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Nationalism According to Hobsbawm Essay

… Nationalism According to Hobsbawm

The concept of nationalism would appear as organic to us, with the allegiance and affinity that one feels toward one's homeland emergent from a sense of natural interconnectedness with this land and its people. However, this perception is undermined by the idea that, instead, nationalism is largely a manufactured concept designed to impose a cultural homogeneity in concurrence with the existed political hegemony. While the latter may be formed by concrete borders, jurisdictions and ruling majorities, the former is actually quite difficult to achieve and exists on an ethno-linguistic continuum described in Erick Hobsbawm's 1991 address before the American Anthropological Association. Hobsbawm makes the argument that these ethno-linguistic features are attributed to the concept of nationality as an afterthought and as…. [read more]


Nationalism, Gender, Thesis

… ¶ … Nationalism, Gender, And the Nation

The objective of this paper is to answer the question of whether policies of nationalist government modernize gender relations or do they represent a traditionalist aim to preserve or reestablish unequal and pre-modern gender relations, in effect archaizing gender relations? Another important goal is to connect this to a more specific question of "How does the notion of women as biological reproducers of the nation influence reproductive choices of women and nationalist agendas behind reproductive policy in socialist and postsocialist Poland?"

It does not really matter what country or region of the world in which the women lives there are always inherently, biologically, and perhaps even genetically related reasons why the woman does not realize the same autonomy…. [read more]


Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict Term Paper

… ' Both are stateless, yet a commonality of culture and religion is not evident -- nor more, though, than two potential United States citizens, born in that nation, one might argue.

The overview present in Umut Ozkirimli's analysis is a warning not to dismiss the importance of nationalism, and also a caution not to accept certain groups' claims to nationhood wholesale and at their face value, as the concept of what constitutes ethnicity shifts and changes, depending on individual's particular political alliances in a particular historical context. Ozkirimili's work has a far more dispassionate tone, in contrast, to Stuart J. Kaufman's Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War.

Kaufman's work, in contrast to Ozkirimli, is more stridently prescriptive in nature. However, Kaufman is also…. [read more]


Nationalism National Building Process of Belgium Flemish Term Paper

… Nationalism / National Building Process of Belgium

Flemish

Scientific research regarding nationalism gave a lot of theories, more or less disputed, that evolved and were improved in time. M. Crawford Young defined nationalism as an "ideology claiming that a given human population has a natural solidarity based on a shared history and a common destiny. This collective identity as a historically constituted "people" crucially entails the right to constitute an independent or autonomous political community. The idea of nationalism takes form historically in tandem with the doctrine of popular sovereignty: that the ultimate source of authority lies in the people, not the ruler or government." (Crawford Young, 2004). The nationalist ideology generally states that the fundamental unit for human social organization is the nation which…. [read more]


Ethnicity and Gender in Modern Term Paper

… The act of genocide from this point-of-view aimed at mass killings of women and children in particular in order to prevent the creation of the next generations of Hutus or Tutsis in the case of Rwanda.

Gender is at this point extremely important for Rwanda. During and after the genocide, the number of women was clearly reduced, yet it was higher than that of men. This is one of the reasons for which the gender balance in Rwanda is still an extremely important issue. In the Human Development Index, from UN Development Program (UNDP), Rwanda ranks no 166 on the "Shares in parliament, female-male ratio" (UNDP, 2012). This comes to point out that positive discrimination is on going in order to ensure a more positive…. [read more]


Issues of Nationalism and Ethnicity Term Paper

… Nationalism

You can't go home again, Yugoslavia" -- Natasha Radojcic's novel Homecoming

The title of Natasha Radojcic's novel Homecoming is bitterly ironic. On one hand, the main character Halid has been released from the army and thus can 'go home' to the land he has been fighting to free. He can reclaim the national identity he has been attempting to liberate from tyranny. Yet, rather than view this prospect with joy, home is "the last place in the world he wanted to see" after witnessing scenes of war, and bearing the scars of war upon his soul. Although he fought for his homeland, he has no desire to live there or return there, yet feels inexorably pulled, by the force of history, back to his…. [read more]


