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Islamic History in Russia Term Paper

… Two years after his election, Niyazov instituted processes that would make him officially ruler of Turkmenistan for life, with the only avenues of removal being health limitations or death. (Anderson)

Meanwhile, foreign affairs in Turkmenistan also suffered a rapid deterioration. Visitors to the country, especially news media, were made to feel most unwelcome. Many were even jailed or beaten upon arrival. An official censor position was instated to ensure that the flow of information to the people was closely controlled. Additionally, attempts at the formation of political parties in opposition to Niyazov's rule were effectively quelled. These combined restrictions in effect transformed Turkmenistan's emerging democracy into an authoritarian state. (Anderson)

Kazakhstan's attempts at the institution of democracy brought about a different set of challenges. In…. [read more]

History of the Modern Middle East Term Paper

… History Of the Modern Middle East

As a result of the Industrial Revolution, during the 19th and the 20th centuries, the Western world as grew more dependent upon the advancement of technology, in every facet of daily existence. As an unintentional result of this economic revolution, the major commercial powers grew more dependent upon the non-renewable resource of oil. The state that controlled oil, in the form of trade routes, or oil-producing colonies, could dominate the other major nation-states. Ironically, as a result of technological advancement, the states that had formerly dismissed the Middle East as backward or significant only in terms of its historical role in the development of Christianity grew progressively more dependant upon the region to sustain a modern economy.

Initially, Britain…. [read more]

Islamic History in Russia Term Paper

… It is understandable that unfavorable social and economic conditions generate a much riper and receptive environment for the growth of radical ideas. It is no surprise, therefore, that Islamic radicalism has made such considerable inroads in Central Asia, especially in overpopulated and economically depressed communities.

Along these lines, after Chechnya emerged independent in 1996, hundreds of enthusiastic young men from the country's Muslim communities moved there to learn more about Islam and jihad in militarized camps set up by Arab warlords. They appealed to the interests of destitute, beaten and resigned men. They soothed their vulnerabilities and offered elevation.

In September 1999, nervous about the rising fundamentalist tide, legislators in Dagestan banned Wahhabism, a radical form of Islam, and religious extremism in the republic. Those…. [read more]

Russia NATO Relations Essay

… On the other hand Russia insisted that this recognition was done based on the situation on the ground and it was in accordance to the UN Charter. NATO had taken an initiative to suspend t6he relation between them, and Russia completely terminated the cooperation agreement that existed. All this happened after the events of Georgia 2008 and they really had an impact on the negative views that Russia had on NATO (Vasilenkov, 2012).

The relations between NATO and Russia were further strained when Russia diplomats were expelled by NATO in 2009.They were expelled on the basis that they were on a spying mission and were not genuine diplomats. This intensified the tension which was already created by the NATO military exercises in Georgia as proposed…. [read more]

Since 1500 a History of World Societies Term Paper

… ¶ … 1500 History of World Societies

European average income per person began to rise in comparison with the rest of the world beginning in about Answer:

1450 b. 1650 c. 1750 d. 1850

All of the following statements characterize world economic development in the 19th century except:

industrialization generated global inequity in wealth and power.

railroads drastically reduced transportation costs.

the opening of the Suez and Panama canals facilitated trade.

the world's leader in importing foreign goods was America.

All of the following technological innovations were crucial to European imperialist expansion in the late nineteenth century except:

the machine gun.

the telegraph.

c. quinine.

The airplane.

Causes of the so-called new imperialism (1880-1914) include all of the following except:


a. economic competition in…. [read more]

Islam and Byzantine the Interaction Term Paper

… By the mid-900s, the Byzantine empire had conquered most of Syria, and was a powerful empire stretching from Arabia to Greece (Hooker).

After the end of the Macedonian Empire in 1057, the Byzantine Empire again declined. During this time, the Byzantine social order, government and economy declined, and Muslim (and Christian) invasions further weakened the empire (Emayzine). In 1071, the Byzantine army at Mazikert in Asia Minor was conquered by the Seljuk Turks. After this defeat, all of the Byzantine territory in the east was quickly lost to the Seljuks (Hooker).

