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International Competition Middle East Term Paper

… Middle East Region

There is no hard and fast rule that defines what constitutes Middle East. It traditionally includes countries or regions in Southwest Asia and parts of North Africa. Persian Gulf is considered as the main centre the area around which is generally referred as Middle East. Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, and Palestinian Territories are collectively known as Middle East. Middle East region shot to fame because of its vast reserves of oil. The economy of most these countries took a boost based on the oil resource. However, with passage of time region has esteblished its own peculiar identity in the world. Gulf region with UAE as a model…. [read more]


Israeli Palestinian Conflict and the Middle East Term Paper

… International Politics

The Threat of Terrorism the Context of International Relations between the U.S. And the Middle East

The threat of terrorism in the U.S. is inextricably linked to the events in the Middle East and the perceived role of the U.S. many of those events; especially in the Israeli/Palestinian disputes. The U.S. is a major power and the country has not been afraid to use that power in international relations. It is the way that the power has been used, often for the support of Israel, to the detriment of Arabic nations.

To appreciate this one can look at the way in which the U.S. has supported Israel, this was seen with the 'friendship' formed between Kennedy and David Ben-Gurion (Bass 2). Building ion…. [read more]


Middle East Academics, Policy Makers Term Paper

… The state officials admit that the Saudi government or the state can no longer bear the burden for economic development and welfare in the country. This is because of the rising public debt loads, declining capital expenditures by the state, and generally stagnant real growth rates. As a result, it has become vital to allow the private freedom and opportunity to play the required role in economic development. However the process of privatization in Saudi Arabia has been mostly limited to giving business to private firms which include management of seaports and airports, postal, health and education services etc. which only do the contractual work for the state-owned enterprises. It is important that in order for the process of privatization to be successful, the existing…. [read more]


Middle East Violence Three Major Essay

… Al-Qaeda is a stateless Sunni army that carries out attacks on Western and Shiite targets. Approximately, al-Qaeda's ideology revolves around the idea of "puritanical Salafist Islamic reform in Muslim societies and…armed resistance in the face of perceived aggression" (Blanchard, 2005). The aggression does not need to exist in al-Qaeda ideology -- the existence of people who do not subscribe to their belief system equates to aggression against them. Thus, their initiation of violence is seen by them as a reaction. Over the years, al-Qaeda has proven or claimed responsibility for the 9/11 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, the attack on the U.S. consulate in Jeddah in 2004, the attack on the U.S.S. Cole in Yemen, various attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan (Blanchard, 2005),…. [read more]


Middle East Conflict Term Paper

… Currently, the leadership of Israel has moved in what international critics see as a more hard-line approach. Gone are the days of offering Palestinians anything we could in order to put an end to violence. Modern Israeli leadership has taken the stance that we must fight back and end the violence before we can truly negotiate. And this approach makes sense to many Israeli citizens, but as we have seen throughout history it is not very often that armed opposition has brought about a peaceful settlement.

But it would be unfair to see Ariel Sharon and his Likud party as nothing but war hungry hardliners. In fact, their opposition in the most recent elections could be considered by many to be more unyielding than Mr.…. [read more]


International Relations Essay

… Recent evidence of this can be found with the Conference on Women in Latin America and the Caribbean. During this series of meeting held in Brazil, the different nations of the region agreed to adopt provisions outlining the challenges that women are continuing to face. To include: promoting / strengthening the economic empowerment of women / minorities, improving access to positions of power, addressing issues of violence affecting women and improving access to high technology. This is significant, because it shows how various initiatives to address inequality, are creating a change in government policies within many developing nations. As they realize the contribution that women and minorities make to society / economic growth, which has caused a change in how these governments are interacting with…. [read more]


International Relations Making Poverty History Term Paper

… International Relations

Making Poverty History

For more than fifty years now, it has been recognized that the nations of the world are divided between the "haves" and the "have nots."

