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Intervention Minors, or Children Under 18 Term Paper

… ¶ … Intervention

Minors, or children under 18, are generally presumed to be incompetent in making decisions about their own health care. Those decisions are traditionally awarded to parents who are also generally presumed to have their children's best interests at heart. However, there have been disputes over the extent of parental authority. The most heated debate has been over the societal and legal limits to parents' right to make medical decisions on religious grounds.

Kopelman, Loreta M. Using the Best Interest Standard to Make Decisions for Children. The Bioethics Center Newsletter: University Health Systems of Eastern Canada, 2008

Kopelman describes the best interest standard as a guide to reaching moral, social and legal decisions for children. The standard aims at maximizing benefits and minimizing…. [read more]

Child Clinical Intervention Term Paper

… Nonetheless, the behavioral changes of sexually abused children might provide an indicator.

Behavioral Warning Signs A Child May Have Been Abused

Any one sign doesn't mean the child was abused, but several of them mean that you should begin asking questions

Nightmares, trouble sleeping, fear of the dark, or other sleeping problems.

Extreme fear of 'monsters'.

Spacing out at odd times.

Loss of appetite, or trouble eating or swallowing.

Sudden mood swings: rage, fear, anger, or withdrawal.

Fear of certain people or places (e.g., a child may not want to be left alone with a baby-sitter, a friend, a relative, or some other child or adult; or a child who is usually talkative and cheery may become quiet and distant when around a certain person).…. [read more]

Child Abuse Term Paper

… 44). This is not proof that sexual abuse of preschool children is widespread, but clearly there are instances of this abuse. In this empirical study, parents / abusers that participated in psychiatric treatment "…supports the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy over counseling" (Cohen, 44).

The National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) points out that children suffer from PTSD in different ways than adults, albeit children severely abused do indeed experience the symptoms of PTSD. Elementary school children don't necessarily experience "visual flashbacks" or "amnesia" resulting from trauma, but they do experience "time skew" and "omen formation" -- and typically these symptoms are unique to children (Hamblen, et al., 2009). Time skew refers to "a child mis-sequencing trauma-related events" when asked to recall that memory.…. [read more]

Problem of Child Sex Trafficking Research Paper

… Consequently, law enforcement personnel in such countries are at disadvantaged positions against child traffickers.

Law enforcement officers in some countries have stated that they are limited in prosecuting child trafficking violations because of the weak child protection systems in their countries. They have also stated that they do not have necessary expertise and technical equipment to deal with child traffickers (Hume, Cohen & Sorvino, 2013). Actually, these officers may witness a violation but cannot gather needed evidence to prosecute the offenders. Weak child protection systems and increased corruption in some countries, especially those in Latin America and Caribbean contribute to the increase in child sex traffickers.

Current Measures in Dealing with the Crime:

Even though some governments are to blame for increased child sex trafficking,…. [read more]

Social Services and Child Welfare Term Paper

… Naturally, the baby was removed from the home but this was not enough to save Lisa. As unfortunate as this incident was, it is not as uncommon as many people would like to believe. There are many children in this country and even in the state of New Jersey that suffer greatly at the hands of parents and adoptive parents, as well as other caregivers. Not that many of them die, or they would make the news more often, but there is still enough pain and suffering that none of these young children should have to go through.

This is very tragic for these individuals to have to deal with this kind of pain and it is not just something that they feel when they…. [read more]

Parenting Education for Teen Mothers Capstone Project

… Multi-purpose programs

Most of the parenting education intervention programs are aimed at developing parent-infant interaction, multi-purpose services such as stress management, parenting skills development, and supportive child care. Most of the studies being reviewed by the researchers were observed to have smaller sample size with lack of suitable or appropriate comparison group mothers, and inconsistent measurements. The studies have indicated that six months program with weekly sessions and group as well as one-on-one sessions is most advantageous for teen mothers in developing parenting skills in them. Mollborn (2007) investigated the influence of teenage parenthood on the material outcomes of parents, specifically the teen mothers. The most important and negative outcome of teenage parenthood on both mothers and fathers was observed to be lack of education…. [read more]