Nationalism Two Distinct Political Movements Term Paper

… Just as the theme color for the Kuomintang website is symbolically blue, so too is the DPP website theme color green. The use of color here is a subtle yet powerful reminder of the political stance of the organization. The outline of Taiwanese history differs greatly from that offered on the Kuomintang website. Here, the Kuomintang is portrayed as being a destructive political force, one that "essentially created a period of colonial rule under martial law." The DPP defines the nation as being a completely distinct political entity from mainland China and wishes to be recognized as such by the United Nations. Moreover, the DPP site draws attention to "ethnic Taiwanese" persons, who ostensibly were ignored or treated as second-class citizens by the Kuomintang. Therefore,…. [read more]


Singapore, Nationalism, Global City Term Paper

… The norms in Confucian teachings were redefined as:

Loyalty-identification with country's interest

Filial piety- respect for elderly

Benevolence- humaneness

Courtesy-politeness

Virtue- social ethics

Honesty- resistance from corruption

Sense of shame- awareness of right and wrong (Tamir, 1993)

Political Structure of Singapore as 'Global City':

Since its independence on 9th August 1965 People's Action Party has dominated the political structure of Singapore. In the initial years People's Action Party have been devoted to the deal with communists but in the recent decades it has found its governance in the social democratic system. In the regime of People's Action Party (PAP) Singapore had the power structure which had been characterized as authoritarian, practical, lucid and legalistic.

The administrative structure of the Singapore political system can be defined…. [read more]


Issues of Ethnicities and Nationalisms Thesis

… Anthropology - Ethnicities / Nationalisms

In today's TV cable news programs the lives and activities of people and groups whose ethnicities are different from the mainstream Caucasian culture receive inconsistent and not always accurate coverage. This is an important issue to consider in an anthropology class because approximately 46% of the U.S. population receives news from television (Ostrow, 2008), and an ever-shrinking percentage of people read daily newspapers, the one media source offering in-depth background information on contemporary newsworthy topics.

African-Americans and Muslims are the ethnic groups least likely to receive unbiased coverage from Western news media outlets. In particular, television news coverage of Muslim issues is often tainted with cliched stereotypes and unfair generalizations - due in part to an apparent lack of cultural…. [read more]


Rise of Taiwanese Nationalism Term Paper

… As an alternative, China must search for ways to strengthen "national" linkages between China and Taiwan through cultural and other exchanges.

Rise of Taiwanese Nationalism and Implications for Cross-strait Affairs

Admittedly, given divergent economic and political developments in both countries, it would be difficult, if not impossible, for China to effectively enhance such "national" linkages particularly in a short period of time (Li, 1980). Yet military threats will only help further consolidate a "sense of joint destiny" among the residents on Taiwan (Lo, 1994). It prompted former President Lee to grope for ways to eliminate the divide that has long separated the Taiwanese and the mainlanders and to subsume them under an overarching ethnic identity "New Taiwanese" ethnic identity. It factored in electoral victory for…. [read more]


Communism and Nationalism Essay

… The concept of 'global governance' seems intermediate. Some authors use it almost as a synonym for the working of the states system. In contrast, the Commission on Global Governance is a more definitively globalist institution, an example of a well-organized lobby group. More diffuse political support for normative globalism comes from, for instance, the member groups of OneWorldOnline (mainly from English speaking countries). In the academic world, recent comprehensive examples of normative globalism are David Held's 'Democracy and the Global Order', Lynn Miller's 'Global Order: Values and Power in International Politics' and Richard Falk's 'On Humane Governance'. The closest equivalent to this normative globalism, in recognized nationalism, are the pan-nationalisms - excluding however pan-Islamism, since a universal religion does not need a "pan-" prefix. The…. [read more]


Race Ethnicity in the 18th Century Term Paper

… Racism

Race/Ethnicity in the 18th Century

A Comparative Analysis of Racism in Country Lovers and What it's Like to be a Black Girl