The "haves" are the developed countries - technologically advanced and economically successful. Their populations are educated and by and large enjoy a high material standard of living. Decent healthcare is reasonably accessible, and endemic ill-health, scarcity of food and other basic resources are virtually unknown. And there are the "have nots" - countries lacking a modern infrastructure and whose economies are poorly developed. The people in these countries frequently endure grinding poverty, hunger, and disease. Conditions here have barely improved despite half a century of efforts on the part of the developed world. The United…. [read more]


Judicial Review of Arbitral Awards on Public Policy Grounds Lessons From the Middle East Introduction

… Middle East Dispute Resolution

JUDICIAL REVIEW of ARBITRAL AWARDS on PUBLIC POLICY GROUNDS: LESSONS FROM the MIDDLE EAST

The objective of this work is to conduct a judicial review of arbitral awards on public policy grounds and specifically in terms of lessons from Middle East. This thesis is confined to public policy as an exception to the enforcement of arbitral awards, which is know as the public policy exception. The proposed research in this study will be of the nature that examines the theoretical underpinning and practical application of public policy within the context of international arbitration. This research will examine public policy in countries in the Middle East. Public policy is a concept that is vague and impossible to define and experiences variation from…. [read more]


Analyzing Questions About the Middle East Essay

… Middle East

The Sykes-Picot (Asia Minor) Agreement was a covert agreement, relating to the Ottoman Empire's division among the "Allies," negotiated between the governments of France and Britain in the course of the First World War (WWI). The Soviet Union was privy to these discussions as well. The discussions' initial round was conducted in the British capital, with Georges Picot representing France and Sir Arthur Nicolson leading UK's delegation. The next round saw Sir Mark Sykes representing the British government. Agreement terms were outlined in a 5/9/1916 letter addressed by Paul Cambon -- French ambassador to Britain -- to Sir Edward Grey, Britain's foreign secretary. The terms were approved and returned via a letter bearing the date of 16th May. Notes exchange between the allied…. [read more]


U.S. and Int'l. Relations International Essay

… Liberalism, however, cannot explain why the U.S. went into Iraq without UN Security Council authorization in 2003. Also, Liberalism cannot explain why the U.S. used its position as the superior country to overthrow Saddam Hussein, such a move is contradictory to the ideals of Liberalism.

The third broad theory of International Relations is the idea of Constructivism. This theory is outside of the normal arc of IR theories because it does not concern itself with the 'high politics' of Realism or Liberalism. Constructivism does not concern itself with the decisions of the United Nations, nor of the power struggles between states in the international system. Rather, Constructivism is an idea of the cultural values and political realities of the societies within states, and how those…. [read more]


Middle East Fashion Capital: Beirut Lebanon Dissertation

… They also provide funding and in some instances they collaborate with locals to establish creative businesses or industries back home. The country also has a specific association to develop funding for culture-based businesses and initiatives. This organization and the other factors explained for it show that culture is being taken seriously in the country and that there are many stakeholders who are already actively involved in trying to improve the already-amazing culture of the country. It is safe to conclude that the future is looking bright in terms of culture. 

The capital of the Lebanon is Beirut. It is also the largest city and the commercial center of Lebanon. The city has an international airport and road and rail links to all parts of…. [read more]


Foreign Policy With Regards to the Middle East Essay

… U.S. Foreign Policy -- Middle East

What is the U.S. foreign policy with reference to the Middle East following the uprisings in that region of the world commonly known as "Arab Spring"? This paper delves into issues surrounding the position of the United States now that leadership dynamics have changed in the Middle East, and new realities are being presented. The biggest threat for the U.S. vis-a-vis the Middle East has not resulted from the Arab Spring however; it is the ongoing menace, Iran, and the possibility that Iran will successfully develop nuclear weapons.