Placement of Children and Youth Term Paper

… Smith (1998) also documented another important trend in relation to juveniles in juvenile justice residential placement settings that has occurred since 1987. As reported by Smith, the proportion of youth held in juvenile facilities for violent offenses increased over the period from 1987 to 1995 for both males and females. Findings reported by Smith suggested that males were more likely than females to be in custody for violent offenses, ranging from 20% in 1987 to 31% in 1995, compared with 6% in 1987 to 13% in 1995 for females. From 1987 to 1995, males were consistently and increasingly more likely to be in custody for delinquent acts (including violent, property, alcohol/drug, and public order offenses and probation violations), 77% in 1987, 82% in 1991, and…. [read more]

Abused Children Develop Antisocial Behavior Term Paper

… Physical abuse can be suspected with the common signs, such as burns, bruises, bone or skull fractures. Death from physical abuse, such as the shaken baby syndrome, was among the leading causes for children less than a year old (Black). Studies revealed that physical abuse changed children's behavior in many ways.

Psychological experts maintained that sexual abuse constituted sexual arousal in a child and the child's willingness to act on it, conditioned by alcohol, drugs or the misconception that there was nothing wrong about the act (Black). There were greater chances of sexual abuse if the child was developmentally disabled or vulnerable some way. This type of abuse was often discovered when genital or anal injuries or abnormalities, including the presence of sexually transmitted disease,…. [read more]

Traumatic Brain Injury Research Paper

… After an injury, a child may lose consciousness, seem dazed, or have a seizure. The symptoms occur immediately after the concussion and even some few days or weeks later. Concussion symptoms may be hard to notice since some children may act to be fine even if they are in traumatic brain troubles. During diagnosis of concussion, a child's caregiver may check the child's eyes, memory, strength of the child's arms, and legs. Jennings and Blaskey (2013) elicit that this check (neurologic exam) may be sufficient to tell the caregiver how well the child's brain works. Similarly, an X-ray of the child's neck and the head may help in checking extra injuries.

Porr (2012) affirms that upon complete examination, TBI doctors commonly issue instructions on a…. [read more]

Child Sex Tourism: Its Scope and the Law Research Paper

… Canada's Criminal Code lets it prosecute its permanent residents for having child sex in a foreign country. Child Sex Tourism Offences as well as Related Measures Bill during 2007 in Australia is another recent initiative. The UK Sexual Offences Acts of both 1996 as well as 2003 allows extraterritorial prosecutions. The Protection of Children Act 1978 in UK declares taking and circulating indecent photographs of children as punishable.

According to Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI), 1988, the UK's Criminal Justice Act 1988 seeks to create "a summary offence of possession of an indecent photograph of a child." In November 1997, the EU's Tourism Council propounded its stand against the issue. In 2007, the EU declared October 18 as an Anti-Trafficking Day.

Based on German…. [read more]

Child Soldiers Burundi and Sudan 1992-2002 Research Proposal

… Child Soldiers in Burundi and Sudan: 1992-2002

The convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989 is one of the most prominent international humanitarian treaties in world history. It entered into force quicker than any other treaty and currently only two countries (the United States and Somalia) have not ratified it.

Carol Bellamy, Executive Director of UNICEF says that the Convention has become "the centerpiece of a global movement, a movement that reflects a growing awareness of the importance of safeguarding human rights, and child rights in particular."

Yet, during the 1990's, more children in Africa became victims of, and combatants in, war than at any time in history according to a report in Human Rights Watch entitled "Promises Broken."

Named by the International…. [read more]

Juvenile Delinquency What Is Delinquency? In Legal Term Paper

… Juvenile Delinquency

What is delinquency?

In legal terminology juvenile delinquency refers to "...behavior of children and adolescents that in adults would be judged criminal under law. "("Juvenile Delinquency," 2004)

However, the definition of what constitutes a juvenile vary in the United States, "...the maximum age being set at 14 years in some states and as high as 21 years in others. " ("Juvenile Delinquency," 2004) Crimes committed by juveniles range from theft, which is the most common, to more serious offences such as rape and murder.

