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Italian Baroque Term Paper

… Italian Baroque

Art is the expression of artistic vision that carries the sign of the period of time when it was created. Baroque was born Italy from where it spread to France, Germany, Netherlands and Spain. The term "Baroque" was coined by 19th century critics, and refers to the period that started in late 16th century and ended towards the late 1700s. The Baroque style, used in architecture, sculpture, painting embodied the scientific developments - such as advances in astronomy for example - that determined a shift in the European view of the world. In fact, the developments and abundant scientific literature of the 18th century became knows as the Age of Enlightenment, a time of great economic progress which in turn gave rise to…. [read more]

Baroque Period Annotated Bibliography Chaffee Term Paper

… The naturalism and dramatic impact of Caravaggio's work, coupled with his insistent realism, are what made his artwork so famous.

Martin, John Rupert. Baroque. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.

This is an introductory book for understanding Baroque artists and their tremendous variety. Martin defines the Baroque characteristics and how powerful naturalism and the acceptance of sensual experience dominated the art of the era. Martin also emphasizes the modern balance between the secular and the religious in the Baroque era and addresses the spiritual or mystical qualities that were characterized in most paintings of the Baroque period.

Norberg-Schulz, Christian. "The art of persuasion. (Baroque art in Central

Europe)."UNESCO Courier 21 n1 (1987):4.

In "The art of persuasion," Norberg-Schulz addresses the art of the early eighteenth…. [read more]

Italian Renaissance Term Paper

… Italian Renaissance was the beginning of the Renaissance, a period of achievements and cultural changes that extended from the late XIV century until about 1600, constituting the transition between the Middle Ages and modern Europe.

The word Renaissance has a very explicit meaning that represents the renewed interest for the period in the culture of classic antiquity, after what would then be called "The Dark Age." Those changes, although significant, were concentrated in the upper classes, and for most of the common people the life style had little change compared to the middle ages.

Italian Renaissance began in Toscana, having its epicenter in Florence and Siena. This was followed by a powerful impact in Rome. The peak of the movement appeared at the end of…. [read more]

Baroque Four Baroque -1750) Projects San Carlo Essay

… Baroque

Four Baroque (1600-1750) Projects

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638-1646)

The Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638-1646) or Saint Charles at the Four Fountains is a Roman Catholic church and monastery in Rome. It was built between 1634 and 1638 by Francesco Borromini. It was also the first church in Rome to be dedicated to St. Charles Borromeus, who had been canonized in 1610. (Churches of Roma: San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane) it was also Borromini's first independent architectural commission and is considered to be an iconic masterpiece of Baroque architecture. ( Vino Con Vista Italy Travel Guides and Events) the construction was designed and built as part of a complex of monastic buildings on the Quirinal Hill for the Spanish Trinitarians.…. [read more]

Baroque Style and Culture the Works Chosen Essay

… Baroque Style and Culture

The works chosen are "Spring" by Antonio Vivaldi, Bernini's "Michelangelo," and "To His Coy Mistress" by Andrew Marvell. All of these represent the highest of Baroque style and culture because of the elements that make up each work. In fact, they could be quintessential Baroque works because they are emotional, elaborate, and elicit emotional responses in the viewer and listener.

Each of these pieces contains elements that make them uniquely Baroque. Vivaldi's "Spring" may be one of the most famous pieces of music to endure through time. It is so common that listening to it is like listening to an old friend that you have listened to very often in the past. It is light and happy music, totally representative of…. [read more]

Baroque Music the Life and Works Essay

… Baroque Music

The Life and Works of Johann Sebastian Bach

One of the most famous German Baroque composers and musicians was Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach came from a long legacy of musically inclined individuals, a family traditional which was epitomized by the life and career of Johann Sebastian Bach. Through his heritage, education, and experience with the best musical programs in Germany, Bach quickly rose to the top of German society. He made friends with royalty and brought great discipline to even the most fractured musical schools in Germany. The incredible ambiance of his original performances has continued through the generations into modern day performances, which give credence to the brilliance within every Bach composition.

