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Intelligence Community the History Essay

… Intelligence Community

The history of deception and intelligence is deeply seated within the American way of life and the roots of democracy. The creation of the republic which began with a declaration of independence from a tyrant monarch gave birth to the institution that is protected by intelligence gathering techniques and operations.

Since that time, enemies of the state have existed and attempted to infiltrate the American way of life through a variety of means. Each actor appears to be attempting to influence the political structure. Angevine, R.(2004) wrote "the importance of military intelligence has long been a matter of debate. More than two millennia ago, the Chinese general and military theorist Sun Tzu asserted that secret operations are essential in war, yet the term…. [read more]


Pearl Harbor and the Cuban Missile Crisis Term Paper

… Pearl Harbor and the Cuban Missile Crisis

All countries gather information regarding what other countries are doing. This information, called "intelligence," may be gathered in a variety of ways. Government analysts may study the speeches of other countries' leaders or use agents on the ground (loosely referred to as "spies") to gather such information as what ships come and go from harbors. Individual countries may use agents to infiltrate the governments of other countries to gather information that country would not willingly share. Government often view these intelligence-gathering efforts as crucial to protect their own interests, and large countries such as the United States and Great Britain, as well was smaller countries with significant concerns about other governments, such as Israel and North Korea, will…. [read more]


Pearl Harbor Term Paper

… Pearl Harbor

Immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the initial reaction by the President and his cabinet was to develop a plausible association for blame. In so doing they targeted the top two commanders in Hawaii, Admiral H.E. Kimmel and Lt. general W.C. Short. Several researchers even intoned that Kimmel and Short, were the official scapegoats of the President. () In retrospect most government investigations have demonstrated that this was not the case, and in fact the actions of these two men, actually rendered the Japanese attack, much less effective. Especially in retrospective as Kimmel stressed the fact that the Japanese attack strategy did not cripple the fleet, as they did not destroy the massive fuel supplies, which were at the time in the…. [read more]


Intelligence Failure of Pearl Harbor Term Paper

… Intelligence Failure of Pearl Harbor

And I Was There by Edwin T. Layton

The author of this book, Edwin T. Layton, was a Fleet Intelligence Officer. Along with others, he was tasked with breaking into the secret codes used by Japan. Finally, they were able to get through and have an idea of what the Japanese Navy was generally planning to do. However, Pearl Harbor had no decoding machine of the type that was needed and therefore intercepted information had to be sent elsewhere, decoded, and sent back. The main thesis in Layton's book is that Pearl Harbor was denied important intelligence. If it had been received in a timely manner, the attack that took place on December 7, 1941 could have been avoided. Whether…. [read more]


Intelligence Community Reform How it Effects National Security Research Paper

… Intelligence Community Reform

Since the 911 terrorist attacks, most people assumed the U.S. intelligence community was undergoing a series of different reforms, to help gather and more effectively utilize intelligence. Part of the reason for this, is because of a series of blown opportunities the U.S. intelligence community had in the events leading up to September 11, 2001. A good example of this can be seen with the CIA admitting they knew of the whereabouts for one of the September 11th hijackers in January 2000. When a meeting would take place between the would be hijacker (Khalid Al Mihdar) and Osama Bin Laden in Malaysia in January. During the meeting, the CIA would photograph and identify Al Midhar as person of interest associated with Al…. [read more]


Attacks on Pearl Harbor Term Paper

… Indications leading to the Attacks

Even though the attacks on Pearl Harbor and the World Trade Center have been portrayed as completely unexpected and unforeseen actions, both these events had been directed by apparent signs and signals that the United States had been confronting a looming danger (36). Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the relationship between the Americans and the Japanese had arrived at its lowest point (7). Not later than the summer of 1941, the government of the then American President, Franklin Roosevelt, had set economic sanctions on the Japanese government to compel them to stop their conflict with China. Historians have given reference to these sanctions as the contiguous reason of the Japanese attack on the Pearl Harbor. The Japanese government refused…. [read more]


Integrity in the Intelligence Community Term Paper

… Integrity in Intelligence Community

Integrity, strength of character, ethics and morality are terms that we might never use in a discussion about intelligence community. This is because the meaning of these terms seems to contradict with the implied, perceived and evolved meaning of the term intelligence. The attributes that we commonly find in intelligence personnel or the image that we have created of these people somehow betrays our religious and moral values.