In general there has been an increase in the rate of juvenile crime in recent years which is a cause of concern among various authorities and social workers. For example, the figures for 1994 indicated that 18.6% of all…. [read more]

Harris, M.B. and Franklin Article

… This study fell under the category of quasi-experiment because it utilized a treatment and a comparison group. It also used a pre and post test model. Therefore, this was a pretest posttest nonequivalent group design. This increases generalizability of the results. This study was not a true experiment because it did not randomly assign individuals to groups (because of ethical issues).

16. This study had two limitations that threatened the internal validity of the study. The first threat to the internal validity was that of the selection mortality rate. Four participants dropped out of the comparison group and one dropped out of the treatment group, due to transferring schools. The second threat to internal validity was that of unseen differences between the two groups. The…. [read more]

Juvenile Delinquent and Mental Disorders Essay

… These include: individual factors (like biological and psychological factors), family, peers, schools, and community (or neighborhood). As Fraser (1996, p352) summarizes:

"For children who grow up in neighborhoods where schools are weak, where opportunities for success in conventional activities are blocked, where adults are committed to illicit activities, and where gangs offer alternative social roles and financial rewards, violence may be a product of social context in which force and coercion are used routinely to resolve disputes and protect property. Gang-related violence, in particular, appears to be more strongly associated with local economic, school, and peer factors than with biological and family factors." (Fraser, 1996, p. 352).

In the period of adolescence, youth may experience the demands of physical, psychological and social pressures. They begin…. [read more]

Pregnancy Among Middle and High School Girls Term Paper

… Pregnancy Rates and Educational Attainment among Middle-School and High-School girls

Purpose of the Action Research Project

Scope of the Action Research Project

Importance of the Action Research Project

Option Selection

Description of the Intervention

Description of Intervention

The Evaluation Plan

Evaluation Design

Limitations of the Evaluation Plan

Individual Impact

Long-term Educational Goals

Views on Marriage

Relationship between Current School Year and Graduation

Impact of Tutoring

Policy Recommendations

Recommendations for Further Research

Teen Mentor Training Sheet

Action Plan

First Week Status Report

Mentor's Assessment

Reflections on Action Research Project


Teenage pregnancy is one of the most pressing social problems in the United States, and many southern counties are disproportionately affected by this social issue. One of the reasons that the issue of teen pregnancy has…. [read more]

Childhood Intimacy Problems Is it the Catalyst That Creates a Sexual Perpetrator Term Paper

… ¶ … Childhood Intimacy Problems Serve as a Catalyst to Create a Sexual Perpetrator?


Children Learn


Children Learn What They Live

Factors of Intimacy

Childhood Sexual Abuse

Sexual Abuse "Signs"

The Sensible Thing

Common, Yet Uncommon, Concerns

Sexual Perpetrators' Profiles

Sexual Offender or Predator?

Society's Dilemma

Identifying a Sexual Predator 19 Online Sexual Predators

Life Long Treatment 23 Real Reasons

Ageless Truths

Facts 26 V: From Facts to Conclusions

Facts Reviewed


Can childhood intimacy problems serve as a catalyst to create a sexual perpetrator? As this research paper posits to answer this question, factors of intimacy, along with profiles of sexual perpetrators, are reviewed and related. The expectation for this project's findings is that it will answer this…. [read more]

Detection and Intervention in Childhood Term Paper

… Answers of the first analysis threw light on innumerous particular variations between parents and professionals in devotion of causation. (Pottick & Davis, 2001).

On the basis of the attribution research, in which actors bear a semblance to pinpoint cause for failure in the external surroundings, while observers have the likelihood to shift blame to individual reasons, the authors were of staunch belief that there would be variations in views between professionals and mothers about maternal undertakings for difficulties. Particularly, they theorized that mothers, as actors, would pinpoint external causes for children's difficulties, while therapists, as observers, would pinpoint more cause with mothers. Outcomes did, in fact, throw light that mothers designated themselves particularly less causal undertakings than did professionals, even though it is also viable…. [read more]

Social Welfare State and Juvenile Research Proposal

… ¶ … Social Welfare State and Juvenile Crimes

Youth Offenders and Social Welfare: An Evaluation of the Relationship between the Social Welfare State and Juvenile Crimes