The practice of racism and the fight against it have been the most defining phenomena of the twentieth century. The twentieth century witnessed the end of colonialism all over the world as imperialism powers receded to their home countries. Prior to that racism was the foundation of the political policies of many western states (Lentin, 2011). Racism in the United States came to an end through the civil rights movement spearheaded by Martin Luther King Jr. A few decades later, the apartheid in South Africa came to an end through the struggles of Nelson Mandela, ushering in a new era of freedom…. [read more]


Educational Policies Social Issues Term Paper

… Educational Policies/Social Issues

A) Define the problem;

Since the attack on the world trade Center and the pentagon on September 11, 2001, the racial discrimination has been on the rise in the United States. This is particularly true with reference to the Muslims living in America. Furthermore, it is quite ironic to note that no comprehensive programs have been introduced to cut down the trend of racial discrimination against the Muslims, in fact, on the contrary, it is believed by many that quite a few statuary laws have been introduced with the sole purpose of targeting Muslims. The Muslims have become isolated and they feel that they are being treated unfairly. In the course of the ill-exercise of the perceptions of partisanship, nationalism and patriotism,…. [read more]


Industrialization After U.S. Civil War Essay

… " (Alger, XI)

I adduce Horatio Alger's novels to suggest what the official public mythology was concerning child labor: that it was the only way to "rise in the world." But like all mythology, these stories had no real basis in reality: the purpose that these stories served was to dull the public's sensitivity to what was an appalling condition for children forced into work. However, the reality was difficult to ignore. The general attitude of the public by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was summarized succinctly by the Christian Socialist poet Sarah Cleghorn, who summed up attitudes against child labor in a four-line poem, usually entitled "The Golf Links":

The golf links lie so near the mill

That almost every day

The…. [read more]


Nationalism vs. Globalization in Taiwan Term Paper

… ¶ … press on globalization and its economic impact has focused on the incredible growth of China, Japan and Korea, Taiwan's emergence as a world player almost more dramatic. Once an ostracized island confederation, Taiwan has embraced the power of globalization and allowed itself to become of the growing number of success stories of the East Asian economic region. The question of how globalization emerged within our modern world and specifically within East Asia is a complicated one. It was the result of economic, political, social and cultural circumstances that were all perfectly in tune over the last quarter of a century. The Western conquest of the Asian region through Japan, Korea, Vietnam and other East Asian countries resulted in an influx of foreign capital…. [read more]


Rhetoric of Nationalism Term Paper

… The 'war on terrorism' that has extended from Afghanistan into the Middle East has, seemingly, closed the door to any such scrutiny and has done so through the rhetoric of patriotism.

Nationalism effects not only the economic and political aspects of a culture, but also, the social evolution, by restricting and, or, discouraging independent ideas and innovative processes. Human rights represent a social choice of a particular moral vision of human potentiality, which rests on a particular substantive account of the minimum requirements of a life of dignity.

Within the American philosophical view, civil society is grounded in a social contract signed by free and equal men. The law emphasizes human strengths and the capacity to be guided by reason. Reason was meant to become…. [read more]


Culture and Subculture (P Essay

… 82)

Barriers to multicultural communication include anxiety; assuming similarity instead of difference, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and stereotyping. Anxiety is a natural and understandable barrier, but one that can impede successful communications. While it is not good to assume only differences, assuming similarity projects unreasonable and unrealistic values and norms on others and therefore impedes communication. Ethnocentrism is a cluster of phenomena based on the assumption that one's own culture is superior -- or at least a basis from which to judge others. Stereotypes are generalizations that, while sometimes valid, also cause unhealthy reactions such as prejudicial attitudes and behaviors.

Nonverbal message codes (p. 114-onward)

Nonverbal message codes include proxemics (the study of personal space); kinesics (gestures and body movements); chronemics (use of or attitudes toward time);…. [read more]


Racism and Various Forms Term Paper

… The neo-liberal laws of Australian government are also regarded as an attempt to cope up with the global economy rather than creating a multicultural society.

