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Financial Statement Analysis Westpac (Wbc) Essay

… The financial data over the three years between 2009 and 2011 are used to access the financial health of the company.

ROE between 2009 and 2011

ROE in 2009: 218 / 3,013*100= 7.2%

ROE in 2010: 202 / 4,068*100= 4.69%

ROE in 2011: 380 / 3,688*100= 10.30

ROA between 2009 and 2011

ROA in 2009: 218/8,446*100 =2.5%

ROA in 2010: 202/11,117*100=1.8%

ROA in 2011: 380/10,924*100=3.5%

Profitability Ratio

Profitability ratio in 2010: 202 / 2,809*100= 7.19%

Profitability ratio in 2011: 380 / 6,310*100= 6.022%

Table 3: Profitability of AMCOR between 2009 and 2011

Profitability Ratios in %




Profitability Ratio



Return on Assets (ROA)




Return on Equity (ROE)




Based on the financial data from 2009 and…. [read more]

International Financial Markets and Institutions Essay

… Unlike the other categories, directional funds permit portfolios to take on market risk and usually include general market direction intentionally through systematic or discretionary manager decisions. The main aim of non-directional or absolute-return fund is to generate steady returns despite of market events whereas directional funds focus on generating higher-than-expected returns. The absolute-return funds use some investment techniques that may not be used in other hedge funds such as low liquidity or distressed securities.

Borrowing in the International Capital Markets:

International capital market is the financial market of center in which bonds, shares, currencies, mutual funds, debentures, hedge funds and other long-term securities are bought and sold ("International Capital Market," 2010). In addition to being group of various capital markets in a country, the international…. [read more]

Financial Structure of Financial Environment Essay

… However, the services provided by healthcare providers are different from the products and services provided by other industries. Healthcare providers are required to strictly adhere to government rules and regulations within their professional practice. Typically, adhering to the government rules and regulations coupled with mandatory policies to deliver high quality healthcare involves high costs of operations making the healthcare organization to face challenges in applying effective financial management practice within financial environment. (Nguyen,2012).


The paper explores financial environment and financial structure in a giving economy. The financial environment constitutes stakeholders acting within financial market environment. To regulate ethical business activities within financial environment, the paper discusses various policies guiding financial environment, which include tax policy, governance and accounting policies. Based on the nature of…. [read more]

International Business Environment Today's Micro and Macroenvironments Essay

… International Business Environment

Today's micro and macroenvironments are developing at rapid paces, paces which are sometimes difficult to keep up with. The modifications in all socio-cultural, economic, technological or political backgrounds are affecting all features of the everyday life, forcing the individual to adapt along. Some of these modifications have made the life of the individual easier, whereas others have hardened it. Probably the most relevant examples in this instance are offered by the technological field. Innovations such as steam vacuums or dish washers have improved the quality of life, whereas personal computers and laptops (when used mainly for online communications and gaming) have damaged the relationship between parents and their offspring, further deepening the gap between generations.

The list of positive and negative modifications…. [read more]

International Political Economics the Impact of UN Peacekeeper Corruption Term Paper

… International Political Economics: The Impacts of UN Peacekeeper Corruption

International political economy tries to understand global and international problems through a diverse interdisciplinary arrangement of theoretical perspectives and analytical tools. International political economy focuses on the constant breakdown of disciplinary boundaries amid politics and economics. it's not easy to image a world devoid of international political economy since the mutual interaction of international economics and international relations is prevalent. The political activities of nations apparently influence international business and the flow of money, which consequently affects the environment in which nations make political preferences, and entrepreneurs make economic preferences.

It appears impracticable to put into consideration significant questions regarding international economics or international politics in devoid of taking into consideration their mutual effects and influences.…. [read more]

International Financial Markets and Institutions Essay

… International Financial Markets and Institutions

During the past decades, a trend of increased volume and mobility of capital flows has been observed in the global financial markets. According to a rough estimate, global GNPs annual value is now less than financial transactions' volume in all the financial markets of the world. Increase in financial mobility can be attributed as a result as well as cause of the increased financial integration of the economy of the world. Increased financial integration also plays a vital role in creating an impact on the domestic financial markets. Some powerful economies' governments held negotiations among themselves so as to focus on the policy stances of each other with regard to interest rate, monetary and the exchange rate.