The Crusades marked a period of ongoing aggression between European Christians and the Muslims that was tied closely to the fate of the Byzantine Empire. The aim of the Crusades was supposedly to reclaim…. [read more]

Tajikistan to the North Research Paper

… Communists and an alliance of Islamic and democratic forces fought with each other to gain power. RahmanNabiyev, a communist, won the presidential elections of November 1991. However, his government was not accepted and nonaggressive protests by the opposition elements were observed in March 1992 demanding his resignation. The situation worsened when in April the government opened fire on the protesters. Nabiyev was thrown way from his office in September by the opponents. The civil war came to an end when in November ImomaliRakhmonov formed a government supported by Russian troops was formed. [6]

The civil War caused substantial loss of life and property. Close to about 600,000 people lost their lives and were left homeless. A great loss of education was made. Estimate damage of…. [read more]

Wahabi Islamic Networks' Infiltration Term Paper

… On a personal level, it alleviated the pain and anguish they had experienced throughout the vicious wars and helped them to maintain order and discipline within their troops. In terms of practicality, Chechen warlords were able to receive money, training opportunities, international contacts and warriors from Wahabist sources once they accepted outside help.

During the inter-war period between 1996-1999, Russia failed to fulfill its promises of financial assistance towards Chechnya's Pro-Moscow leader Aslan Maskhadov; this led to Chechen disenchantment over the moderate stance. Afterwards Russia began labeling the entire Chechen movement as a base of support for terrorist operations; this led to Chechnya's second war, which has lasted since 1999. It is now believed that as fighting rages on, the Wahabist ideology will likely gain…. [read more]

History and Politics Term Paper

… Russian History And Politics

Russia, the world's largest country, was formerly the dominant republic of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR, but since the union's dissolution in December 1991, it is now an independent country and an influential member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Russia pp).

Russia is sparsely populated with the densest population in the European part of the country, the Ural Mountain area, and in the Southeastern part of Siberia (Russia pp). There are more than 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples that call the Russian Federation home, approximately 80% is ethnically Russian, 3.8% Tatar, 2% Ukrainian, 1.2% Bashkir, 1.1% Chuvash, 0.9% Chechen, 0.8% Armenian, and the remainder of roughly 10% includes, Mordvins, Belarusians, Georgians, Avars, Kazakhs, Udmurts, Azerbaijanis,…. [read more]

Circassian People, a Brief History Term Paper

… Their ancestors, according to written sources, were once called Kassogs, Zichs and Meots. The Adyghe language belongs to the Abkhaz and Adyghe language group. Along with Russian, the Adyghe language is the official one in the Republic. (Amjad M. Jaimoukha, The Circassians: A Handbook (Peoples of the Caucasus) Hardcover - March 2001.)

In the middle Ages the local population revived the name of Circassians. "The name "zichs" comes from Greek and Latin; while Tartars and Turks called them Circassians, but according to their native language, they are - Adyghes"- wrote the Italian traveler and geographer of Renaissance Georgio Interiano. From the 13th century to the 15th century the land of Adyghes was besitted by Genoese, who founded their towns- trade colonies of Matrega, Kapa, etc.…. [read more]

Russia Chechnya Relationship Term Paper

… Russia/Chechnya Relationship

Terrorism has become perhaps the most important threat facing the international security system at the moment. The most visible events to mark such an assessment are indeed the 9/11 attacks on the United States. However, the influence and impact of terrorism are felt throughout the world and often represent the trademarks of separatist groups and independent seeking rebels in countries such as Turkey or Russia.

The present paper asserts that the situation in Russia and the Chechen separatist region represents a one of the main environments in which the Chechens are viewed as being terrorists. Yet, the paper underlines that the actions taken by the fighters are more related to their state as freedom fighters and independence seekers as for centuries the Chechens…. [read more]

Trouble That Faced the Caucasus Term Paper

… The latter view, though the move what not nearly as successful as Alexander II may have hoped, is likely to be closer to the truth. It is important to recognize this first movement towards reform in the overall context of what was happening in the Caucasus in the second half of the nineteenth century: it was the Tanzimat period. This was a time in which many members of the ruling class in the Caucasus were looking towards Europe for answers to both economic and philosophical questions. Specifically, many people were looking for ways to catch up to the Europeans.