In the December 10, 2011 edition of the respected publication, the Economist, the author refers to the 4,500 Americans that were killed in the "eight-year misadventure" in Iraq and posits that…. [read more]


Middle East Economy and Politics Essay

… ¶ … MENA region is home to some of the richest and poorest countries in the world. For example, per capita GNI of Qatar is $80,440. For a poor country like Yemen, the per capita GNI is $1,070. One of the reasons for such differences is the production of and dependency on oil. Ironically dependency is not the main determiner of wealth in MENA as Yemen, Egypt, and Iraq have high to moderate dependency on oil for profit revenue and are the three poorest countries in MENA. This is due to lack of industrialization. Yemen although recently participating in higher oil production, is one of the least industrialized. Other MENA countries dependent on oil favor less industrialization and cultivation of mega-cities. Megacities are commonplace in…. [read more]


Middle East, Counter-Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … Middle East, Counter-Terrorism and what the writer believes can be done in that area of the nation to promote peace. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

COUNTERTERROISM IDEAS AND THOUGHTS

Violence in the Middle East has been an issue for many years. For the most part the recent violence has been founded in the problems between militant Muslims and non-Muslims. The militant Muslims have come to believe that a government run by secular boundaries will fail the people of the nations (Terrorism and Homeland security pp. 154). The violence comes from disagreements about who shall govern the region and what regions shall be governed as one entity.

Militant Islamists' ideology is racist and anti-Semitic. Its origins date to the movement…. [read more]


International Relations Realism Term Paper

… Realism in international relations is reflected by the constant occurrences of conflicts and civil discontentment in different states and societies. A famous example is the infamous 'Gulf War II,' or the U.S. attack against Iraq. From the point-of-view of the realist, Gulf War II is an act committed by the U.S. In order to assert its power not only to Iraq, but to the rest of the world. Moreover, it is pursuing its self-interest, the core interest being the achievement of a primary 'controlled territory' in the Middle East, a region known to have vast and most abundant oil resources. In effect, realism in international relations tells us that the U.S. offensive attack was done because there is a need to politically control Iraq and…. [read more]


International Relations of Middle East Term Paper

… Political Science

Iraqi President Saddam Hussein waged war against his neighbors twice. First, against the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1980; second, against Kuwait in 1990.

Both the Iran-Iraq War of 1980 and the Iraq-Kuwait Conflict of 1990 are examples of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's aggression. The military conflicts, which both were identified as the Persian Gulf or Gulf War at one time, involved the president's desire for a natural resource and his turning to violence and aggression in order to get it. A boarder dispute was at the heart of President Saddam Hussein and Iraq's decision to invade neighboring Iran in 1980. Historically, the boarder between the two states had been a source of Middle Eastern conflict, dating back to Iraq's days as…. [read more]


International Relations Studies and Research Essay

… Domestic competitiveness in this case is a major contributor towards ensuring that there is a greater variety of food and other goods that emerge from Agricultural products is East Africa. The concept of domestic competitiveness applies in many regions around the world.

Exploits international trade technology

Technology is changing drastically and trade is one of the major contributors towards technology advancement. Competition in the world trade market has made various trade entities try and advance their products so as to outshine their competitors who are probably producing similar commodities (Al-Suwaidi Ahmed 135).

As this takes course, technology keeps on advancing with people viewing different commodities time after time. A good example is China, Japan and Germany. They are the two major exporters of world motors,…. [read more]


Impact of Imperialism on the Middle East Term Paper

… Imperialism in the Middle East

The Impact of Imperialism in the Middle East

Imperialism and Decolonization:

A Case Study of Egypt and Iraq

In this paper, a discussion will be offered on the consequences of Western imperialism, notably British, that not only impacted on the immediate aftermath of their comportment in previously colonized areas, but also contributed in forming their prospective social, economic and political future, through examining imperialism in Egypt and Iraq. The powerlessness of the Egyptian and Iraqi authorities can be linked to the socio-economic modifications the British enforced and their disinclination to assume a choice to the Western construct of power.

