits limits the timeframe that would be needed in establishing a new agency by widening the prospects of potential agents. The ability to appeal to individuals willing to assist in intelligence work and nothing else could greatly reduce the time it takes to gather, train, and put in the field willing and ready applicants.

What Miller fails to consider is the fact that the FBI, in spite of its new reshaping, still focuses on a variety of missions for a variety of purposes. It is governed by a multi-varied objective, which is burdened by several missions -- none of which is actually "led" by intelligence-gathering forces.

The Bureau may be contrasted with the UK's intelligence-gathering agency MI5. The general idea…. [read more]

Israel Internal Security Case Study

… Israel Internal Security Case Study

Nature of the state

Israel is a young nation, developed following WWII, when Britain withdrew from Palestine and the United Nations partitioned a portion of it for the resettlement of displaced Jews following the war. Arab nations in the region and Palestine itself rejected the arrangement, but it was followed through with nonetheless. The arrangement developed into several costly wars in which the Israeli army was successful, with the aide of foreign backing but many deep rooted tensions have not been resolved since. The Israeli government also occupies additional lands, which were acquired through these costly wars, most notably the Gaza strip and a few other regions, though some have been returned to their nation of origin since.

On 25…. [read more]

National Security the Office of the Director Term Paper

… National Security

The Office of the Director of National Intelligence works at the top level of the U.S. Intelligence Community. DNI is the personal presidential advisor. It also offers advice to the national council of security and the homeland council of security for intelligence issues associated with national security. The office of the DNI is the head post of the cabinet founded by the terrorism prevention Act and the intelligence reforms of 2004 (Fingar, 2011).

The leadership and Missions of DNI

The missions for establishing this office includes:

Lead in the integration of intelligence

Create a community of intelligence with the capability of delivering the possible most insightful intelligence

Based on the above two missions, the head of DNI office is the Director of the…. [read more]

Intelligence Failures Research Paper

… The Central Intelligence Agency was created in the wake of WWII and saw a further diffusion of power within the intelligence community itself. This agency made its bones as a force behind the cold war and was central in the conducting of those operations. The CIA consistently overestimated future Soviet nuclear capabilities with far reaching political consequences. It is now understood that the Soviet nuclear arsenal was not much of a threat and innumerable amount of resources were wasted during this time because of this error. Gusterson (2010) injects a substantial opinion about the misguiding of this time when he wrote " he tells us that their destructiveness has been exaggerated; that the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were of marginal importance in ending World…. [read more]

Post Ww Ll Intelligence Failure Essay

… Post WWII intelligence failure

9/11 Terrorist Attack

The aspect of terrorism had been in existence from time immemorial and there had been other acts of terrorism elsewhere across the globe. The U.S.A. had heard of them but had not contemplated the possibility of being a target. The U.S. was caught by surprise when multiple attacks were targeted at the U.S.A. And instead of a proactive approach to terrorism; the U.S.A. was pushed to defense and used a reactionary approach to the terrorism acts. The 9/11 was an event that changed the pattern and face of the U.S.A. approach towards terrorism forever. Evidently it was the act that led the U.S. To engage in foreign military activities thereafter in the name of flushing out terrorists, the…. [read more]

Privacy Security National Essay

… Yet the military industrial complex has found a new avenue of growth in a war that can virtually never be won. This allows major corporations to continue to sell military goods to fight the war on terrorism and the U.S. public pays the bill.


WikiLeaks and the content that Edward Snowden have released information that has shocked most Americans. WikiLeaks worked to expose many of the unethical practices in which the United States officials and the military that persisted in foreign affairs. They showed that there were many activities that could be considered war crimes in violation of international law. These leaks also documented many instances in which the government has been coercive, to say the least. The showed that the U.S. had planned…. [read more]

Historical Development of Private Security in the United States Term Paper

… Private Security

Historically the security systems in America had roots in England. Many of the early settlers were English citizens before coming to America and brought the common law strategies with them.

The colonies had sheriffs as the legal authority who could deputize citizens to assist them in enforcing the common law that protected people and property.

There are records that indicate the earliest organized police force began in Detroit and Cincinnati in the early 1800s. The first formal public police force was in England and was started by Sir Robert Peel in 1829 (Ortmeier, 2009).