European institutions and models were adopted and modified to fit regions throughout Russia; this was a trend, arguably, set into motion by Peter the Great. So,…. [read more]

History of Construction Technology Literature Review

… History Of Construction Technology

Time Periods

Tools, materials, innovations

Add (April notes) two subheadings: Construction Techniques and Construction Machines under each one.




Ancient Egyptian


Ancient Greek

Idea of "Simple Machine"




Roman Empire

Works of Vitruvius

Roman Crane


Byzantine Empire

Master builders of Byzatine

Islamic Golden Age


See YC's notes on Crusader Castles -- looks like mostly books

Romanesque (1000-1200)

a. See YC's links

9. Gothic (1200-1400)

a. See YC's links on Gothic architecture

10. Renaissance Period (1400-1600)

11. Baroque Period (1600-1750)

12. Industrial Revolution (1750-1900)

1. Construction Technology of Mesopotamia

1.1. Construction Techniques

The Mesopotamian civilization dates back to c.6000 BC. As one of the first Bronze Age cultures, this civilization was also the…. [read more]

Chechnya Chechen Conflict With Russia Term Paper

… In this manner, war could then be legitimized if needed (Shah).

Thus, the factions in Chechnya were split even further, and the conflict began to take a decidedly militant and ugly turn. As strife and war continued between the two countries, many Russian cities have been bombed by Chechen extremists, killing and injuring hundreds of Russians. In addition, the Chechen economy has suffered drastically, and thousands of Chechens have fled the country.

The main attacks of the Chechnya crisis occurred in 1994, when Russian forces first attacked, and again in 2000, when much of the capital Grozny was razed by Russian troops. In 1994, the war lasted 20 months, and much of Chechnya was devastated, along with the 80,000 or more that were killed. In…. [read more]

Elements Within Islam That Led to the Terrorist Acts Research Paper

… Islamic Extremists

An Analysis of Islamic Extremism and Its Role in 9/11

Islamic Extremists are represented by the United States government as being the perpetrators behind 9/11. Yet, many independent researchers do not accept such a simplistic representation. This paper will look at the elements within Islam that are said to have led to the acts of 9/11 and show how Americans view Islam as a shield for terrorism. In other words, it will consider Islamic Extremism as it is both represented in politics and media and as it actually exists in the chronicles of historians and the independent research of journalists.

Even though ordinary Muslims do not accept the view that Islamic radicals were responsible for the terrorist attacks on 9/11 (Kull 129), few…. [read more]

Nationalism of Spain and Russia Essay

… As same historical pattern is being repeated in the contemporary Russian nationalism structure, this paper concludes that further work is needed to determine the foundation of the recurring historical patterns in Russian nationalism (Kaempf, 2010).


From Europe, Spain has gone through many changes in recent times. Changes over here are not restricted to governance or politics only. Changes over here extend to social revolution and paradigm changes. No clue exist that can tell what was the catalyst for this change, such as culture, social, or economic factors. Such ambiguity can be associated with the chicken-and-egg situation. However, the important point to note is that these changes occurred at the same time. They were all related with each other, influenced each other, and fed each…. [read more]

World History Development of Civilization Term Paper

… Twentieth Century History

Need opening and over all summary of this Era of conflict:

In order to understand how the world of 2005 came about, it is necessary to consider the effects of World War I and II, the Cold War, and the changes modern technological warfare has had on the political structure, the impact of nationalism, and the world of new options and opportunities for individual nations.

During the post World War I era of the 1920's and the depression of the 1930's, the west had divided into three camps: the capitalist democracies, the fascists and the authoritarian nations of central and Eastern Europe, and the communist Soviet Union. By 1941, all three camps-along with much of the rest of the world-had again been…. [read more]

American History Final Exam Stages Term Paper

… Turner lived at a time before a large middle class existed or the U.S. had become a consumer society, so he naturally thought of pioneers as farmers and ranchers who moved the agricultural frontier to the West. In his era, even though the country was rapidly industrializing, the majority of people still lived on farms and in small towns. For this reason and was always the main goal of Manifest Destiny, while industrial capitalism required a different type of imperialism that acquired markets and raw materials overseas rather than colonies. Eastern capitalists since the time of Alexander Hamilton and the early Federalists and Whigs had always had a very limited interest in expanding the agrarian frontier, and even less in the expansion of slavery. They…. [read more]