An intelligence officer is required to work for national security and he is allowed to take any action he deems fit to accomplish this noble goal even if his actions are in conflict with basic religious or moral beliefs. This is how we perceive the intelligence community and to some extent it appears…. [read more]


British Counter Intelligence Essay

… British Counter-Intelligence

Did British counter-intelligence efforts during World War I create a terrible situation for British citizens in terms of their civil liberties? That's the contention presented by Nicholas Hiley writing in the English Historical Review. This paper examines Hiley's assertions and reports on the author's point-of-view based on the literature. Thesis: This paper's response to the first question in this paragraph a very positive yes; indeed, the literature presented by Hiley -- if he is to be believed, and there is no reason to question his narratives given the stature of the publication -- shows that without doubt serious violations of civil liberties took place before and during the First World War.

Counter-espionage and Security in Great Britain during the First World War

In…. [read more]


History of Espionage Class Reading Essay

… History Of Espionage Class Reading Study Guides

Jeffrey Burds, Chapter 19 of World of the Shadows: An International History of Espionage (The Golden Age of Soviet "Illegals")

This chapter opens with a quote from Stalin, who in 1937 questioned the prevailing belief that bourgeoisie states would refrain from sending "spies, wreckers, saboteurs and assassins" into socialist states.

Chapter 19 then moves to a discussion of the so-called "Cambridge Five," a group of five British nationals who spied for the Soviets during WWII.

Donald Maclean (1915-1983), Foreign Office secretary, Paris, Washington, Cairo, London.

Guy Francis de Moncy Burgess (1910-1963), BBC broadcaster, agent in MI6, secretary to Deputy Foreign Minister

Harold Adrian Russell ("Kim") Philby (1912-1988), journalist, agent in MI6, "The Third Man"

Anthony F. Blunt (1907-1983),…. [read more]


Japanese Preparation and Attack Research Paper

… In this regard, Hill emphasizes that, "[Pearl Harbor] convinced a majority of Americans to escalate to total war against Germany; most Americans believed that Germany was either an accomplice or the political master of Japan, thus making Hitler at least as guilty as Japan for the attack on Pearl Harbor. The attack on Pearl Harbor was the defining event for U.S. entrance into World War II, not only as it regarded the Pacific theater, but also the European theater."

Long-term significance. The long-term significance of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was the utter destruction of the Japanese empire, with Hiroshima and Nagasaki representing only a tithe of the destruction that was visited on the island nation through incendiary bombings of most major cities.

References…. [read more]


Expression That Has Been Dedicated Essay

… For them, the official interpretation is acceptable but they consider 9/11 mostly as an event that was exploited to use as an opportunity for the Bush administration in order to lengthen their American realm. Thirdly, 9/11 is interpreted in a sinister way. According to this connotation, the attacks were already known by the Bush administration and their happening was made intentional. Lastly, 9/11 is seen as an unforeseen event by the Bush administration because this connotation blames the Bush administration for being the orchestrators of the event. Thus, there are different arrays of interpretations regarding 9/11 but almost half of the world considers it to be the planned attacking by Al-Qaeda as its leaders have themselves accepted (Griffin, 2005).

Positive and Negative Outcomes of the…. [read more]


Tora! Is a 1970 Essay

… "

The United States' incompetence in handling the threat on Pearl Harbor can be seen through a variety of officers including Chief of Naval Operations Harold R. Stark, played by Edward Andrews, who feels it is not necessary to inform Pearl Harbor of the increased threat against them until he "confirms" with the President. Even after a submarine is destroyed after it has breached the United States' security zone, Captain John Earle, played by Richard Anderson, refuses to take action until it has been confirmed that the submarine was an enemy ship. Likewise, Army Air Force Lieutenant Kermit Tyler dismisses a report of incoming Japanese aircraft and asserts that the aircraft are actually B-17 bombers the Navy is expecting; this dismissal not only causes the…. [read more]


Intel Reform Term Paper

… INTEL Reform Over the Past 100 Years

The United States is without a doubt the most important state actor on the international scene. Its influence and power go beyond the practical resistance of any other country in the world. However, in order to maintain their supremacy, a strong intelligence community is vital. In this sense, the entire system of information gathering, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of results needs to have a strong and reliable framework for implementation.

