Viewing papers 1-30 of 55 for intelligence AND failure AND at AND pearl

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Intelligence Failure at Pearl Research Paper

… Intelligence Failure at Pearl Harbour

Intelligence failure at Pearl Harbor

It was the dawn of December 7th 1941 when six Japanese fleet carriers arrived 270 miles north of the Hawaiian Islands, and launched more than 200 attacking planes in the American fleet on the Pearl Harbor. This was the first attack after which the second attack with 170 planes was launched. These were the surprise attacks that greatly destroyed most of the American defense at the Pearl Harbor. Severe damage was suffered by the American army. This attack killed more than 2500 American marines and more than 1700 men were wounded. Why did America fail to prevent the Japanese attack? And was the attack unavoidable? This paper will aim to examine the main reasons of…. [read more]


Pearl Harbor as an Intelligence Term Paper

… Conclusion

Finally, it has been said that within intelligence hierarchies there are periodic checks as well as balances on the conclusion analysts drawn from the raw data. However, these conclusions may not essentially be institutionalized as well as formal but nevertheless they do exist at the higher level and are weaker. On the other hand, outside the hierarchy, but within policymaking circles they are absent. These conditions thus, led to intelligence failure of Pearl Harbor (Wohlstetter, 1965).

Moreover, in regard to intelligence, ethnocentrism is expressed in terms of "mirror-imaging," that plans cultural values, whether they are political, military or cognitive, onto the enemy leading to the planned and complete failures of policy formulation as well as military planning, and thus, this carried more implication in…. [read more]


Intelligence Failure at Pearl Harbor Roberta Wohlstetter Term Paper

… Intelligence Failure at Pearl Harbor

Roberta Wohlstetter (1962) Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

How could American intelligence failed so consistently? This was a common question in the American news media after 9/11. The answers of Roberta Wohlstetter's 1962 book Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision may provide some insight for modern readers, in answer to this question. Of course, Wohlstetter's analysis is applicable to a much older historical problem, namely how could America have failed to anticipate the threat of the Japanese bombings on Pearl Harbor. But her approach and answers provides an important warning to conspiracy theorists and intelligence apologists alike.

According to Wohlstetter, the intelligence clues that an attack on Pearl Harbor would take place only seem certain with the…. [read more]


Intelligence Community the History Essay

… Intelligence Community

The history of deception and intelligence is deeply seated within the American way of life and the roots of democracy. The creation of the republic which began with a declaration of independence from a tyrant monarch gave birth to the institution that is protected by intelligence gathering techniques and operations.

Since that time, enemies of the state have existed and attempted to infiltrate the American way of life through a variety of means. Each actor appears to be attempting to influence the political structure. Angevine, R.(2004) wrote "the importance of military intelligence has long been a matter of debate. More than two millennia ago, the Chinese general and military theorist Sun Tzu asserted that secret operations are essential in war, yet the term…. [read more]


Intelligence Policy Term Paper

… Intelligence Policy

Political factors that shape contemporary debates over intelligence policy, effectiveness, and accountability

Achieving a successful policy in a country is not an easy task. In the United States, there are many political challenges facing the intelligence community. They include the public lacking confidence in the ability of agency performing its tasks competently and legally to the satisfaction (Tocqueville, Mansfield, & Winthrop, 2002). From this perception, the intelligence policy reforms to be implemented are left out as a responsibility of the intelligence community alone. Agents from the Congress and the executive branch will also have an opportunity to address these issues. However, the intelligence community has been enacting some changes to adapt to the demands arising from the effects of the Cold War. For…. [read more]


Intelligence Failures Research Paper

… The Central Intelligence Agency was created in the wake of WWII and saw a further diffusion of power within the intelligence community itself. This agency made its bones as a force behind the cold war and was central in the conducting of those operations. The CIA consistently overestimated future Soviet nuclear capabilities with far reaching political consequences. It is now understood that the Soviet nuclear arsenal was not much of a threat and innumerable amount of resources were wasted during this time because of this error. Gusterson (2010) injects a substantial opinion about the misguiding of this time when he wrote " he tells us that their destructiveness has been exaggerated; that the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were of marginal importance in ending World…. [read more]