UK and Russian Minorities Term Paper

… National Minorities

The shifting of global demographics in the past few decades have created unique situations across the world as countries deal with an influx of minority populations that create difficult circumstances for societies and governments alike. The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast the situation of national minorities in the countries of the United Kingdom and post 1991 Russia. These two situations will be explained in terms of how immigration and the creation of new social and racial classes has disturbed the natural order of things. Additionally, the difference between Russia and the UK will also be highlighted to demonstrated the unique circumstances of each situation. The essay will conclude with remarks on the overall success of the addressing of these…. [read more]

Europe, the Russian Federation, and East Asia Term Paper

… Geography

Meeting Place of Two Worlds

On the Borders of East Asia and the Russian Federation

Location shapes human culture in more ways than many can imagine. The ruggedness of the terrain, the availability of water, the vegetation and climate; all have their effects on the development of societies. As well, the human factors - neighboring peoples with differing social and religious customs, and different forms of organization and political development - these too play their part in the story of a place. Some cultures develop in relative isolation, as on an island in the middle of the ocean. The inhabitants of such a place need only deal with the pressures of the natural world. In other cases, however, a region's population must contend with…. [read more]

Russian Culture Essay

… Russian Culture

In a 1939 radio broadcast, Winston Churchill famously described Russia as a "riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma." This statement reflects a people whose vast nation has now stretched from the Baltic to the Pacific, enveloping hundreds of minority groups in the process. The Russian identity continues to mystify outsiders, and seems only know intuitively to Russians themselves. Yet, Russia has made substantial contributions to literature, art, ballet, music, architecture and language. The Russian people continue to hold influence over a vast section of the globe, ensuring the spread and survival of their distinct cultural heritage.

Ancient Russia consisted of a patchwork of feudal states. The most important cultural development in this period was the conversion of Vladimir the Great, Grand…. [read more]

Asian Resources and Economic Research Paper

… State involvement in commercial transactions thus has little to do with contributing to the creation of sustainable economic growth. In fact, several commercial transactions have merely worked to sustain the 'shadow state', ensuring that income generation is not tied to economic development but to securing regime survival (NATO, 2009).


Although United States has been acting as the sole power governing the economic scenery of the world. However, past two decades have shown few major changes. The burden of world economy is now on the shoulders of under dogs like China and India whereas U.S. And Europe are struggling hard to retain their old positions. Economists globally are predicting these Asian countries to be the leading global economic powers in near future. The World Bank…. [read more]

Marketing in a Less Developed Country Thesis

… Less Developed Country

The Kyrgyz Republic, also known as Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country in Central Asia. Formerly a part of the U.S.S.R., the country was one of the first former Soviet states to open its economy. A lack of resources, poor industrial production and its landlocked status have meant that economic progress has been slow, however. The GDP of Kyrgyzstan is $11.64 billion, ranked 144th in the world. This equates to a GDP per capita of $2,200, ranked 184th in the world (CIA World Factbook, 2009). This paper will outline the challenges of dealing in the Kyrgyz market, and attempt to shed light on how those problems may be overcome.

Today's Kyrgyzstan was carved out of the U.S.S.R.'s central Asian territories by Joseph…. [read more]

Effects of Slavophilic Russian Ideas vs. The Modern World Globalization Research Paper

… ¶ … Slavophilic Russian Ideas vs. The Modern World/Globalization

The effects of Slavophilic Russian Ideas vs. The Modern World/Globalizatio

An Overview of Russia


According to Russia Travel Guide, Russia is the largest country in the world by far; spanning nine time zones, its territory covers nearly twice as much of the earth as that of the next largest country, Canada. Besides, the U.S. Department of State claims that the official name of Russia is the Russia Federation. It has an area of 17 million sq. km. (6.5 million sq. mi.); about 1.8 times the size of the United States. Its capital city Moscow has a population of approximately10.4 million people while other cities like St. Petersburg has 4.6 million, Novosibirsk has 1.4 million, and…. [read more]