Despite some reductions in various types of juvenile crime during the late 1990s and early 2000s, the problem of youthful crime has once again resurfaced as a national priority. When something is made a priority, though, it is by definition supposed to get better, but this has not been the case with youth offenders and the lower socioeconomic background that characterizes the lives of the majority of them. According to Everett and Chadwell (2009), U.S. Department of Justice statistics indicate that juvenile crime remains a national social problem in the United States today. In fact, Everett and Chadwell report…. [read more]

Breastfeeding Back in the Day Research Paper

… Thus in the randomized trial conducted to see whether this phenomenon really works out, the comparison was placed between the usual post partum procedures and procedures which encouraged and supported the mother in SSC with the baby.


To trying to see the evidence, many outcomes are looked for after the studies. Breastfeeding was the one that our paper revolves around and this was depicted by how many mothers continued breastfeeding for one to four months after delivery. Another crucial factor that was looked into was that was the duration of breastfeeding. A secondary outcome that was part of the study was the effective breastfeeding and how much it actually went on to affect the baby. The maternal breast temperature at time of the skin…. [read more]

Human Development in the Environment Term Paper

… ¶ … Asher Lev

Just as one can develop a sociological analysis of the development of a person in the environment in which he or she was raised and make certain judgments about what influenced that development and how, so can one do the same thing with a fictional character, assuming the author has provide sufficient data that can be used for this purpose. A novel that is detailed enough to make such an analysis and that also involves an interesting milieu in which the central character is raised is My Name Is Asher Lev by Potok (2003).

Lev is a fully developed character living in a community that is largely unfamiliar to most Americans, the Ladover Hassidic community in Brooklyn. This is a highly…. [read more]

Family Delinquency and Crime Term Paper

… Family, Deliquency and Crime

Profile and discussion

As Simon et al. (2004) point out, the connection between family life and environment and the causes of various types and degrees of antisocial and deviant behavior is being realized to a greater extent in studies and theories, especially with regards to deviant behavior among adolescents. The effect of family life and particularly of stress within the family on these forms of behavior has become increasingly relevant to the study of antisocial behavior.

The individual that has been profiled in this paper is named Gary. Gary is normally a conventionally behaved individual. However, in his late teens, he began to exhibit abnormal behavioral traits, including mood swings and violent behavior patterns, as well as an increasing tendency towards…. [read more]

Juveniles and Justice Is it Fair Term Paper

… Juveniles & Justice

Is it fair when dependent and neglected children come under the jurisdiction of the court system, making them status offenders? What is the relevance of the concept of parens patriae, and how does it potentially conflict with due process? These two issues will be addressed and critiqued in this paper. Thesis: This paper takes the position that it is not fair to make a child who commits acts that are not illegal a status offender, because the juvenile justice system is supposed to respond to the conditions that led to the child's predicament, not to the act itself.

Status Offense -- Fairness, Justice?

The fact that a child can become under the jurisdiction and authority of the state for committing actions "that…. [read more]

Grandparent Caregivers Societal Antecedents as Predictors Dissertation

… Grandparent Caregivers

Societal Antecedents as Predictors of Resilience, Caregiving/Parenting Stress and Coping Strategies in Custodial and Non-Custodial Grandmothers of African-American or African Decent

The past three decades have seen a break from the traditional nuclear family roles. During this time, society has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of children being raised by their grandparents. Many grandparents assume the role of primary caregiver for their grandchildren and/or childcare provider because of the impact of numerous societal antecedents which cause the parent or parents to be absent from the home. These societal antecedents include child abandonment, and/or neglect, parental employment obligations, parental education endeavors, and parental military obligations. These represent the key reasons for grandparents assuming the care of grandchildren. This comes at a time…. [read more]

Juvenile Crime United States Essay

… Therefore, it was pointed by the researcher that even if the child sees violence in neighbourhood, it might affect his/her behaviour.