Pearl Harbor Term Paper

… Pearl Harbor

Immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the initial reaction by the President and his cabinet was to develop a plausible association for blame. In so doing they targeted the top two commanders in Hawaii, Admiral H.E. Kimmel and Lt. general W.C. Short. Several researchers even intoned that Kimmel and Short, were the official scapegoats of the President. () In retrospect most government investigations have demonstrated that this was not the case, and in fact the actions of these two men, actually rendered the Japanese attack, much less effective. Especially in retrospective as Kimmel stressed the fact that the Japanese attack strategy did not cripple the fleet, as they did not destroy the massive fuel supplies, which were at the time in the…. [read more]


Pearl Harbor and the Cuban Missile Crisis Term Paper

… Pearl Harbor and the Cuban Missile Crisis

All countries gather information regarding what other countries are doing. This information, called "intelligence," may be gathered in a variety of ways. Government analysts may study the speeches of other countries' leaders or use agents on the ground (loosely referred to as "spies") to gather such information as what ships come and go from harbors. Individual countries may use agents to infiltrate the governments of other countries to gather information that country would not willingly share. Government often view these intelligence-gathering efforts as crucial to protect their own interests, and large countries such as the United States and Great Britain, as well was smaller countries with significant concerns about other governments, such as Israel and North Korea, will…. [read more]


Intelligence Failure of Pearl Harbor Term Paper

… Intelligence Failure of Pearl Harbor

And I Was There by Edwin T. Layton

The author of this book, Edwin T. Layton, was a Fleet Intelligence Officer. Along with others, he was tasked with breaking into the secret codes used by Japan. Finally, they were able to get through and have an idea of what the Japanese Navy was generally planning to do. However, Pearl Harbor had no decoding machine of the type that was needed and therefore intercepted information had to be sent elsewhere, decoded, and sent back. The main thesis in Layton's book is that Pearl Harbor was denied important intelligence. If it had been received in a timely manner, the attack that took place on December 7, 1941 could have been avoided. Whether…. [read more]


Intelligence Failure of Pearl Harbor Term Paper

… Intelligence

Pearl Harbor: Final Judgement

Pearl Harbor: Final Judgement by Henry C. Clausen and Bruce Lee is the true story of a detailed investigation into the Pearl Harbor bombing on Dec. 7, 1941. Henry C. Clausen was the young lawyer chosen to investigate the attack and the intelligence leading up to it. This book is his conclusion, 50 years later, to the Top Secret report he compiled. The report was never made public.

Clausen debunks the many conspiracy theories that still abound concerning Pearl Harbor by recounting his own experience investigating the roots of the surprise attack and why American intelligence did not pick it up. Instead, Clausen depicts a convoluted and often inefficient military system that did not work with other agencies well, was…. [read more]


Intelligence Community Reform How it Effects National Security Research Paper

… Intelligence Community Reform

Since the 911 terrorist attacks, most people assumed the U.S. intelligence community was undergoing a series of different reforms, to help gather and more effectively utilize intelligence. Part of the reason for this, is because of a series of blown opportunities the U.S. intelligence community had in the events leading up to September 11, 2001. A good example of this can be seen with the CIA admitting they knew of the whereabouts for one of the September 11th hijackers in January 2000. When a meeting would take place between the would be hijacker (Khalid Al Mihdar) and Osama Bin Laden in Malaysia in January. During the meeting, the CIA would photograph and identify Al Midhar as person of interest associated with Al…. [read more]


Intelligence a Turning Point Term Paper

… Intelligence

The Creation and Performance of a True U.S. Intelligence Community

The emergence of a true U.S. intelligence community did not occur until late during World War II. The primary deficiency in U.S. intelligence up until that point was the complete lack of coordination of information and operations between the various intelligence agencies that were, by and large, military affairs. Army Intelligence didn't necessarily communicate effectively with Navy Intelligence, and so on. The only potential for coordination was the slim chance that it would occur as various reports passed across the desk of the President.