Traditional Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes Studies on Origins and History Research Proposal

… Traditional Se Asian Bamboo Flutes: Studies on Origins and History

The study investigates the bamboo flutes found in Southeast Asia, as well as their history and origin. The earliest known extant bamboo flute, a chi, or ancient Chinese flute, from the Zhou Dynasty, discovered in the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, dates from 433 BC. Southeast Asian bamboo flutes, diverse in shape and size, vary in the way musicians play them. During the ethnography, a qualitative study, the researcher utilizes an extensive literature review to explore the development of bamboo flutes in SEA and examines the link between these instruments and music, as well as traditions from and beyond Asia.

As the study focuses on the flutes from three main areas: Mainland SEA, Maritime…. [read more]

Israel International PoliticsTerrorism Case Study


Locked in a history of persecution, religious discrimination, and national consciousness, the Jewish people were granted their own land when, following World War II, the British withdrew from Palestine and the United Nations divided the war-torn land into two separate states. The UN created an Arab state and a Jewish state, Israel, against tremendous rejection by the Arabs, who felt that what was once their land was being redistributed without their approval. The 1947 UN Partition created a very small state in the area of Tel Aviv, and, through a series of wars, Israel ambitiously expanded its borders. The Jews and the Arabs, both inextricably psychologically tied to this holy land, continue to mar the narrowly defined lines of the nation of Israel, Medinat…. [read more]

Rise of the Secular Turkish Research Paper

… The Turkish Republic was short of the required domestic capital. This scenario demanded a significant role from the government ("Turkey, Country, Asia and Europe").

As far as the foreign relations and policy were concerned, Kemal made sure that the country maintains cordial relations with the neighboring states. In 1932, the country pursued the membership of the League of Nations. Later in 1934, it joined with Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia in the Balkan Entente guaranteeing its European borders. It signed the Saadabad Pact in 1937 with Afghanistan, Iran, and Iraq. Though, Turkey and its people did not encourage Communism, the country maintained friendly relations with Soviet Union until World War II ("Turkey, Country, Asia and Europe").

It is not wrong to say that the Turkish nationalism…. [read more]

Islam the Main Argument Set Forth Term Paper


The main argument set forth by Edward Said in "The Clash of Definitions" has much to do with countering the conclusions of political scientist Samuel P. Huntington whose "Clash of Civilizations" maintains that cultural and religious ideologies and differences will serve as the major source of conflict in the 21st century. Overall, Huntington puts forth the suggestion that all future conflicts, whether based on political, social or economic differences and attitudes, will revolve around the "clash" of various cultures with each attempting to come out on top of the other, resulting in one culture being subdued by another. As Huntington sees it, the main source of conflict within what some call the "New World Order" with the United States as the dominating power will…. [read more]

Indian Foreign Policy and Security Essay

… Indian Foreign Policy -- When Will it Emerge?

Harsh V. Pant: Contemporary Debates in Indian Foreign and Security Policy

Rajiv Sikri: Challenge and Strategy: Rethinking India's Foreign Policy

As India continues to emerge as an important player in international power circles -- and has entered into a provocative nuclear deal with the United States

there is a commensurate growth of scholarship with reference to India's foreign policy future. India's future may be based on its part in the "strategic triangle"

(India, Russia, China) which could create a counterbalance to the sometimes bullying tactics of the fading superpower, the U.S. Which way will India lean?

In reading the two books by the authors noted above, a series of pertinent questions emerge. To wit, What is the…. [read more]

Palestine How Would You Feel Term Paper

… However, when they felt that Palestine was not taking this seriously, they reversed their steps which paved way for yet another failed effort (Erin, 143)

The Road Map for Peace was an agreement designed by America, EU, UN and Russia. All the countries agreed for the formation of an independent state of Palestine. It was the first one in which the country would get the status of being a separate state. The planned objectives were for both countries to end violence and live in harmony with each other. Failure of the plan was due to in cooperation from both sides. Out of all the peace accords ever proposed, the road map to peace b [picked up some pace after the death of Yasser Arafat. The…. [read more]

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