Born in 1685, Johann Sebastian Bach entered into an already…. [read more]

Italian Renaissance Brought Humanity Essay

… Spanish explorers began the European push into the New World, while English and French explorers conquered North America. Commercial routes to the Middle East, Africa, India, and East Asia opened up entirely new possibilities for the European merchant class. Spices, jewels, food items, and treasures from around the world soon flooded the European markets, increasing the wealth of sovereigns, and implanting a belief of the superiority of Christianity and the Western world that lasted until the 20th century.

Social change in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries swayed greatly from the humanist ideas of the Renaissance to the extreme crackdown of the corrupt Catholic Church in the time of the Inquisition.(Social Change in the Renaissance, 1) After the relative relaxation and rediscovery of old…. [read more]

Renaissance and Baroque Term Paper

… Renaissance / Baroque

Comparative Analysis of Renaissance and Baroque

What is the Baroque? We use this term to refer to an artistic movement that got started, roughly, at some point in the early seventeenth century and continued for decades, but it is important to recall that successive artistic movements are in many ways indebted to their predecessors: the idea that new artistic trends represent in some way a serious break with the past is, in itself, a modern twentieth-century idea and inappropriate for an analysis of Renaissance art (with its respectful search for models and precursors). We can perhaps see the elements of Baroque style more clearly by viewing them in contrast, then, to the style of the high Renaissance. For purposes of comparison I…. [read more]

Renaissance and Baroque Periods Essay

… This broad interest in a wide variety of subject areas and the overlap between those various areas both characterized him as a Renaissance man. Along with Michelangelo Buonarroti and Raphael Sanzio, da Vinci is considered one of the great Renaissance masters.

Da Vinci's famous painting The Last Supper is an excellent example of Renaissance art. It has a religious theme, which was still very common in Renaissance artwork, depicting the last supper of Jesus and his disciples. The figures are portrayed realistically, with the painting incorporating perspective and dimension. Furthermore, the painting features a remarkable use of light and shadow, which was a trademark of da Vinci's work (A&E, 2013).

The Baroque period followed the Renaissance and built upon the artistic developments made in the…. [read more]

Baroque Oratorio With an Emphasis on G. F. Handel Research Paper

… Baroque Era and the Oratorio: Handel, Haydn and Mendelssohn

The transition from the Renaissance period to what is commonly known as the Baroque period is marked by a retrenchment of values in Europe following a time of great artistic and ideological reformation. For the Catholic Church and for the crowns of such feudal states as England, Italy, France, Germany, Austria and Hungary, the imperative to return the publics to the fold would call for a more culturally intuitive way of engagement. This marks the very self-conscious birth of the Baroque movement, which was a strategic decision on the part of the European academic community to bring about more accessible thematic values in the music produced during the time. As the research conducted hereafter will demonstrate,…. [read more]

Italian Baroque Art Bernini vs. Borromini Thesis

… Italian Baroque Art (Bernini vs. Borromini)

The present paper has the purpose of analyzing two grand masters of the Italian baroque art, that is Bernini and Borromini. The main thesis to be demonstrated is that their styles and techniques can be observed in two important pieces of art and that by comparing them we are actually comparing the two representatives of Baroque Art. These two works of art are The Fountain of the four rivers, Fontana dei Quattro fiumi- build by Bernini and Borromini's St. Agnese in Agone. In addition, the Baldacchin at St. Peters will also be analyzed.

First and foremost it must be mentioned that Bernini created his works in a period characterized by a strong creative verve, marked by the revolutionary visions…. [read more]

Italian Renaissance Art Mannerism Research Paper

… Artists were apparently using the light to reach from a practical point outside of the painting. Now light was inflicted randomly, sometimes originating from a source inside the composition, like a halo; sometimes impending from different ways, lighting elements make a sort of an odd angle and casting shadows that appear unreasonable. Light indicated religion and could be expended to convert a predictable location into a heavenly realm.