FDR recognized this problem during World War II and appointed William Donovan to draft a plan for a more cohesive intelligence service in the United States ("United States Intelligence"). The…. [read more]


Intelligence Factors in the Cuban Term Paper

… After the early1990's, the primary threat to the United States shifted from the Soviet Union to terrorism. However, the infrastructure of intelligence collection and analysis did not -- and still has not -- changed from its Cold War roots.

(Carafano. J. 2004)

One of the cardinal aspects which determined the format of U.S. intelligence during the 1960's and 1970's was the " ... development of technical means of intelligence collection, such as U-2 spy planes and photo reconnaissance satellites such as CORONA." (Intelligence Failure: From Pearl Harbor to 9/11 and Iraq.)

These forms of intelligence was useful and appropriate for the determination of the location of military bases and for tracking the movements of troops and equipment, as was the case in the Cuban Missile…. [read more]


Attacks on Pearl Harbor Term Paper

… Indications leading to the Attacks

Even though the attacks on Pearl Harbor and the World Trade Center have been portrayed as completely unexpected and unforeseen actions, both these events had been directed by apparent signs and signals that the United States had been confronting a looming danger (36). Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the relationship between the Americans and the Japanese had arrived at its lowest point (7). Not later than the summer of 1941, the government of the then American President, Franklin Roosevelt, had set economic sanctions on the Japanese government to compel them to stop their conflict with China. Historians have given reference to these sanctions as the contiguous reason of the Japanese attack on the Pearl Harbor. The Japanese government refused…. [read more]


Integrity in the Intelligence Community Term Paper

… Integrity in Intelligence Community

Integrity, strength of character, ethics and morality are terms that we might never use in a discussion about intelligence community. This is because the meaning of these terms seems to contradict with the implied, perceived and evolved meaning of the term intelligence. The attributes that we commonly find in intelligence personnel or the image that we have created of these people somehow betrays our religious and moral values.

An intelligence officer is required to work for national security and he is allowed to take any action he deems fit to accomplish this noble goal even if his actions are in conflict with basic religious or moral beliefs. This is how we perceive the intelligence community and to some extent it appears…. [read more]


British Counter Intelligence Essay

… British Counter-Intelligence

Did British counter-intelligence efforts during World War I create a terrible situation for British citizens in terms of their civil liberties? That's the contention presented by Nicholas Hiley writing in the English Historical Review. This paper examines Hiley's assertions and reports on the author's point-of-view based on the literature. Thesis: This paper's response to the first question in this paragraph a very positive yes; indeed, the literature presented by Hiley -- if he is to be believed, and there is no reason to question his narratives given the stature of the publication -- shows that without doubt serious violations of civil liberties took place before and during the First World War.

Counter-espionage and Security in Great Britain during the First World War

In…. [read more]


History of Espionage Class Reading Essay

… History Of Espionage Class Reading Study Guides

Jeffrey Burds, Chapter 19 of World of the Shadows: An International History of Espionage (The Golden Age of Soviet "Illegals")

This chapter opens with a quote from Stalin, who in 1937 questioned the prevailing belief that bourgeoisie states would refrain from sending "spies, wreckers, saboteurs and assassins" into socialist states.

Chapter 19 then moves to a discussion of the so-called "Cambridge Five," a group of five British nationals who spied for the Soviets during WWII.

Donald Maclean (1915-1983), Foreign Office secretary, Paris, Washington, Cairo, London.

Guy Francis de Moncy Burgess (1910-1963), BBC broadcaster, agent in MI6, secretary to Deputy Foreign Minister

Harold Adrian Russell ("Kim") Philby (1912-1988), journalist, agent in MI6, "The Third Man"

Anthony F. Blunt (1907-1983),…. [read more]


Battle of Midway, a Naval Thesis

… This caused them to be on the defensive far more that was necessary and kept the momentum on the part of the American forces.