In earlier years,…. [read more]

Financial Markets and Institutions Term Paper

… Financial Markets, Institutions, And Transactions

Financial markets can be described as marketplaces in which sellers and buyers are engaged in buying and selling commodities, currencies, equities, and derivatives. These transactions are carried out based on efficient market prices, which indicate overall projections about the future by every investor. Trade in financial markets and institutions are also based on basic trading regulations, market forces, and costs. Since these markets can be found in nearly every part of the globe, they are classified as domestic or international financial markets. Notably, some of the current financial markets are accessible to private investors whereas others are specifically for major global banks and professionals in finance. Moreover, there are several types of financial markets with varying types of transactions supported…. [read more]

International Financial Crises Research Paper

… In the beginning, the Bank of Thailand tried to curb the capital inflows by buying back the baht they sold in foreign exchange markets by issuing bonds (Krug, 2000). The problem was that this activity drove the local interest rates up, pushing borrowers to continue to seek funds in the more attractive overseas markets (Krug, 2000). Credit kept growing, and the Thai considered this situation beneficial at the time since it kept their imports competitive (Krug, 2000). But the Thai could not control the actions of other Asian nations, and trade slowed anyway since with the devaluation of the Chinese in 1994 (Krug, 2000). But in the years prior to 1994, Thai affluence brought up wages causing imports to surge and an enormous trade deficit…. [read more]

Financial Crisis 2008 Threat or Opportunity for Banks in Hong Kong Dissertation

… Financial Crisis: Threat or Opportunity for Banks in Hong Kong

Impacts Of Financial Crisis To HK Banks

It was reported on March 15th, 2010, that Hong Kong shares "rose early Tuesday, shaking off fears about monetary tightening by China that dragged down the market in the previous two sessions as banks and resource stocks advanced after broad overnight gains on Wall Street." (Market Pulse, 2010) in 2008 the banking environment in Hong Kong was characterized by government assistance directed toward backing bank deposits totally $773 billion through 2010. The Hong Kong Monetary Authority had stated at that time that it was "prepared to provide capital to the territory's 23 locally incorporated banks, following the example of the United States and Britain." (Bradsher, 2008)

Hong Kong…. [read more]

Financial and Funding for International Students Term Paper

… Financial Aid and Funding for International Students

The objective of this work is to research the financial aid and funding similarities and differences for international students at private vs. public colleges and universities in the United States. This work will answer the question of whether there are federal funding restrictions and look at what some institutions have done in order to overcome these restrictions.

The work of Altbach entitled: "The Coming Crisis in International Education in the United States" relates that in order to keep pace with the global world "American universities will need to be international institutions." (nd) Information concerning financial aid, specifically for international students states, at least on one website, that education in the United States is "very expensive" since each year…. [read more]

International Business Expansion Process Dissertation

… 2. Selecting the Country for Recruitment:

The organization has multiple choices to recruit its workforce for its international assignments. It can recruit them from the home country (Parent Country Nationals), target or host country (Host Country Nationals), or from some third country (Third Country Nationals). Just like international business expansion is a more complex process than local expansion, international recruitment and selection process is a more challenging task than local hiring. The selection, placement, benefits and compensation strategies, performance appraisal, and other HR decisions are made at a much larger scale than they are in the local work settings (Sanchez, Spector, & Cooper 2000).