Infect the presence of individuals and families of Asian descent in Australia are evident that the global economy has also affected the nation (McGoldrick, Giordano & Garcia-Preto, 2005). The borders and physical lines of human division have also changed and require a great deal of acceptability for the migrants, their personal values, cultures, and professional background to be relevant in the current scenario.

According to Singh (1995) the personal co-existence and value of personal freedom in practicing their native cultural norms is required for a multicultural society. The research further claims that the emphasis on education should be relevant for…. [read more]


Future of Race Identity Citizenship Ethnicity in Canada Essay

… Canada

Shifting immigration patterns has always altered the social, political, economic, and cultural landscape of Canada. Values, behaviors, public policies, and political ideologies shift and sway in response to alternating demographics. Geographical issues and settlement patterns also have a bearing on Canada's diversity. The future of identity discourse in Canada also depends on issues like discrimination and the policies in place that prevent it. Canadians need to remain adaptive, welcoming demographic changes while remaining true to core cultural values such as equality and tolerance. Among the biggest challenges for the future in Canada are those that are related to the changing labor market.

Therefore, no issues currently playing themselves out on Canada's multicultural stage are either outstanding or particularly momentous. All are, of course, meaningful,…. [read more]


Teens and Media Influences Research Paper

… Teens and the Media

One prominent theory, Erik Erikson's Theory of Human Psychological Development breaks the entire human life cycle into stages. Each unique stage represents a generalized approach between the individual and the world, running from infancy to geriatric behavior. Even spanning time and culture, within each of these stages, a developmental period exhibits universal patterns (Weiten, 1995)the life-span developmental framework has, in fact, been utilized by social scientists for decades. The power of the combination of Erikson and Life-Span Development is that they uniquely focus on biological, cultural, socio-historical, and non-normative influences to provide us with a framework with which to understand and explain the particular stage a specific issue might have -- in my case, teenage years and the resultant angst, rebellion,…. [read more]


Cyberfeminist Project Proposal Term Paper

… Cyberfeminist Project Proposal

The cyborg is a condensed image of both imagination and material reality, the two joined centres structuring any possibility of historical transformation. In the traditions of 'Western' science and politics -- the tradition of racist, male-dominant capitalism; the tradition of progress; the tradition of the appropriation of nature as resource for the productions of culture; the tradition of reproduction of the self from the reflections of the other - the relation between organism and machine has been a border war. The stakes in the border war have been the territories of production, reproduction, and imagination.

Donna Haraway, (1991, pg 151)

Cyberfeminism is not founded in the idea that as a group cyberfeminists or feminist must band together to fight the inequalities, disembodiment…. [read more]


Cross Cultural Business Management Issues A2 Coursework

… Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity

Given the increasing diversity of the workplace, identifying opportunities to improve policy formulation has assumed new importance and relevance today. To this end, this study is about evaluating current policy issues as they regard cultural diversity in a typical workplace. An assessment concerning why this problem is worthy of study and how it will be researched is followed by a description of the author's personal and professional experience in this realm is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

While the value of a diversified workforce has been documented time and again, there remains a gap in the relevant literature concerning optimal policies to promote the contributions of various ethnic populations. For example, Mor…. [read more]


Art of Colonial Latin America Research Paper

… Art of Colonial Latin America

In her essay, "Art of Colonial America," Bailey provides a timely overview of 330-year period of Latin American colonial art to the 21st century. The first point made by Bailey is that at no time in history has Latin American art been as relevant and important as today and goes on to support these assertions with several examples to demonstrate why. Another important point made by Bailey concerns the creativity of these artworks irrespective of the artists' origins, a point once again supported with examples from the historical record. To determine how other curators have interpreted these two primary issues through the exhibition of colonial Latin American works, this paper provides a review of Painting a New World: Mexican Art…. [read more]


Ray Film Analysis Term Paper

… Ray

The film Ray (Taylor Hackford, 2004) would be categorized in the parlance of the film business as a biopic, which often means more pic than bio as filmmakers go for the more sensational aspects and delve less deeply into the life of the subject. In this particular case, though, the filmmakers do a better than average job of bringing the man to life and of suggesting how he fit into his era, how he thought and lived, and especially how he developed as a musician and as one who was able to excel in spite of his blindness. In the story of Ray Charles, the filmmakers necessarily reflect much about the time in which he lived which means developing the background of the Civil…. [read more]


Issues Related to Global Marketing Chapter

… These things must be considered before attempting to launch any sort of product. In many cases, a product must be tailored to fit the needs of each particular market. For the mobile phone industry, those needs can range vastly as a result of the Digital Divide. What is essential for a U.S. mobile phone consumer may not be essential for a consumer in Ghana.