The mistakes that the Japanese made during the course of the battle contributed to the outcome but they also made some significant mistakes leading up to the actual battle. The fact that the Japanese forces underestimated the strength of the American forces in the days leading up to the battle played a crucial role. Because the Japanese assumed that a substantial portion of the American Navy would still be in Pearl Harbor at the time that the Japanese attack on Midway was planned to begin. Despite receiving numerous warnings to the contrary, the Japanese leadership ignored the transmittals and proceeded on…. [read more]


9/11 and the IRTPA Term Paper

… 26). Even in high priority targets like Iran and Iraq, "the number of analysts that are really very good is small" and their services were much in demand (Progress on Intelligence Reform, p. 28).

Any power that the DNI has depends not only on the powers they have on paper, but on the willingness to use them, as well as presidential and congressional support and cooperation from agencies that have more personnel and far larger budgets, such as the FBI, CIA and the Defense Department. Nor can it be an accident that three out of four of the DNIs have a military background, since the Defense Department still controls most of the intelligence budget. In theory, Directors of Central Intelligence (DCIs) had similar authority to…. [read more]


Japanese Preparation and Attack Research Paper

… In this regard, Hill emphasizes that, "[Pearl Harbor] convinced a majority of Americans to escalate to total war against Germany; most Americans believed that Germany was either an accomplice or the political master of Japan, thus making Hitler at least as guilty as Japan for the attack on Pearl Harbor. The attack on Pearl Harbor was the defining event for U.S. entrance into World War II, not only as it regarded the Pacific theater, but also the European theater."

Long-term significance. The long-term significance of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was the utter destruction of the Japanese empire, with Hiroshima and Nagasaki representing only a tithe of the destruction that was visited on the island nation through incendiary bombings of most major cities.

References…. [read more]


Terrorist Attacks of the World Term Paper

… The U.S. can only afford so much money to be allocated to the struggling airline industry, as their focus is on central intelligence efforts among many other things.

Ultimately, one may only conclude that the success and continued existence of the American people, and people of all nations resides on the ability of government officials to effectively combat terrorist efforts. Terrorism causes economic failure and domestic disturbance. The effects of terrorism are widespread, as exhibited by the financial devastation of the airline industry after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. The government and intelligence agencies were pre-disposed to information that may have prevented such devastation. In order to combat future attacks, the intelligence agencies of the United States must report more uniformly and understandably to the…. [read more]


Intel Reform Term Paper

… INTEL Reform Over the Past 100 Years

The United States is without a doubt the most important state actor on the international scene. Its influence and power go beyond the practical resistance of any other country in the world. However, in order to maintain their supremacy, a strong intelligence community is vital. In this sense, the entire system of information gathering, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of results needs to have a strong and reliable framework for implementation.

The present paper will pin point the crucial points in the history of the intelligence community, having in mind the initial goals of the system, the steps taken to increase its efficiency and new means of dealing with emerging threat. There have been numerous attempts to reform and…. [read more]


Longest War Homeland Security Book Report

… Also, quests for real weapons of mass destruction have proved to be 'quixotic' for terrorists: far more dangerous to the West has been the type of organized terrorist threats generated in camps in Pakistan in the 'real world.' This is why it should be noted that Bergen is just as critical of the Obama administration's handling of the terror threat. "despite years of hysterical analysis by the commentarial in the United States, as the Obama administration came into office Pakistan was not poised for an Islamist takeover similar to what happened in the shah's Iran" (Bergen 264). Once again, cultural blindness to the power of ideas we shown: "arresting people is generally a relatively simple matter. Arresting ideas is another thing entirely" (Bergen 2011: 349).…. [read more]


What NASA Can Teach Term Paper

… 10). Yet, the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) had "considered the danger of hijacked aircraft being guided to American targets, but only aircraft that were coming from overseas" ("National Commission, 2004, p.10). From a critical thinking perspective, the Department of Defense and NORAD, specifically, had not adequately recognized the unstated assumptions that were foundational to their strategy: the military believed that an attack using hijacked commercial aircraft would not have a domestic origin.

Patterns of Influence

Across the federal agencies, there existed an immediate need to reconstruct patterns of belief based on the wider experience to be derived from nearly a decade of accumulating, emboldened terrorist activities. A tenet of critical thinking is that the use of logic impels making sense of something as…. [read more]


Japanese Internment Camps Essay

… Japanese-Americans were also routinely denied access to universities and professional organizations.