It can be said that historically speaking, the Middle East has not been considered to be charitable to the power of…. [read more]


American Foreign Policy Analysis of the Middle East From the President's Perspective Essay

… American foreign policy as it manifests itself in the Middle East has long been a struggle. The last few decades have demonstrated America's attempts at finding allies and the challenges of controlling the area. After a tremendous amount of analysis and assessment, the best methods to be taken in this particular area are ones of strategic humanitarian action and development. As this paper will demonstrate, much of the discord of the area is directly connected to the fact that it's so impoverished and disadvantaged. Helping the Middle East and building where other governments would blow up, is the best way to develop the area. Such actions not only help develop the global economy, but they help to stabilize America' footing in the rest of the…. [read more]


Economics and International Relations in Nation Building Essay

… Economics and International Relations in Nation Building

To what extent is Samuel P. Huntington's 'Clash of Civilizations' model useful in explaining the conduct of international relations in the post-11 September 2001 world?

The recent events in world history have generated a wide array of responses from both practitioners as well as academicians. The opinions vary from one pole to the other and while some see the events as the end of history as we know it, others argue that they only represent a stage in the modern society. Samuel P. Huntington belongs to the first category and believes that society will return to the traditional conflicts between nations. However, unlike other suggestions in this direction, Huntington's ideas revolve around conflicts based on cultural values, rather…. [read more]


Hamas Middle East the Group Essay

… Yassin had his primary influence in Gaza where he delivered many of his religious ceremonies. His leadership in the delivery of the jihad aspect of the HAMAS movement was influential in the early 1990s for the Istishhadis' attacks on Israel. His exploits were essentially the driver of the radical Islamic fundamentalism that is spoken when referring to jihadists and their activity to promote a free Palestinian state.

Ahmed Yassin was behind the sentiment of never yielding to support a Israeli state o occupation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and in the movement to use terror tactics to create fear and a more manipulative environment for HAMAS to obtain political control. Speaking to the organization's reign of terror, Yassin's directive was in consensus with…. [read more]


Obama and Romney -- Foreign Essay

… 5). That is another example of Romney's realist approach in which the notion of economic security (a worthy issue) turns into unnecessary belligerence, all for the sake of attempting to gain traction in a tight presidential race.

Obama's Liberalism -- Cooperation and stronger International Ties

On the issue of the U.S. And Russian cooperation under Obama, the current president has worked out agreements that show continuing collaboration on space programs. Currently working in the International Space Station are three Russians (Colonel Yuri Malenchenko, Evgeny Tarelkin, and cosmonaut Olge Novitskly), Japanese astronaut Akihiko Hoshide and two American astronauts, Kevin Ford and Sunita Williams (who is flight commander). Obama has also has worked with the Russians on developing counterterrorism tactics (to protect against radical Islamic militants) and…. [read more]


International Commercial Arbitration Term Paper

… International arbitration settlements might prove to be cheaper compared to litigation as well, particularly if several nationwide legal courts are providing their services and input. Generally, international arbitration expenses are a lot more than the local arbitration proceedings though. However, this structure of international arbitration will probably be more affordable compared to worldwide litigation structures (Philip, 1997).

International arbitration usually is actually much less adversarial compared to international litigations structures and could much better in conserving company human relationships and networks as well due to its open and honest nature of discussions (Rozas, 2005).

Arbitration is actually progressively approved, accepted, through the majority of countries from the globe. Arbitration was formerly seen in the past in the U.S. (as well as within some other countries)…. [read more]


International Terrorism Essay

… International Terrorism

The text offers three sources of (or reasons for) violence in the Middle East. Which of the three sources do you think is most responsible, if any? Explain your answer. Also, given these sources, what do you think can and/or should be done to secure a lasting peace in the Middle East?