Thus, all the environmental factors are critical because they cannot be isolated one from the other: politics impacts culture and vice versa; both impact economics and vice versa; demographics are a variable in that relationship -- as countries age, markets will die; and technology is of course an issue: peak technology may have been reached at this point. Therefore, it is…. [read more]


Race and Racism Essay

… Despite this overlap, Eriksen is cautious about conflating the two ideas. He believes that "both class differences and ethnic differences can be pervasive features of societies, but they are not one and the same thing and must be distinguished from one another analytically" (Eriksen, 1993, p.7).

Eriksen also challenges the idea of the American melting pot. He suggests that ethnic groups have long adhered to an ethnic identity in addition to identify as Americans and that this ethnic identification can last for multiple generations after the original family members first moved to the United States. Moreover, ethnic group identifications, which were once thought to be more primitive ways of self-identification, seem to be linked to more advanced societies. That does not mean that ethnicity is…. [read more]


Ethnic Conflict Research Paper

… Ethnic Conflict

When considering the ethnic conflict in Bosnia, one might derive reasons for the conflict on the premise of primordialism or social constructivism. To summarize the two views: primordialism refers to the inherent tendency of human beings to identify themselves with others with the same physical or geographic properties. This is a generally collective viewpoint of ethnicity, shared by large groups of people. This sense of ethnicity is reinforced by collective histories, myths, religion, and other cultural elements. This is not necessarily grounds for ethnic conflict, and it is possible for different ethnicities to tolerate each other and live together peacefully within the borders of a country. Social constructivism, on the other hand, suggests that ethnic conflict tends to be rooted in economic and…. [read more]


Harlem During 1920-1960 Term Paper

… Harlem During 1920-1960

The United States is considered for centuries now the "land of all opportunities." Throughout time, it has attracted millions of people from around the world in search for a better future and for new ground for personal affirmation. However, behind the glamour and excitement of the "American dream" there lie numerous unsuccessful stories that come to point out the different perspectives of a certain reality.

The struggles that have marked the history of Harlem can be considered relevant examples in this sense. This part of the city of New York has shared the image of a troubled existence, that of the Black Americans that erected it, and of the millions of immigrants who found shelter in the slums and overcrowded streets of…. [read more]


Sub-Group Americans in Muslim Countries Thesis

… Americans in Muslim Countries

Minority Communities: The Effects and Challenges of Americans Living in Muslim Countries

Few minority groups in the United States in the past decade have received as much direct attention, both from the media and from the political and scientific communities, than Muslims. Indeed, Islamic radicalism and fundamentalism has raised many questions about the religion and its adherents -- most of whom, it should be noted, are not radical or fundamentalists -- on the global scale. Islam is also one of the fastest growing religions in the world, making this demographic one not only worthy of study, but demanding it. The focus on most of the scholarship concerning this group over the last decade, however, has dealt with the interactions and assimilation…. [read more]


United Arab Emirates (UAE) Term Paper

… In the same way, by adopting a more modern approach to the status of women, UAE aims to provide a more Westernized, progressive society to the large number of foreigners working within its borders. Both Arab nationalism and UAE try to separate themselves from the world's negative view of Islam, which is often labeled as imperialist and reactionary. In the eyes of the world, Islamic states oppress ethnic and religious minorities and treat women as second-class citizens.

To combat these stereotypes, Arab nationalism and UAE try to promote the image of a new Arab state with a secular higher authority that is moving towards a more modern and progressive culture and society. However, in the end, Islam is a fundamental part of Arab identity. It…. [read more]

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