During World War Two, therefore, it was relatively simple to get the American public to condone the use of internment camps. Prejudice and racism were ingrained in the public consciousness and institutionalized in law. The wartime propaganda made it so that the American populace feared Japanese people and were willing to support the concentration camps. Internment camps were established throughout the West coast of the United States. The only area with a significant number of Japanese residents that managed to avoid the internment camps was Hawaii. This is because the Japanese community in Hawaii was entrenched and strong.

Unfortunately, the propaganda perpetuated the fear and persisted throughout the war. The President of the United…. [read more]


How Has September 11 -11) Changed the Nature of US Interventions? Term Paper

… U.S. Foreign Policy: Pre and Post 911 term that appears repeatedly in discussions of American foreign is hegemony. Uncertainty regarding the meaning of this term led to the dictionary. The Oxford Desk Dictionary and Thesaurus, 1997 offers the fairly straightforward definition of "leadership, esp. Of one nation over another." Considering the contexts that the term was found in, another dictionary was consulted and this led to concepts that brought various commentators perceptions into better focus. The Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993 leaves no doubt as to the potentially negative aspects of hegemony in two ways. The explication directly connected with the term says: [Gk hegemonia, fr. Hegemon, leader, fr.hegeisthai to lead -- more at SEEK] (1567) preponderant influence or authority over others: DOMINATION. Following either…. [read more]


Future of Cuba Term Paper

… Cuba After Castro

Cuba is an island nation some 90 miles from Florida, and proximity alone gives this country great importance in the thinking of American leaders. More than this, however, Cuba represents a major loss in the Western Hemisphere, a country that is Communist-led and that has therefore been viewed as a major security threat to the United States. At times, that threat has been given even more weight, as it was during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. At other times, the threat has been less specific and often derives largely from antipathy to the leadership and to the very idea of Communism. In addition, Cuba holds a place of importance because of the many exiles from Cuba who have come to the…. [read more]


Concise Analysis of the Battle of the Leyte Gulf Thesis

… 147.]

But, fortunately for the US, Kurita's forces also misjudged the 7th Fleet's power, thereby retreating prematurely. The end result might have been rather different if Kurita had fought further. One may contend that Halsey's choice of abandoning the Strait led to the loss of a 7th fleet escort carrier, one destroyer escort and a couple of destroyers, allowing most of the Centre Force a safe escape. Still, most of the 3rd Fleet caused serious damage to the Northern Force, thus successfully ending the Japanese's naval offensive capacity during WWII[footnoteRef:17]. [17: Ibid., 30.]

Competence and Effectiveness in Command

Halsey undoubtedly exercised command effectively. In the immediate aftermath of the Pearl Harbor attack, he was made in charge of every vessel, with an aim at hunting…. [read more]


Battle of Midway: Japanese Perspective Term Paper

… The new carriers build were redesigned to establish only two flight deck elevators and introduced new fire fighting instruments. Intensive training was given to more crew members in the areas of damage-control and firefighting techniques. Replacement pilots have also undergone thorough training, meeting short-term needs of the fleet. When so many areas were covered to be trained the quality of training had suffered massively. Japanese naval air groups have declined in their progress in terms of generic war quality because the inexperienced pilot were send in the front lines units, veterans were forced to share the ever increasing workload in tough working conditions with minimum chances of taking even rest for few hours. This had declines the productivity and efficiency of the workforce.

Indecisiveness and…. [read more]


Tora! Is a 1970 Essay

… "

The United States' incompetence in handling the threat on Pearl Harbor can be seen through a variety of officers including Chief of Naval Operations Harold R. Stark, played by Edward Andrews, who feels it is not necessary to inform Pearl Harbor of the increased threat against them until he "confirms" with the President. Even after a submarine is destroyed after it has breached the United States' security zone, Captain John Earle, played by Richard Anderson, refuses to take action until it has been confirmed that the submarine was an enemy ship. Likewise, Army Air Force Lieutenant Kermit Tyler dismisses a report of incoming Japanese aircraft and asserts that the aircraft are actually B-17 bombers the Navy is expecting; this dismissal not only causes the…. [read more]

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