3. Recruitment from the Parent Country:

The middle to higher level managers which international business organizations hire from their home country…. [read more]

International Labour Economics Term Paper

… International Labor Economics

Programme Title

Module Number & Name

International Labour Economics (Irish Labour Market)

Statistical Profile of Irish Labour Market

The Republic of Ireland is a member of the European Union in order to maximize its international benefits in relation to the economy. Republic of Ireland represents one of the vital players in the global market with respect to its population levels and geographical size. The labour market of the Republic of Ireland continues to experience numerous radical changes towards improving the living conditions of the citizens. The population of the country has been on the rise, which is observable from Figure 1 below.

Population of Ireland (IRLPOPL) (

The latest census (2011) in relation to the Republic of Ireland shows that the current…. [read more]

International Monetary System and Exchange Essay

… This means that a member does not impose restrictions on making payments or current international transactions transfer without the Fund's approval. It also holds consultation on exchange rate regularly, financial policies and macroeconomic policies with the IMF, shuns exchange rate policies that encourage unfair trade, and provides the IMF with data that it might need so as to carry out its responsibilities. Basically, the IMF has the task of maintaining stability of the international monetary systems through surveillance Michael C. Ehrhardt & Eugene F. Brigham, 2011()

How the system works

A nation has the ability to manage its currency value. This can be done by selling or buying the currency on the foreign market. This is done by a nation's central bank. When the bank…. [read more]

International Economics Nestle Purina Petcare Company Term Paper

… International Economics

Nestle Purina PetCare Company

Purina is headquartered in the United States, but operates throughout the globe in no less than thirty-eight countries. The company we know today resulted from a 2001 merger between Ralston Purina Company and a subsidy of Nestle. Nestle Purina PetCare Company, the resulting company, is not a publicly traded organization (Purina Website, 2008).

The activities at Purina have been influences by a series of national and international forces and based on the company's adaptability to these forces, the successful outcome was retrieved. These forces include the controllable and uncontrollable features of the domestic, foreign and international environments, alongside with the issues which influence the decision making process and the globalization throughout seven dimensions.

Forces of the Environment

The environmental…. [read more]

Financial Derivatives This Study Emphasized Thesis

… Economists are aware of the external and agency costs that occurs when one party acts "rationally" -- that is, in his or her own best interests -- and that action has an adverse effect on another party or parties, the cost to others will be far greater than the benefit to the decision-maker hence agency conflicts that arise between corporate managers, stockholders and bondholders. Both the theory for and empirical examples of "looting," defined as the taking of other people's money while the guarantor (usually the government and by extension, its taxpayers) is left to pay the cost (Akerlof and Romer 1993). Such instances of looting are especially common in climates of "poor accounting, lax regulation, or low penalties for abuse." (Jensen and Meckling, 1976).…. [read more]

Market Entry Term Paper

… Market Entry

The introduction of computer-based networks in the course of implementation of the business strategies is known as Electronic business or e-business. This involves marketing along with the extensive range concerning customer, production and management concentrated business strategy in respect of profit making, government and non-profit making organisation. E-business involves the processing and exchanging of the digitized data files varying from the range of text, audio and video files from one computer to another and from one electronic tool to another. The e-business techniques mostly are based on fully automation. (Hecker, 2001) it is to be assessed as to how suitably the e-business is compatible to the business process. It is also essential to watch how better it operates with the existing business strategy.…. [read more]

International Strategic Management Term Paper

… International Strategic Management

Costco business entity is one of the global wholesales focusing on quality and low prices towards the provision of services and products to the consumers. The organization adopts a 25-year plan with the aim of becoming an international leader within the industry of operation. In order to understand the strategy of the organization, it is essential to implement tools such as SWOT and PEST analysis in the evaluation of the conditions. This research exercise will focus on the evaluation of the strategic direction of Costco Company, key strategic issues, elements of the strategy, and factors affecting change within the industry.

Evaluate the strategic direction of the company, Costco's Market strategic vision, mission, and its motto and business model. In your judgment, how…. [read more]

Financial Derivatives? Essay

… Many banks In Europe used these swaps to reduce the amount of cash that had have to keep in regards to loans. Investors also used this type of swap as bets on companies that may be unlikely to pay their loans. Each hoped to profit from this. It served as a betting game.