The present paper will pin point the crucial points in the history of the intelligence community, having in mind the initial goals of the system, the steps taken to increase its efficiency and new means of dealing with emerging threat. There have been numerous attempts to reform and…. [read more]


Politics in Video Gaming Do Video Games Side With Certain British Political Ideologies Dissertation

… Video games have for a long time been associated with the passage of certain ideologies. The concept of video games has therefore been instrumental in the process of passing certain social and political ideologies. This paper seeks to explore the element and role that the video games play in the process of passing certain political ideologies in the British society. The main aim is therefore to expose the extent to which video games side with certain British political ideologies. This paper begins by analyzing the role that video game play in the passage of general ideologies and then it narrows down to the real specifics that are involved in the process of influencing the British ideologies. The exact parameters are then evaluated and then the…. [read more]


Battle of Midway: Japanese Perspective Term Paper

… The new carriers build were redesigned to establish only two flight deck elevators and introduced new fire fighting instruments. Intensive training was given to more crew members in the areas of damage-control and firefighting techniques. Replacement pilots have also undergone thorough training, meeting short-term needs of the fleet. When so many areas were covered to be trained the quality of training had suffered massively. Japanese naval air groups have declined in their progress in terms of generic war quality because the inexperienced pilot were send in the front lines units, veterans were forced to share the ever increasing workload in tough working conditions with minimum chances of taking even rest for few hours. This had declines the productivity and efficiency of the workforce.

Indecisiveness and…. [read more]


Future of Cuba Term Paper

… Cuba After Castro

Cuba is an island nation some 90 miles from Florida, and proximity alone gives this country great importance in the thinking of American leaders. More than this, however, Cuba represents a major loss in the Western Hemisphere, a country that is Communist-led and that has therefore been viewed as a major security threat to the United States. At times, that threat has been given even more weight, as it was during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. At other times, the threat has been less specific and often derives largely from antipathy to the leadership and to the very idea of Communism. In addition, Cuba holds a place of importance because of the many exiles from Cuba who have come to the…. [read more]


Terrorist Attack on the U.S. Marine Compound in Beirut Airport in 1983 Term Paper

… Terrorist Attack on the U.S. Marine Compound at the Beirut Airport in 1983

In the early morning hours of October 23rd, 1983, a truckload of explosives would introduce America into a new era of terrorism. Forever gone would be the days where terrorist attacks were small-scale, poorly thought out, schemes. In its stead was the new breed of terrorist. These terrorists, from that point forward, would be well-trained, well-armed, and well-informed with the latest intelligence. Oftentimes, they would now be working for legitimate State governments, governments looking for underhanded means of obtaining their objective, with the deniability of the use of a terrorist outfit. These newly evolved terrorist were no longer afraid to take on big targets for fear of not getting supporters. They had…. [read more]


9-11 and Mass Commumications Three Term Paper

… Baktiari wrote: " the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington and the subsequent U.S. military invasion of Afghanistan placed Iran's foreign policy at a crossroads."