Spiritual intensity was a common characteristic during this period especially in the area of painting. Some rejected to the fact that Mannerism has shown a high degree of religious passion because in their eyes, it was not representing orthodox faith. Regardless, experts still came up with a new way of differentiating among the divine and the mortal.…. [read more]

European Music: Baroque vs. Classical Essay

… Classical music, in contrast, tended to use a much wider array of musical formats. Classical forms included that of the symphony, sonata, concerto, and were characterized by far greater unity and cohesion of tone rather than simply 'painting' a picture of a single emotion (Swann 2).

The Classical and Romantic eras, in contrast, were highly influenced by the individualistic political and nationalist movements of the 19th century and themes beyond that of the sacred began to permeate serious music. "The form in which the spirit of Romantic music first clearly manifested itself was the song for voice and piano, usually referred to by the name, Lied….Mozart and Beethoven, among others, wrote many such Lieder (plural of Lied) which were often lovely but in no way…. [read more]

Compare and Contrast the Baroque Period to the Classical Term Paper

… Classical Baroque

Comparing and Contrasting Baroque and Classical Music

Do you like Classical music?" If you are asked this question, colloquially, usually the speaker means: do you like to listen to symphonic or orchestral music by composers of the past like Handel, Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven? However, this understanding and use of the term 'Classical' music is really in error, at least from the point-of-view of a historian of music. In fact, Classical music was a distinct style and period in musical history, and is distinguishable both in its tone and ideological orientation from the period that existed before it, the Baroque.

The Baroque period derives its unique name "from a Portuguese word meaning a pearl of irregular shape; initially it was used to imply…. [read more]

Baroque? Thoenes, Christof. St Annotated Bibliography

… "What is Baroque?" 7-21.

This source attempts to disseminate through all of the confusion regarding the term baroque and to restore order and clarity to its many multi-faceted definitions. The author begins by providing a basic etymology of the term based on its syllables, vowel structures and syllogisms. From there, the term was explicitly used to denote a type of architecture and decoration for that architecture that was somewhat wild and devoid of practical value during the 1700's. This source indicates the fact that as time continued to go by, the expansion of the definition of this term came to include not only architecture but also visual art, as well as non-visual art as well.

The author devotes the majority of this article to explicating…. [read more]

Classical Symphony Music Essay

… Most musical scholars believe that the Italian Overture, popular because of the new rage for opera, used a structure of three contrasting movements -- fast, slow, fast, and was the forerunner of the symphony. Instead of being part of an opera or other piece, the classical symphony was meant to stand alone as a concert performance, with themes and variations that were not necessarily tied to a specific story. The first symphonies were sometimes used as an entr'acte and followed the three movement style. Haydn and Mozart, in fact, composed their earlier symphonies in this style, but allowed them to evolve to a four movement work: 1) opening sonata or allegro; 2) slow movement or adagio; 3) minuet or trio, the scherzo; and 4) an…. [read more]

Renaissance -- Baroque Music Term Paper

… In the age of the Baroque, the passion for drama even infiltrated the music of the church and made use of the new style of monody and recitative. Italian composers began to produce new a new type of vocal composition with instruments, based on either secular or sacred texts, known as the cantata. However, in Germany, religious music produced a major and truly spiritual form in the Passion. In addition, with instruments partnered with voices, fully independent forms of musical expression emerged.

Another important area of instrumental music was in the interludes and sinfonie of the operas and the sonatas for the instruments, and by the end of the 17th century, the trio sonata, for two melody instruments, a bass and a harmonic accompaniment, and…. [read more]

Art Three Baroque Artists Term Paper

… Despair fills the faces surrounding the woman, and the entire work gives off a feeling of sadness and finality. The description for the painting adds, "In the predominant colors - red, orange, dark green - Caravaggio uses a slightly wider range than in his later, darker Roman paintings, but nowhere else did he achieve a mood of such overwhelming solemnity" (Caravaggio). Sadness and grief seem to emanate from the canvas.