The answer in my opinion is the militant Muslims, Arab and non-Arab, who preach revolutionary Islam and their fight against the secular politics of the Arab states as well as the Arab states cooperation and involvement with the Western politics which they view as infidels. The militants or extremist Muslims believe that violence is the only way to resolve any differences others may have them and their religious beliefs. The extremist…. [read more]


Middle Eastern Women Research Proposal

… Middle Eastern Women

The Middle East is a geographical region in Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa (Sluglett 2008). It consists of the countries of Bahrain, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen and Egypt. It may also include Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lybia, Sudan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Men are approximately as many as women (Sluglett).

Gender inequality is as much a reality in the Middle East as it is in the world (Abukhalil 2000). It consists in sexism and misogyny or the hatred of women. This practice is most prevalent in Saudi Arabia. The inferior status of Middle Eastern women is basically indigenous in nature. But it has been blown up by the Western point-of-view.…. [read more]


Middle East Essay

… Middle East

Because of a number of elements, the Middle East found itself profoundly changed after World War I. Although this was the case for many countries, the region experienced it most keenly as a result of not only its own internal conflicts, but also because of the conflicting drives of the countries that won the war. Many of the forces in question continue to shape the Middle East today, and indeed some critics hold that the result of elements born during the First World War, is the general mistrust and specific hostility held by Middle Eastern countries towards the west.

The First World War and Its Aftermath

Although the First World War is popularly considered a generally European endeavor, the Ottoman Empire at the…. [read more]


International Terrorism Term Paper

… International Terrorism

Terrorism is now considered to be the largest threat facing the international system and the security framework around the world. Its transnational nature and the unconventional means used have transformed the phenomenon into an indisputable challenge for the national security strategies. In this context there are various types of terrorism which differ in the aims and scope of the issues targeted. Therefore, the differences existing between groups such as Hamas, Hezbollah, the Islamic Jihad, or the PKK only come to prove the complexity of the terrorist phenomenon which has come to influence from the conduct of everyday life up to the highest levels of decision making.

Hamas is one of the most representative and well-known terrorist groups fighting for the Palestinian cause. It…. [read more]


International Development Studies Research Proposal

… International Development Studies

One of the most complex issues facing the developed world today is its humanitarian effort at promoting development across the international border. One aspect of such a challenge is the widely divergent forms of government often perpetuating a cycle of poverty, conflict and destruction in underdeveloped countries rather than promoting democracy and peace. For this reason, the United States has been concerned with promoting democracy and peace across the world, whenever it became evident that these processes were not promoted in certain countries. The American effort in the Middle East and Africa might be used as examples of such efforts, even while there has been a tendency for conflict to heighten as a result of such efforts.

Indeed, often when the American…. [read more]


International Relations I Believe That Arms Treaties Research Proposal

… International Relations

I believe that arms treaties lessen international tension, to the extent that their constituent nations follow them. In this past year, Russia has voted to exit arms treaties, the result of which has been increased tension in Europe (Euronews, 2009). At present, many nations are seeking treaties with respect to the curtailment of nuclear weapons development in nations such as Iran. Such a treaty would likely reduce tensions in the Middle East, if Iran were to hold to its terms.

It is important that nations hold fast to the terms of such treaties. The nuclear non-proliferation treaty, for example, was signed in 1968, but neither the U.S. Nor the U.S.S.R. ceased production of nuclear weapons. As a result, tensions over nuclear war increased…. [read more]


International Institutions and Order Journal

… International Institutions and Order

In his seminal treatise on global power structures and the institutions that preserve order, entitled After Victory: Institutions, Strategic restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars, Princeton University political professor John Ikenberry differentiates between the variety of forms that order has been established. According to Ikenberry, political order is formed when autonomous states enter into governing arrangements, either with their own citizens or with fellow members of the international community, and these arrangements can be classified as either balance of power, hegemonic, and constitutional order structures (21). Throughout his exhaustive and authoritative text, Ikenberry reviews the major historical junctures that have provided societies with the collective opportunity to reorder their existing power structures, pointing to the conclusion of the…. [read more]

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