Moreover, it is the responsibility of the agencies to provide their services for the better upbringing of the child. They need to provide support and prevention services to the youth in where they live. But in the large country like U.S., these agencies have higher number of responsibilities and so they are unable to manage activities in each area. (Mandel, 2008)


The children who watch violent movies and play fighting or violent video games for long hours from very early age are more likely to develop delinquent behaviour. Since, in most of Hollywood movies, cartoons and games promotes the elimination of enemies by…. [read more]

Parenting Program for Women in Drug Treatment Thesis

… Parenting Program for Women and Children in Residential Treatment

Addiction is something that has been around for many years, and there have been increasingly new ways of treating it that have been created over the course of much research and study. There are many different forms that addiction takes, and there are many different drugs and substances that someone can become addicted to, even if they are not of the age that most people would think of when they picture people that would start down that particular road. Most individuals think of addicts as primarily young, minority men in their 20s and 30s that rob, steal, and cause other problems in order to get their drugs or alcohol. However, there are also…. [read more]

Attachment Theory & Self-Psychology Dissertation

… The "Growing" Process

Overview of the Study

Clinical Case Study Dissertation Structure

The Rationale for Clinical Case Study Dissertation

Diverse Contentions

Emotional Abuse/Maltreatment

Winnicott's Relational Model Theory

Bowlby's Attachment Theory

Kohut's Self-Psychology


Theoretical Basis for Case


Winnicott's Relational Model Theory

Bowlby's Attachment Theory

Kohut's Self-Psychology


Shania's Presenting Problems

Early Stage: Development of Therapeutic Relationship and the Holding


Middle Stage: Transference and Counter-transferenceread more-->[read more]

Labeling Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … labeling theory and its specific relevance to the condition of juvenile delinquency. Through references and studies the effect of negative as well as positive labeling will be discussed and a reviewed for its particular impact on the younger offender. Also considered will be the part that labeling theory, as well as other social interactions, has played in affecting the justice system's sentencing of juvenile offenders. Though labeling theory focuses primarily on the negative impact on juveniles, it has also played a part in correcting many misuses of power in the justice system.

Labeling Theory

Social interaction is an extremely important aspect of human behavior and is an integral part of the survival instinct of the species as a whole. The human brain has…. [read more]

Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia ) Research Paper

… In Oct 1990, the SPM, the SNM, and the internal USC were signatories of an agreement to not proceed without discussing with one another to create a new political headship and to not negotiate with the Siad Barre regime. As the only one who was actually involved in the fight in opposition to the regime General Mohammed Farah Aydeed, the internal branch was under his control. The collapse of the dictatorship and the disorder that followed lead Ali Mahdi Mohammed being proclaimed by his close acquaintances as the president, even though he was one of the Manifesto participants as the leader of the external USC. Married to the public health adviser of the former president and owner of one of the best hotels in Mogadishu,…. [read more]

Experience of Loss and Grief With Children in Children's Aid Society Research Proposal

… ¶ … Loss and Grief

The loss of a loved one is a traumatic event which can take months or even years to overcome fully (Tomita & Kitamura, 2002). Bereavement though, is if anything more acutely experienced in children and adolescents who are not equipped with the psychological and social tools necessary to understand loss and move effectively on with their lives. Bereavement counselors are crucial in the development of healthy mechanisms for coping with loss (Burnett et al. 1997). Strategies such as art therapy, client centered therapy, self-assessment measures, and interviews are utilized to aid these social care workers in their immediate understanding of subjective individual grief and how best to address their client's needs. Continuing research into which strategies are most effective and…. [read more]

Gang Prevention Term Paper

… ¶ … Stanley "Tookie" Williams' Gang Prevention Books on Pre-Adolescent Boys

One of the biggest problems facing American society today is gang violence committed by youthful offenders. Furthermore, studies have shown time and again that such activity remains on the increase, and even small towns, communities and suburbs in the United States are being affected by gang activity. The implications of this persistent presence of violence in American society has had a profound effect on the nation's youth as well, with many young people being drawn to this lifestyle as the only perceived viable career path available to them, while others may be attracted by the glamorized "gangsta" lifestyle popularized in today's music. Young people may commit acts of violence in an effort to emulate…. [read more]

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