The "credit-default swap," however, was the derivative that was most responsible for the financial meltdown in that it became complex, corrupt, and unpredictable. Swaps and other derivatives were sold and resold in ways that concealed the amount of debt that certain financial institutions were assuming and in the early stages of the recession, the resulting fiasco and scandals of the mortgage business resulted in bankruptcy for many businesses that relied on these…. [read more]

Financial Analysis of Lehman Research Paper

… It further closed its offices in three states which were related to its mortgage business. By now, it was becoming evident the claims of the CFO of the form remain to be untrue as firm was being drastically affected by the slump in the housing market. The firm still continued to remain one of the major contributors in the mortgage market. In the year 2007, Lehman seemed to be unaware of its current environmental threats that were posed to it due to financial crisis in the housing market as it underwrote the highest amount of mortgage backed securities with a portfolio of $85 billion which was around four times the firm's shareholder equity. (Murphy, 2010)

In late 2007, it seemed as if Lehman Brothers would…. [read more]

International Fraud Essay

… International Fraud -- the Case of Mali and Senegal

The growing forces of globalization and market liberalization have generated a wide series of effects upon all features of the everyday life. More importantly, these changes are obvious not only within the highly developed economies, but also in smaller and less prosperous countries. The African continent is generally a poor one, with a poor infrastructure, industry and overall economy. Characterized by decades of economic and political instability, the countries in this region find it difficult to overcome the impediments. One of these major challenges in their path to national well-being is fraud, which impacts international business.

The Institutional-Based View

Fraud is extremely common in African countries Senegal and Mali and this is often associated with the…. [read more]

International Management in This Course, We Base Essay

… International Management

In this course, we base our study of international management on a contingency framework. This framework allows a systematic review of all the aspects and factors related to understanding management in a global economy.

The framework consists of several components. Describe each component and explain how the components relate to each other.

The contingency framework relies on the PESTEL model to define the external environment while the internal environment is comprised of the people who make up the organization. A core element of the contingency framework is the culture which is critically important for managing the overall stability and resiliency of the business. Within the cultural component is the definition of macro-structural and micro-structural components and considerations. Within each of these elements is…. [read more]

International Management as the World Evolves Term Paper

… International Management

As the world evolves and the economic, social and technological contexts change, the economic agents are presented with opportunities to capitalize on the liberalization of the markets. For the current entity, this possibility is reflected at the level of launching manufacturing operations in China. In other words, the company wishes to engage in outsourcing processes, but to increase the efficiency of the decision, it is necessary to conduct a fourfold analysis of the country, its cultural factors, its negotiation etiquette and the strategic partners.

Introduction to China

China, short for People's Republic of China, is one of the largest and fastest growing economies of the globe. The country was once enclosed, relying on internal affairs to provide economic and social stability. Throughout the…. [read more]

International Entrepreneurship at Infusion Term Paper

… International Entrepreneurship Infusion

International Entrepreneurship at Infusion

Entrepreneurship is crucial to the health of any business. It helps start ups flourish, as well as more mature organizations stay innovative by taking advantage of the creative innovation of its employees. This is how Infusion has benefited from the entrepreneurial process, especially as it has grown into a revered international technology name. Infusion embodies the true entrepreneurial spirit, one which it hopes to continue using locally driven strategies to facilitate creative employee contributions.

Originally founded by George Brill and DeBorah Johnson, who had left positions in other organizations in order to strike out on their own, Infusion has come a long way since its humble beginnings. The company's very first client was a huge resource that helped…. [read more]

Organization Behavior Global Financial Crisis Essay

… Another group of researchers and economists believe that the global economic crisis will make it harder and more challenging for the governments to revitalize their financial sectors. It is because the world has not yet seen any significant steps by the governments of the affected economies to retrieve the past performance of their financial sectors. For instance, the Government of the United States has failed to bring its economy out of the serious foreign debts which are rapidly increasing day by day (United Nations Organization 2009).