Caravaggio was born in 1573, and is known as the creator of realism in Baroque art, and as an innovator in the art world. He was a master of light and form, and one historian notes, "The conception of light as a phenomenon that is at once physical and supernatural was first formulated in powerful…. [read more]

Baroque and Romantic Age Term Paper

… Art

The Nature of Art

Social, political, or economic conditions can alter the nature and meaning of art. Indeed, all of these conditions can alter the nature and meaning of art, as these eras indicate. The opulence that is exhibited at the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles was art "over the top," with every square inch of available surface decorated to the extreme. Unlike the Romantic era, where art celebrated the religious and the beauty of art, Versailles is an excellent example of art taken to the extreme, not for spiritual or domestic uses, but for pure aesthetics and opulence.

Rococo actually derived from the opulence of Louis IV's Versailles, as a protest against the opulence and some believed tasteless display of wealth and power.…. [read more]

History Education Term Paper

… Theories


Methods and Techniques

A Specific Method


Results for the Same

Examples of Voices Singing a Canon

The Project Life Cycle

Project Management Puzzle Parts

Map of More and Less Developed Countries

Criteria for LDCs

Selected Economic and Social Indicators for LDCs (2005)


"Great music is in a sense serene; it is certain of the values it asserts."

-Rebecca West (Simpson)

Contrary to the consensus some students purport, a thesis does not constitute a torture tactic designed by professors to traumatize students. In fact, according to Teitelbaum (1), "The thesis paper, when carefully assigned and conscientiously done, has definite value." Professors usually assign the thesis paper as a major component of a course requirement. The researched…. [read more]

Le Grand Hautbois Research Paper

… As Mazarin's mentee and pupil, Louis acquired the prime minister's love of the arts, style and opulence. It was not until later that Louis stopped deferring to Mazarin's authority and assumed his own power as King (Bernard 1970). As the war between France and Spain came to an end and transferred power from the Habsburgs to the Bourbons, Louis assumed his role as soldier on the battlefield. Louis proved his commitment to the throne and France when, in 1660, he married the daughter of the King of Spain and his cousin, Marie-Therese of Austria, rather than the woman he loved, Marie Mancini, Mazarin's niece, to unite the two countries (ibid).

Louis was now old and experienced enough to assume his leadership. When Mazarin died a…. [read more]

Renaissance Building Projects: Their Relationship Essay

… ¶ … Renaissance Building Projects: Their relationship with the Scientific Revolution Architectural Principles, Construction Technology and Master Builder Tradition

The four buildings discussed above show evidence of the advance of scientific thinking as well as other aspects particular to the Renaissance revolution in architecture. This also applies to the design of these buildings and the techniques and methods of building, which also showed considerable and even radical change and advances in terms of innovation and the use of new scientific methods in a number of important ways.

A study of these buildings also highlights the fact that during the Renaissance the ideas of regularity, symmetry, and harmony were reintroduced as classical ideals. As Milo argues, the Renaissance builders believed these principles could be actualised and…. [read more]

New Reference Is Not Required. A Total Essay

… New reference is not required. A total of 15 references are needed

Baroque architecture from the late seventeenth century onwards was fully determined by the cultural interests of the Christian churchs, whether Catholic or Anglican. It was an expressive form designed to counteract the Reformation view of simplicity. As part of the counter-Reformation, the Baroque was reactionary and wished to reassert the dominance of the church through the display of florid, dynamic, and powerful forms that would move its audience to recognize ecclesiastical power. To this end, it invented a style based on curves and emotionality, eliminating a more linear and transcendent style common in Roman predecessors which was meant to replicate harmony and peace. The Baroque wanted noise and dynamism.

Out of this cultural…. [read more]

Art and Humanities Term Paper

… The Age of Baroque followed the Renaissance, and while the art was still deeply religious in nature and supported by the Catholic Church, the style was changing again. By the end of the Late Renaissance, art had settled into the "Mannerism" style, and Baroque was an attempt to get away from this type of art that was technically very correct and detailed, but was considered to be overly dramatic, followed a formula, and was overly stylized. Baroque was an attempt to become more traditional, emotional, and spiritual with the artworks. Two of the most influential and memorable artists of the Baroque period were Rembrandt, and Peter Paul Rubens, and it is their artworks that would certainly be found in the Age of Baroque time capsule.…. [read more]

History of Western Art Essay

… History Of Western Art

Discuss the hidden, and not-so-hidden, symbols in Campin's Merode Altarpiece, Van Eyck's Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife, or Hugo's Portinari Altarpiece. Online research may help you uncover more layers of meaning.