Parliament was petitioned by Peel about the need for a nationally organized and trained force. The Metropolitan Police Act was ratified by British Parliament in 1829 (Ortmeier, 2009).

In…. [read more]

Trace U.S. Intelligence 1936-1945 Term Paper

… Intelligence From 1936-1945: Key Analysis and Operations

Between the two World Wars, the state of intelligence in the United States "fell into abeyance" ("United States Intelligence") in terms of international application. While most of the other major world powers had intelligence agencies at work, the U.S. had no such strong community. In fact, most of U.S. operations in the 1920s and even into the 1930s were directed domestically at radicals, anarchists, and other "undesirable" groups. However, by the mid-1930s the danger of the Nazi regime and world war had the U.S. intelligence community at work rooting out Nazi agents who were at work in the United States.

Unfortunately, it took major tragedy to spur the U.S. intelligence community into action. While Army intelligence had cracked…. [read more]

Intelligence Community Reform How it Effects National Security Research Paper

… Intelligence Community Reform

Since the 911 terrorist attacks, most people assumed the U.S. intelligence community was undergoing a series of different reforms, to help gather and more effectively utilize intelligence. Part of the reason for this, is because of a series of blown opportunities the U.S. intelligence community had in the events leading up to September 11, 2001. A good example of this can be seen with the CIA admitting they knew of the whereabouts for one of the September 11th hijackers in January 2000. When a meeting would take place between the would be hijacker (Khalid Al Mihdar) and Osama Bin Laden in Malaysia in January. During the meeting, the CIA would photograph and identify Al Midhar as person of interest associated with Al…. [read more]

Commission's Recommendations on Reforming Term Paper

… S. intelligence community served as a wake-up call that prompted a system-wide evaluation of communication issues and the need for an integrated approach to collecting and analyzing real-time intelligence from far-flung sources that were codified in the Intelligence Reform and Terrorist Prevention Act. Because these sources exist along a continuum ranging from dubious to completely reliable, the analysis of this real-time data frequently requires the subjective perspective that only humans can bring to bear on identifying real threats vs. gibberish or benign transmissions. Unfortunately, even the best experts in the field are limited by their ability to sift through the mountains of intelligence data that are routinely collected every day, making the need for ongoing review to identify opportunities for improvement an essential component in…. [read more]

Intelligence Unit Memo Police Chief Essay

… From a functional and support viewpoint, an intelligence unit would be the central hub of information regarding criminal activity, the analysis of patterns, and the repository of information from sources, national data bases, or other credible law enforcement sources. As an integrated department, it should have a reporting structure that allows its mission to actively gather and obtain information regarding criminal conduct that is either current, ongoing, or potential (Gaines & Worrall, 2010).

Structure and Size of Unit (Research Proposal) -- There are a number of structural templates that could easily be applied to the local needs. First, the unit should be set up based on not only budgetary concerns, but actual department needs. At a minimum, there would be a Manager Level (Lieutenant or…. [read more]

Intelligence a Turning Point Term Paper

… Intelligence

The Creation and Performance of a True U.S. Intelligence Community

The emergence of a true U.S. intelligence community did not occur until late during World War II. The primary deficiency in U.S. intelligence up until that point was the complete lack of coordination of information and operations between the various intelligence agencies that were, by and large, military affairs. Army Intelligence didn't necessarily communicate effectively with Navy Intelligence, and so on. The only potential for coordination was the slim chance that it would occur as various reports passed across the desk of the President.

FDR recognized this problem during World War II and appointed William Donovan to draft a plan for a more cohesive intelligence service in the United States ("United States Intelligence"). The…. [read more]

Intelligence Analysis According to Heuer, Cognitive Biases Term Paper

… Intelligence Analysis

According to Heuer, cognitive biases can be defined as "mental errors caused by our simplified information processing strategies." The bias comes not from a perception of the exterior environment or from cultural biases, for example, but from a subconscious mechanism that is triggered when the information is processed, causing an informational error.

From this definition, one can understand how cognitive biases may influence the quality of intelligence. Indeed, first of all, this comes due to the fact that the intelligence is not transmitted in its raw, primary form, but is rather passed through the cognitive mechanism. This is where the cognitive biases might intervene and might corrupt the intelligence by adding or subtracting informational elements or by modifying it according to the biases'…. [read more]

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