Boom in the next decade:

In contrast to these opinions and arguments, another group of economist and financial experts believe that the global economic crisis is going to end in the following seven to ten years period. They argue…. [read more]

Korean Financial Crisis Research Paper

… They also conclude that a larger foreign bank presence associates with a lower profitability and a higher provisioning for bad loans by domestic banks." (Jeon and Miller, 2005)

V. The Asian Financial Crisis Impacts on Korea

The Asian financial crisis is reported to have "product the dramatic domestic economic crisis in Korea" (Jeon and Miller, 2005) however it is stated, "more fundamental factors also added to its severity." (Jeon and Miller, 2005) Specifically too much investment and borrowing overextended the corporate sector and commercial banks are reported as having "overused short-term foreign lending as a source of funds." (Jeon and Miller, 2005) Lastly, the "lack of transparency of balance sheets, income statements, and management practices all led to a crisis of confidence in Korean institutions."…. [read more]

International Political Economy in the U.S Term Paper

… International Political Economy in the U.S.

Political economy has become two artificially diverse things, political study and economics. However the seeds of political success always lie in the success of the economic policies of any government. Political needs often shape economic policies, and these often are beneficial as in the times of depression or are disastrous, as will be seen when political policies are examined in the context of the economic impact. America is the nation where capitalism was experimented when it got independence. Capitalism was the driving economic force that made the U.S. what it is, and is still the fundamental force behind its development and becoming a world wide presence. That capitalism could be experimented in the new constitution was itself a result…. [read more]

International Trade Theories Essay

… Hence, it is no surprise that the openness that India is currently enjoying is similar to that openness which China underwent over a decade ago. So looking at India now the IMF and WTO is merely helping them within the domains of the trading of products that is currently helping them fulfill 20% of their GDP percentage in the world. Hence, we see a vast difference between the financial assistance that IMF is currently willing to give to China which is comparatively more than that attained by India currently. Also, we do see that the WTO has registered much more expansive trade legislatures with China as opposed to India primarily because they are moving at a much more increase trading rate than India (Lemoine and…. [read more]

Financial Analysis of Chevron Essay

… The first solvency ratio is the debt ratio, which was 42.5% in 2011 and 43.1% in 2010. The long-term debt to equity was 8.1% in 2011 and 10.7% in 2010, reflecting the reduction in long-term debt that the company experienced during the 2011 fiscal year. The decline in the overall debt ratio is also encouraging, though it is more important simply for that ratio to be within a healthy range, which it is.

The ability of the company to pay interest is also important to the long-term creditor. The interest expense is not noted in the 2011 fiscal year in the annual report (p.31), but for 2010 it was $50 million and for 2009 it was $28 million. At a company with revenues of $244…. [read more]

Global Financial Stabilty Essay

… Taking Japan and U.S., there is a substantial need for effective steps toward fiscal adjustment of medium-term. Despite the fact that the emerging market economies are navigating the global shocks successfully, there is a significant need to guard the global financial system against future shocks. This becomes even better when there is management of slow down growth in the growth of the global economy.

The IMF report is also considering examining whether the regulatory reforms are taking the financial system in the right direction. Although the report indicates that there is a limitation on the progress due to various reforms, the IMF policy makers are recommending the use of crisis intervention methods in several economies. All these recommendations aim at making sure that the global…. [read more]

International Pol. Ec Essay

… Competing in a no-growth scenario typically emphasizes cost reductions to help the firm compete on price. Such scaling back of the business also insulates the firm against future shock as well, up to and including a banking system shock that makes the acquisition of capital more difficult.

The financial regionalism scenario will increase economic regionalism in general. For a domestic IT firm, this will make it more difficult to expand into the world's growth regions (notably Asia). However, if these challenges can be overcome, the firm can build growth outside of the sluggish domestic market. No matter if this course of action is undertaken, the firm must adjust to this economic dynamic by making adjustments to its domestic operations, either by cost-cutting or by seeking…. [read more]

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