Campin's Merode Altrapiece is triptych work of art. This is where a story is told using three different panels. In the case of the Merode Altrapiece, this is accomplished through a number of: different hidden and outward symbols. As far as hidden symbols are concerned the most notable include: through the use of color. When discussing the use of color, Campin illustrates this with the varying degrees, as it is brighter for images showing the glory of God and heaven itself. A good example of this can be…. [read more]

Renaissance and Reformation Term Paper

… Renaissance

The Emergence of the Renaissance Movement

Determining and analyzing what gave rise to the Renaissance movement during the 14th to 16th centuries include a closer look into its main philosophy, humanism. The Renaissance movement was well-known for its support of the philosophy of humanism, which posited that humans have the capacity not only for reason, but also for committing goodness and seeking truth. It can be said that because of humanism, Renaissance flourished because of the innate trust that it provided humanity, and its capacity for progress and development.

Humanism was reflected in every aspect of people's lives during the Renaissance. Prior to the establishment of the movement, culture and the arts were dominated and oftentimes, dictated by the Church, producing artworks that are…. [read more]

Academic Level: Senior University Class Essay

… The background is a mournful mix of grey, a dark sky which reflects the general turmoil. Expressive hands and faces, thickened limbs, rich textures, masterful use of color and contrast, all come together to enforce a palpable, almost overwhelming impression of depth and grandeur in Ruben's painting. (Labedzki, A.)

Considering the two paintings together, certain areas of focus are to be taken into account. These include historical and social placement, the artists' relationship to religion and their personal styles.

In Barnaba da Modena's time, the plague years of 1347/48 had had repercussions on the general attitude towards life, making people more aware of their frailty, thus determining them to enjoy life to the fullest. Similarly, Peter Paul Rubens's Baroque period was intertwined with the Dutch…. [read more]

Renaissance and Reformation Term Paper

… Renaissance & Reformation

Discovering the hidden time capsule, I found ten (10) items in it. As a cultural anthropologist, I tried to determine the nature of these items, and found out that these items were reminiscent of the cultures prevalent during the Renaissance period and the age of Baroque. The following items I found were examples of art, literary pieces and philosophical works of each period. These items are the following: (1) a sketch of Masaccio's fresco, "Expulsion from Paradise"; (2) a miniature of Gianlorenzo Bernini's sculpture, "Ecstasy of Saint Teresa"; (3) a copy of Monteverdi's madrigal compositions; (4) a painting of an opera ensemble; (5) a drawing plan of Filippo Brunelleschi's architectural masterpiece, "Duomo," which can be found in Florence; (6) a painting of…. [read more]

Amadeus Mozart Term Paper

… Mozart and Salieri

Throughout the film "Amadeus," the two characters are consistently shown in opposition to each other - from their music to their demeanor. It is clear to see that culturally and ideally, the men were far different from each other. The scene where Mozart is introduced is classic in that it clearly illustrates the basic social and cultural differences between the two at once. For example, Salieri is refined to the point of austerity, even in his dress, while Mozart is opulent and flamboyant (even vulgar) in every way. Salieri says to himself, "Why would God choose an obscene child to be his instrument?" ("Amadeus"), and that sums up the cultural differences between the two men. Salieri has dedicated his early life to…. [read more]

Art Complete Identifications Period/Date- Renaissance Essay

… The Baroque period is often identified with grandiose sculptures and paintings. In many instances, these forms of art were used to showcase an elite status of wealth. Much of the style portrays a sense motion, drama and intensity. During the baroque era, the Roman Catholic Church was undergoing dramatic internal reform. As part of this reform, leaders within the church wanted to appeal to a wider array of individuals with particular emphasis on those who were illiterate. In an attempt to do so, the church mandated that paints not only express a story, but also appeal to the sense of those viewing the painting or sculpture. As such extensive use of intense emotions and sensationalism were incorporated into many of the Baroque era paintings. Caravaggio's…. [read more]

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