The events of September 11 also had a pronounced impact on the context and the content of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Of crucial significance for Palestinian domestic politics has been the American definition of its response to the September 11 attack. The Bush doctrine clearly stated that nations which harbor, support, finance, supply or export terrorist activities are all considered in the same category as those who flew planes into buildings. The U.S. is not limited to a settling of accounts with the Al Qaeda network, or to a larger effort encompassing Al Qaeda's sponsors and allies. Instead, the United…. [read more]


Patriot Act This Study Seeks to Investigate Term Paper

… Patriot Act

This study seeks to investigate whether the Patriot Act has lived up to its goals of identifying and stopping terrorist attacks. The Patriot Act was put in place after the September 11th terrorist attacks by the former president George Bush and his government. The Act was designed to regulate all financial transactions dealing with anyone who had a connection with foreign government known for terrorist activities. This Act also applies to American citizens aiding and abetting suspected terrorists and domestic terrorism. At times, the Act can cause infringement of the constitution. The Patriot Act is connected to criminal justice in a variety of ways that it appears to be unconstitutional. This Act enables law enforcement agencies to detain suspected terrorists for long periods,…. [read more]


Military Technology Wins Wars Technology Does, Indeed Term Paper

… Military Technology Wins Wars

Technology does, indeed, win wars. However, to really understand the implications of this seemingly simple statement we must first remind ourselves of the real definition of technology. Using a simplified definition, we see that the systems created by North Vietnam, including the Ho Chi Minh Trail and the extensive warren of residences and hospitals and the gunnery tunnels also qualify as technology. So the statement should include how the technology is used. Appropriate technology used properly wins wars. New military technology was instrumental in WWII, and many crediting the dropping of the atomic bomb with ending that war. The invasion of Russia by German troops was equally a failure due to inappropriate use of technology on one hand and lack of…. [read more]


Self-Efficacy: A Definition Social Cognitive Term Paper

… A cycle self supporting cycle is created by the teacher of wither utilizing the technology in the class room as an important part of the instruction, or treating it like an unwanted add on to their standard teaching methodology. The course of actions taken by the teacher is one which will support itself, and duplicate itself unless acted on by an outside force.

Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory

Bandura believed that cognitive theories which attached human behaviors exclusively to external stimuli were simplistic perspectives on personality. His work has arisen from the belief that a person's personality and their environment determine and influence each other. His work, while begun with adolescents, developed these four steps in the process which he believed modeled and shaped a personal…. [read more]


U.S. Federal Government's Noncompliance With Habeas Corpus Guarantees of the Constitution During National Emergencies Term Paper

… Government Constitutional Non-Compliance

During times of war the United States government has been guilty of Constitutional non-compliance however, at no time has worse non-compliance on the part of the U.S. Government been documented.

The violation of the Constitution of the United States which is formally termed as "non-compliance" has been seen throughout the history of the United States specifically, it has occurred during times of war during civil disturbances with the use of extrajudicial force used to supercede the ordinary process of law. One such instance occurred during the Civil War. However, the violations, which have occurred during the "War on Terrorism," are some of the most blatant violations of Constitutional ideals and principles ever witnessed. Indeed, the U.S. Government has violated other standards such…. [read more]


Defining Terrorism Term Paper

… Terrorism

Encyclopedias and dictionaries define terrorism in the easy to understand language but in reality it is a concept that is hard to grasp. In the last two decades terrorism caused more damage to the world then anything else. Especially after 9/11 the word terrorism was being redefined. Despite differing definitions terrorism, is considered a crime in most of the countries. Statutes of different countries have different version of the definition of terrorism.

Looking up a dictionary we would find the definition in the simplest form. For example, the American Heritage Dictionary defines terrorism as "The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or…. [read more]


Compare Obama vs. G.W. Bush Foreign Policy Research Paper

… Bush v. Obama Foreign Policies

Neo-conservatism and Liberalism in Practice:

Comparing George W. Bush and Barack Obama Foreign Policies

In 2001 George W. Bush presided over the Presidency which had to face new kinds of challenges in American foreign policy. When Bush was the incumbent, the United States was attacked by terrorists, which killed nearly 3,000 Americans. The rest of Bush's Presidency reflected his Administration's response to that event and the period is known as the post-9/11 era. The eight years of Bush's Presidency was mired in many controversies -- chief among them was the Bush Administration's decision to go to war against the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq -- but also a period that did not witness any further terrorist attacks on American…. [read more]


Korematsu vs. U.S Term Paper

… Korematsu vs. U.S.

Korematsu v. United States

The internment of Japanese-Americans is considered to be one of the 'black marks' upon American history, much like the expulsion of the Native American tribes from their historical lands and slavery. Not only was the action of interning individuals -- children and the elderly as well as adults -- simply because of their race an affront to human rights, it is even more shocking and disappointing that the majority of U.S. Supreme Court did nothing to stop it and even sanctioned the government's actions. The majority decision was based in a concept of 'national security,' which would later be invoked many times by the government in the future to curtail individual liberties in the name of 'preserving democracy.'…. [read more]


Japanese Internment Camps Essay

… Japanese-Americans were also routinely denied access to universities and professional organizations.

During World War Two, therefore, it was relatively simple to get the American public to condone the use of internment camps. Prejudice and racism were ingrained in the public consciousness and institutionalized in law. The wartime propaganda made it so that the American populace feared Japanese people and were willing to support the concentration camps. Internment camps were established throughout the West coast of the United States. The only area with a significant number of Japanese residents that managed to avoid the internment camps was Hawaii. This is because the Japanese community in Hawaii was entrenched and strong.

Unfortunately, the propaganda perpetuated the fear and persisted throughout the war. The President of the United…. [read more]


Gates Open Again 1965-2001 Term Paper

… German-Americans

Recently, increasing numbers of students are learning about the racism and bigotry that existed in the United States against groups such as the Native Americans, blacks and Jews. The history of the Japanese internment camps is becoming more widely studied in education, as well. What came as a surprise when researching this report was that German-Americans and Italian-Americans were also interned in the United States, since this is not highly publicized. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated Executive Order 9066 that authorized the U.S. War Department to exclude or relocate people from certain areas of the United States the ruling targeted so-called "enemy aliens," those not-yet-naturalized emigrants from countries that were fighting against America overseas in addition to American-born citizens of…. [read more]


How Has September 11 -11) Changed the Nature of US Interventions? Term Paper

… U.S. Foreign Policy: Pre and Post 911 term that appears repeatedly in discussions of American foreign is hegemony. Uncertainty regarding the meaning of this term led to the dictionary. The Oxford Desk Dictionary and Thesaurus, 1997 offers the fairly straightforward definition of "leadership, esp. Of one nation over another." Considering the contexts that the term was found in, another dictionary was consulted and this led to concepts that brought various commentators perceptions into better focus. The Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993 leaves no doubt as to the potentially negative aspects of hegemony in two ways. The explication directly connected with the term says: [Gk hegemonia, fr. Hegemon, leader, fr.hegeisthai to lead -- more at SEEK] (1567) preponderant influence or authority over others: DOMINATION. Following either…. [read more]


Concise Analysis of the Battle of the Leyte Gulf Thesis

… 147.]

But, fortunately for the US, Kurita's forces also misjudged the 7th Fleet's power, thereby retreating prematurely. The end result might have been rather different if Kurita had fought further. One may contend that Halsey's choice of abandoning the Strait led to the loss of a 7th fleet escort carrier, one destroyer escort and a couple of destroyers, allowing most of the Centre Force a safe escape. Still, most of the 3rd Fleet caused serious damage to the Northern Force, thus successfully ending the Japanese's naval offensive capacity during WWII[footnoteRef:17]. [17: Ibid., 30.]

Competence and Effectiveness in Command

Halsey undoubtedly exercised command effectively. In the immediate aftermath of the Pearl Harbor attack, he was made in charge of every vessel, with an aim at hunting…. [read more]


Historical Events Essay

… ¶ … 20th Century to bring into focus the most significant events -- either political, social, or economic -- that occurred during each of the decades. Each decade will be evaluated based on only one criteria, and that is the impact that one event had on the American people. In conclusion, the upcoming ten years will be appraised in the same manner to forecast what changes may take place during that time period.

Transcontinental television, the Korean War, the communist hearings of Senator Joseph McCarthy, Rosa Parks and the beginnings of the Civil Rights movement, the creation of the AFL-CIO, the development of the Salk polio vaccine, President Eisenhower's Federal Highway Act marking the beginning of the interstate highway system, and Explorer I, the first…. [read more]

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